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Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012

Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012






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    Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012 Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012 Document Transcript

    • INRIA Strategic Plan 2008 2012 -
    • C ontents 1 1.1 INRIA: A Brief History From Inception to the Late 1990s page 6 1.2 1999-2003: Unprecedented Growth page 8 1.3 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth page 10 2 2.1 ICST Research: Context and Key Issues Societal Issues page 28 2.2 Scientific and Technological Challenges page 31 2.3 The International and National Framework 3 for ICST Research page 33 INRIA: Strategic Priorities and Ambitions 3.1 Modeling, Programming, Communicating and Interacting page 41 3.1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems page 42 3.1.2 rogramming: security and reliability P of computing systems page 48 3.1.3 Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere page 56 3.1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds page 64 3.2 Computational Sciences and Engineering page 71 3.2.2 Computational Sciences page 78 3.2.3 Computational Medicine page 88 3.3 Social Concerns Covered by INRIA Priorities page 93 4 3.4 Emerging Fields page 95 Actions and Strategy for Achieving the Objectives 4.1 INRIA’s Role in France page 98 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness page 100 4.3 Research, Development and Transfer page 110 4.4 European and International Relations page 118 4.5 Internal Organization and Operation page 120 Glossary page 124 Strategic Plan 2008-2012 
    • INRIA:A Brief HistoryIn this chapter: H1.1 From Inception to the Late 1990s page 61.2 1999-2003: Unprecedented Growth page 81.3 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth page 10
    • H istory
    • 1.1 From Inception to the Late 1990s INRIA’s strategy for the coming years draws on its but also a visionary who, as early as the 1950s, history, and in particular the strong growth dynamic understood that the advent of computers would lead to major advances in applied mathematics that developed in the early 2000s. and computer science. Several aspects of the rich heritage left by Jacques-Louis Lions are still 1.1 IRIA, the French institute for computer science in evidence at INRIA today: and automatic control research, was founded in • a research institute combining computer 197 at Rocquencourt, near Versailles, as part of science, automatic control and applied mathe-From Inception to the “Computer Development Plan” designed to improve French computer science research and matics within a single institution, where they interact with each other in depth; the Late 1990s the industry. It was renamed INRIA in 1979 and • a positive vision of industrial relations as a gained the status of EPST* (public scientific and source of promising new research questions; technological establishment) in 1985. • a structure based on teams of 10-20 resear- Most of the foundational work was carried out by chers sharing common goals, called “research Jacques-Louis Lions, who performed research project-teams”, without any intermediate, in applied mathematics at IRIA starting in 197 department-like structure; and became the first chairman of INRIA, from • special attention paid to training, particularly 1979 until 1984. He was not only one of the grea- doctoral training, in close cooperation with test applied mathematicians of the 20th century, universities and engineering schools; • strong involvement in international cooperation. Alain Bensoussan, automatic control specialist, professor at the University of Paris-Dauphine and former colleague of Jacques-Louis Lions, succeeded the latter as chairman of INRIA from 1984 to 199. Bensoussan continued in the same vein as his predecessor, consolidating INRIA’s reputation in Europe and worldwide. The Institute played a pioneering role in introducing the Internet in France and supporting the creation of companies as early as 1984: 25 companies were launched between 1984 and 1994, including Ilog, a world leader in software components for optimization. INRIA became heavily involved in consolidating European Research Area, in particular by creating the ERCIM Consortium in Germany, founded in 1989 with the GMD, and the CWI in the Netherlands. In 1995, INRIA was chosen by MIT and the European Commission to be the European host for the World Wide Web Consortium (WC), the web standards body. During the same period, INRIA developed major partnerships with French research orga- nizations and universities. New research units were created : the first one on the Rennes University campus in 1980, followed by one in 198 in the brand new Sophia-Antipolis techno- logy cluster near Nice and still another in Lorraine in 198 on the Nancy University campus. The fifth research unit, Rhône-Alpes, was opened in Grenoble in 1992, with a branch in Lyon. Jacques-Louis Lions - 1980. * A list of acronyms can be found in the appendix. Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory In 1994, INRIA issued its first Strategic Plan, Lorraine and Rhône-Alpes. The Institute’s work which emphasized the role of information and in general suffered from the lack of research communication science and technology (ICST) support staff (engineers, technicians and admi- in disseminating information, as well as the nistrative personnel) needed to support research importance of applications and industrial rela- adequately. The situation was further complicated tions, and introduced the motto reflecting the by the fact that CNRS and university research Institute’s strategic goals: scientific excellence departments had to start signing contracts with and technology transfer. The plan energized the Ministry for their funding around 1995-199. INRIA and its staff to develop activities capi- This new development created tension between talizing on research, as can be seen from the INRIA and these establishments, because it was fact that the Institute’s resources for research difficult to reconcile the Institute’s organization contracts doubled between 1994 and 1999, into small teams with organizations based on whereas the permanent workforce increased departments. by barely 10%. This was also a period of major external change, with the “convergence” of computing, telecommunications and audiovisual technology, the deregulation of telecommunica- tions, and the rapid growth of the Internet and information and communication technology. In keeping with these changes, INRIA significantly redirected its research efforts and began to focus on communications, especially on Internet and web technologies and network modeling. At the same time, the Institute actively continued its work in the field of medical technology, which had been developing gradually since the early 1990s. During the period from 1984-199, several aspects of INRIA’s internal policy were re-emphasized: • the Institute improved the quality and rigor of the research project-team assessment process and encouraged researchers to create new project-teams and take on more leadership roles within them; • it increased its efforts to support the creation of companies; • it promoted openness by strongly encouraging mobility for researchers and engineers and by recruiting more widely from the pool of external candidates; • INRIA expanded its partnerships with French research organizations by developing more projects jointly with other establishments and by launching the highly successful concept of “cooperative research initiatives,” which were open to external teams, to develop new joint efforts and address original research topics. During this period, however, the Institute also encountered some serious problems. These difficulties were linked in part to the unfavorable economic context and the heavy constraints on the State budget, which made it very difficult to expand the two most recent research units in Strategic Plan 2008-2012 7
    • 1.2 1999-200: Unprecedented Growth Bernard Larrouturou, applied mathematician four-year contract, which called for increasing 1.2 and professor at the Ecole Polytechnique, was appointed president of INRIA in 199. From 1997 the number of government-funded positions at INRIA from 7 in 2000 to 1,100 and 80 fixed- 1999-2003: onward, INRIA increased its efforts to advocate the strategic importance of information and term contracts in 200. Receiving such a high priority despite the budget constraints on funding Unprecedented communication science and technology (ICST) for research over the following years meant that Growth in France and throughout Europe. In 1999, the Institute adopted an ambitious new strategic by 200, INRIA had 1,148 state-funded positions: 1,01 permanent positions and 117 fixed term plan, strongly urging that ICST be given a clear contracts. priority in the national research policy. The plan also stated INRIA’s resolve to consolidate its An Institute in the Thick of International leading role within the national program and its Competition ambition to play a more active role in the fierce The Institute considerably stepped up its efforts international competition in ICST, aiming to be to attract more foreign research scientists, recognized within a few years as the European aiming to become far more international in leader and one of the best research centers in scope: one-third of the permanent research its field worldwide. scientists recruited by INRIA between 2001 and 200 were not of French nationality. In addi- A Top Priority for Government Authorities tion, the Institute greatly expanded its visiting 2000 was a pivotal year: the Interministerial researcher policy, reserving approximately Council for the Information Society held on July one-third of all positions created for visiting 10, 2000 and chaired by the prime minister professors and civil servants from French noted that the strategic plan drafted by INRIA government technical bodies. Fixed-term the year before had been a determining factor contracts were also offered to recent enginee- in defining an ambitious national ICST policy, ring graduates to offer them a highly technical and it announced a significant increase in experience as they entered the working world. government research efforts in the field. In cooperation with partner universities and The prime minister agreed to double the engineering schools, INRIA strove to increase Institute’s resources over a ten-year period, the number of PhD students on research and announced the signing of the 2000-200 project-teams. This number rose from 50 to 750 between the first half of 2000 and the first half of 200; one-third of the students were foreigners. There were many indicators that INRIA’s inter- national influence was expanding rapidly: more articles published in international jour- nals with greater impact, over and above the increase in staff; more foreign visitors, especially from Asia and all across Europe; the Institute’s heavy involvement in the fifth European Union Framework Program (FP), where it was much more involved than in the fourth FP; and the increasing renown of the ERCIM consortium, led by INRIA and serving as European host for the WC in 200, on the Institute’s initiative. Many observers began to see the institute as one of the leading European research centers in its field. A strategic assessment committee made up almost exclusively of well-known figures from abroad – the Visiting Committee – met for the first time in 2002 to assess the work Object tracking — MAIA. of the Institute’s management and evaluate8 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory INRIA as a whole . Finally, the 200 overhaul of tific golas and the first field of application, the INRIA’s scientific council provided the oppor- Institute considerably expanded its research tunity to give the board a clearly European on telecommunications networks (broadband composition. networks, mobiles, wireless, ad hoc), multimedia data transport and processing, middleware Stronger National Partnerships development for distributed computing and grid and Leadership computing. In addition, the fields of health and In France, INRIA expanded its partnerships biology were far more successful than expected, with higher-education establishments. In 200, making substantial advances in bioinformatics, almost two-thirds of the Institute’s research medical technology and neurosciences. projects were joint projects with such establis- INRIA’s commitment to focus its efforts on hments – roughly twice as many as in 1999. The high-priority subjects also affected its work on development plan approved by the Board of technology transfer. Despite economic diffi- Directors called for opening three new research culties, the telecommunications sector stood units over the long term in the southwest and out as the prime industrial field to which INRIA the north of France and on the Saclay plateau. research contributed, and it developed close On January 1, 2002, the Institute decided to partnerships with leading European and inter- create a virtual sixth research unit called Futurs, national companies, including Alcatel, France based on the Bordeaux, Lille and Saclay sites, Telecom, Hitachi and Philips. The Institute’s to serve as an incubator for the new units and industrial relationships in France, especially with assist in integrating them into the internal struc- SMEs, expanded through its involvement with the ture of INRIA. national research and technological innovation At the same time, the Institute implemented a networks set up by the government. INRIA and itsINRIA’s commitment geographical expansion policy for each of the five subsidiary INRIA-Transfert, founded in 1998 to actto focus its efforts on older research units: in 200, there were around fifteen “off-site” project-teams in Besançon, as incubator and set up the very first funds, reso- lutely pursued their start-up support activities. Thehigh-priority subjects Cachan, Lannion, Marne-la-Vallée, Marseille, number of companies incubated at INRIA topped Metz, Paris and Lyon. 0. Based on its experience with the WC, thealso affected its Institute encouraged the creation of consortiums Clear Scientific Policy with academic and industrial partners to sharework on technology In light of the government’s priorities, the Institute development efforts and increase the chances devoted itself to focusing on the following five of success for several open-source softwaretransfer. high-priority goals : packages arising from INRIA research, such as • mastering the digital infrastructure by being able Scilab and ObjectWeb. to program, compute and communicate over the Internet and heterogeneous networks; Internal Weak Points • designing new applications using the Web and Such rapid growth − approximately 50% over multimedia databases; three years − inevitably came with many internal • knowing how to produce reliable software; changes that were sometimes difficult to • designing and mastering automatic control for control. INRIA was faced with a large number of complex systems; new issues concerning its organization, human • combining simulation and virtual reality; resources policy, managerial practices and admi- It also emphasized two major fields of nistrative management. Human resources policy application: showed the clearest progress, while the greatest • telecommunications and multimedia; difficulties were encountered in administrative • health and biology. and financial management, mainly because This subject-specific focus significantly the support staff was not sufficiently increased influenced the dynamic of INRIA’s scien- in proportion to administrative tasks; manage- tific work. In particular, for the first two scien- ment software tools were inappropriate and the project, launched in 2001, to replace them with an integrated information system was delayed; * The recommendations of the Visiting Committee and lastly, management control procedures were played a major role in drafting the next Strategic Plan. not sufficiently developed. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 9
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth In late 200, Michel Cosnard, a computer As of the end of 200, these objectives collec- 1.3 scientist and professor at the University of Nice -Sophia Antipolis was appointed chairman tively represented over 75% of the efforts of research project-teams, with the last two alone 2004-2007: of the Institute, followed from 2004-200 by Gilles Kahn, a computer scientist and research accounting for over 15%. The trend towards life and health sciences and medical techno-Consolidation and director at INRIA, who was chairman until his logy has been reflected in the research projects New Growth death in early 200. Michel Cosnard took over from Kahn in mid-200. themselves: there are now more than 500 research scientists working in these areas. The 2004-2007 strategic plan, approved by the board of trustees in July 200, confirmed Creating Excellence Clusters the Institute’s resolve to be recognized as INRIA is the only French national research esta- the leading European research center and blishment exclusively dedicated to computer one of the best in the world in the fields of science, automatic control and applied mathe- computer science, automatic control and matics. The quality of its research scientists, applied mathematics. To fulfill this ambition, its involvement in training through research the Institute defined a policy based on clearly and its results in both research and technology stated choices. transfer, along with its definite commitment to building the European Research Area and INRIA’s Seven Scientific and international competition, now make INRIA the Technological Objectives most internationally visible French research ICST innovation is essentially based on body in the field. scientific research, sometimes at the most Working closely with higher education fundamental level. The 2004-2007 strategic organizations, INRIA is continuing to develop plan confirmed this priority, closely tying its research units, which play a leading role together scientific excellence and techno- at the sites where they are located, aiming to logy transfer. INRIA is, however, fully aware establish them as European and international that it cannot cover all the research topics excellence clusters. The number of INRIA in this vast field of science and techno- projects shared with higher education esta- logy, given that the scope of its applications blishments or research organizations rose and depth of interaction with other fields from 80 as of January 1, 2004 to 111 as of is continuously increasing. This demands January 1, 2007. INRIA’s visiting researcher making choices in scientific and techno- policy plays an important role in this respect. logical policy. INRIA has set its priorities In 200 and 2007, over 50 research scientist according to the skills available to it and the positions were reserved for research profes- Institute’s appraisal of scientific, technolo- sors and research scientists on temporary gical, economic and social objectives. assignments from other organizations, in INRIA’s main goal for the period covered particular from other scientific fields, giving by the 2004-2007 strategic plan was to priority to life sciences. For the same period, make major scientific and technolo- approximately 55 research professors were gical breakthroughs in keeping with the sent on assignments elsewhere. following seven objectives: To prepare for the launch of INRIA research • designing and mastering future infrastructures units in Bordeaux, Lille and Saclay on January for networks and communication services; 1, 2008, many of the additional and redeployed • developing information and multimedia resources were allocated to Futurs, with staff processing; increasing from 2 as of January 1, 2004 to • guaranteeing the reliability and security of 12 as of January 1, 2007. intensive software systems; • connecting models and data to simulate Research Organization and master complex systems; During this period, in order to more effecti- • combining simulation, visualization and vely reflect the national ICST research policy, interaction; INRIA underwent a complete re-organization: • modeling living systems; positions were created for a chief officer for • fully integrating ICST into medical technology. science and technology and a chief officer10 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory for resources and administration; the scien- activity and improving the quality of these tific and operational departments were reor- developments have also become crucial ganized; positions were created for deputy priorities to ensure success and continue scientific directors and scientific advisors; the encouraging research scientists to optimize research units were renamed “INRIA Research the most suitable technology transfer mode Centers and research project were renamed from among the broad range of commercial “INRIA Project-Teams” (IPT), most of which software licenses and open source software were shared with other partners; the role of options. Each year, 0 to 70 software packages research center directors was clearly defined; are now registered by the Institute’s teams. and the project committee chairman was Technical units have been created and conso- renamed “scientific officer”. lidated to support, professionalize and sustain Research organization at INRIA continues technology development efforts of IPTs. to be based mainly on IPTs. The visibility Technology start-ups are an excellent way and impact of the work carried out in the of transferring technology, as demonstrated Institute has been increased by promoting the by the creation of 2 start-ups between 200 collective aspect of research and by gathering and 200.Working closely with research scientists into teams with clearly identified goals. This organizational struc- Training and Knowledge Transferhigher education ture allows for a great deal of flexibility and INRIA has come to see its contribution to responsiveness as it ensures that IPTs exist training through research for young PhDorganizations, INRIA only for a limited time and are able to evolve students in computer science and applied and change directions. The number of IPTs mathematics as one of its essential tasks,is continuing to increased from 85 as of January , 200 to 17 carried out in close cooperation with its partner as of January 1, 2007. At that point, average doctoral engineering schools. It continues todevelop its research IPT lifespan was 4. years, and the average be very active in doctoral training, focusingunits, which play age of IPT leaders was 4.4. on the quality of theses prepared within its research project-teams and, more generally,a leading role at Technology Transfer the quality of training received by PhD students One priority for the Institute’s strategy has and their preparation for entering professionalthe sites where been technology transfer. INRIA continues life after their thesis. The number of PhD to invest in human and financial resources students in project-teams rose from 70 asthey are located, to improve quality and efficiency, parti- of January 1, 200 to 1,070 as of January 1, cularly by increasing the number of CDRI 2007. The number of theses defended roseaiming to establish (Development and Industrial Relations) posi- from 150 in 200 to 291 in 200. To facilitatethem as European tions, strengthening the DirDRI, and setting up EDT (Experimentation and development tech- this increase in the number of PhD students while maintaining very high quality in termsand international nical units). This organization combines the of recruitment, INRIA set up a state-funded work of the CDRIs, which work closely with the PhD program to encourage mobility and hostexcellence clusters. teams and partners in each center, with greater foreign PhD students. In 200, 25 subsidized coordination and support responsibilities for (CORDI-S) INRIA doctoral research contracts the DirDRI: leading strategic partnerships, a were made available, generating over 1,500 specialized department for managing intellec- applications. The PhD students recruited were tual property, implementation and promotion all from other doctoral schools, and 85% of of licenses for open source software. The them had a foreign nationality. In 2007, 40 new Institute concentrated on strong partnerships CORDI-S were made available. In addition to with major market leaders, both French and its involvement in doctoral training, INRIA also foreign. These mid- to long-term partnerships extended its program for hosting subsidized have been an essential tool in cooperation with post-doctoral researchers: the number rose large industrial companies seeking to share from 7 in 200 to 80 in 2007. More and more their research and development costs. Such young engineers are acquiring additional major partners have included FT R&D, EDF, technological training through research at Alcatel Lucent and Thalès. INRIA, usually followed by recruitment into Professionalizing the software development the industry. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 11
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth European Partnerships laboratory LIAMA, in Beijing, which played The creation of the European partnerships an important part in expanding cooperation department demonstrated that building and with China on ICST, has been bolstered by the developing the European Research Area is possibility of INRIA granting expatriate status a high priority in the Institute’s policy. to some of its research scientists: 4 research Following the fifth FP, where the Institute directors are in charge of joint teams along participated in 110 projects, the sixth FP with the Institute for Automatic Control at the was a challenge for INRIA and confirmed its Chinese Science Academy and the University place as European leader for ICST research, of Tsinghua respectively. The LIAMA is part particularly in the field of software develo- of an ambitious open-source software deve- pment. As part of this program, INRIA has lopment project by the Scilab consortium set participated in 119 European projects, inclu- up by INRIA. The Institute has also continued ding 21 excellence networks, 2 integrated to develop cooperation programs with Hong projects and 45 research projects, in liaison Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, with industrial partners, and has been respon- notably with major industrial companies such sible for the scientific coordination of 15 of as Hitachi. A student exchange program has these projects. also been developed with India. The number With the Institute’s support, the ERCIM of Asian trainees in the INRIA International consortium (European Research Consortium Internships program rose from 2 in 2004 on Informatics and Mathematics, which now to 54 in 2007. brings together 18 national bodies) has INRIA’s relationships with the United States gradually become more representative of and Canada have of course been very the scientific and technological community in dynamic, with active cooperation involving the field of ICST. Its international visibility was over one hundred universities and companies. consolidated when INRIA entrusted it with the The United States’ undisputed leadership in responsibility of European host of WC. the field of ICST has made it vitally impor- The Institute has continued its efforts to tant to hold ongoing dialogue with the NSF develop relationships with major European and also to establish relations with the NIH industrial players: examples include taking in the fields of modeling living systems and part in the Eurêka program, particularly as medical technology. part of the ITEA program, and setting up the Partnerships with southern countries have AIR&D laboratory jointly with Philips, Thomson also been strengthened. In particular, INRIA and the Fraunhofer Institute. has maintained its support for Africa with In all major countries, the importance of regions the biannual CARI symposium and the scien- in international cooperation has increased, tific interest group SARIMA. and INRIA research centers have become The partner team program, in which an involved in the international relations of the INRIA research project is linked to a team regions in which they are located. Partnership of researchers in a foreign institution, has agreements have been signed with institutions continued its successful expansion. The located in Sarrebrücken and Kaiserslautern number of partner teams rose from 2 in (several universities, the Max Planck Institute 2004 to 54 in 2007. and DFKI), and these are promising examples Finally, the Institute’s scientific staff has conti- of this policy. nued to broaden its international horizons, with the proportion of foreign research scien- International Relations tists, post-doctoral researchers and engineers In a context where ICST is prioritized in on INRIA’s staff exceeding 15% in 200. national research policies everywhere, INRIA has continued to expand its international Research Support and Management cooperation, targeting most of its efforts at Structures a few major partnerships in certain geogra- In addition to the criteria of excellence The Control Action Table, a 6 DoF interface phical areas. and relevancy for research and technology for virtual reality — IPARLA. Asia has been the top geographical prio- transfer, the Institute’s work is also assessed rity outside Europe. The Franco-Chinese in terms of how efficiently it is run.12 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory Increased quality and efficiency of research significantly increased. Internal and external support and assistance was a priority during staff mobility was particularly encouraged. this period: Widespread open mobility campaigns for • an improved information system, geared all government positions provided for many to the planned changes for budgetary and support jobs to be opened for temporary accounting management for EPSTs, was assignments. Lastly, a system was imple- developed, deployed and gradually rolled mented to maintain an ongoing relationship to all different levels of work within the with former INRIA personnel. Institute; • the policy of decentralization was continued, and a “quality procedure” was developed to manage stakeholder accountability; some administrative and financial responsibilities were decentralized by making research unit directors responsible for giving orders; a new computerized library management system was acquired and deployed in all research centers, providing access to a shared catalogue for the various document collections; • a Hal-INRIA open archive server was imple- mented, providing research scientists with direct access to scientific literature; • enhanced management and management control methods and tools were implementedICST is prioritized under the modernization and simplification protocol signed with the public accountsin national research office; a “partnership control” was developed with the accounting department; a mana-policies everywhere. gement culture was encouraged within the Institute through a sustained training effort; flexibility and anticipation were improved, in particular for purchasing. The Institute defined and implemented an ambitious policy on IT and communications equipment to the best international stan- dards, with very high performance networks, computing and visualization resources and grids allowing for far-reaching experiments to be run and technological developments implemented. Developing a dynamic human resources policy has been a main prio- rity. Heavy involvement by INRIA staff has helped the Institute’s extensive recruitment campaigns to achieve success, and scores of INRIA staff who had been working under precarious employment conditions for several years gained more stable footing thanks to the publication of new regulations and the high level of commitment by the Institute’s direc- tors. INRIA designed and drafted a manager’s guide for use in supervision and management training. Ongoing staff training efforts were Strategic Plan 2008-2012 1
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA Today: As in other major scientific fields, ICST separated into different organizations, both research includes producing and organi- in France and abroad. INRIA’s potential for Burgeoning zing knowledge as well as extracting and scientific and technological contribution perfecting general and in-depth ideas that would be much more restricted and narrow if Scientific Fields are then analyzed, developed and applied. it were simply a computer science research These ideas aim to solve many new and institute, since the interactions between sometimes unexpected problems, whose computer science and applied mathematics emergence often results from extremely are constantly growing; furthermore, they are rapid technological progress, particularly the essential in order to meet new challenges exponential increase in the power of micro- in the ICST sector and its interactions with processors, the communications capacity of other fields. Consequently, INRIA’s direc- fiber optics, memory density and magnetic tors are constantly seeking to ensure that disk capacity, as well as the considerable research is conducted and assessed within impact of widespread web implementa- the Institute in a way that breaks down the tion. The miniaturization of sensors and borders between disciplines and overcomes the increasing quantities of available data the separation inherent to organizational have also led to new scientific develop- structures. In this context, interactions ments creating new algorithms which aim between mathematics, physics, chemistry to analyze these data and regulate, control and mechanics were explored right from and simulate increasingly complex systems. the very start of the IRIA and have recently Lastly, interaction with other sciences is been taken in new directions, as demons- a vital component of computer science, trated by the contributions made in recent automatic control and applied mathematics. years in algorithmic and stochastic geometry This works both ways: the other sciences and computational chemistry. During the reveal new problems for information proces- last decade, interaction between INRIA sing and modeling and, conversely, the and the environmental sciences has been existence of new design and simulation increasing in many directions as well, parti- tools can change the issues at stake and cularly with the life sciences: some examples even certain paradigms in these sciences, include bioinformatics, molecular biology, sometimes profoundly. In this sector more neurobiology, biomechanics, modeling of than many others, the positive feedback organs and physiological functions, plant loop linking basic research and applica- growth modeling and simulation, medical tion is at its best. Research, even in its robotics and renewable resource modeling. purest form, can be used to develop new INRIA believes that the interaction between products at an exceptionally rapid rate, as ICST, the life sciences and applications for the horizons opened up by new technologies medical technologies and the environment call research areas into question, often at will play a crucial and far-reaching role in the most basic level. In every field, behind science over the next few decades, just as the brilliant success of technology and the the profound interaction and mutual enri- developments facilitating the creation of chment of mathematics and physics have innovative new companies, there is pure played a major role in the scientific progress research - leading to new theories, new of recent centuries. Lastly, cross-functional models and new software tools and giving issues relating to security, developing an various scientific fields a new lease on life. information-based society, education and At this point it is important to emphasize sustainable development will all benefit the relationship with other sciences, which from the progress of ICST research. play a major role in INRIA’s scientific policy. Before concluding this brief overview, one First of all, it is a great advantage for one last key point should be mentioned. INRIA single institute to be able to gather together believes that its research is subject to a parti- specialists from many disciplines − computer cular type of “tension”: ferocious competition science, automatic control, signal processing over research applications combined with the and scientific computation − which are often rapid progress of technology make ICST a14 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory field of research where time is of the essence. research, which is the key to its ability to While it finds this tension very stimulating deepen its understanding of its scientific and productive, INRIA also believes that fields and anticipate developments and despite the constantly increasing demand technological innovations in these fields for work on short-term issues, the Institute over the medium to long term. must continue to focus its energy on pureVisualization of geological surfaces in a virtual reality interface — ALICE. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 15
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA’s 150 research project-teams are involved in five major research topics, and Major Fields 16 more specific sub-topics. This distribution helps to identify INRIA’s strengthsof Research at INRIA according to these five major topics and, above all, organizes the Institute’s assess- ment process. Teams from any center working on the same sub-topic (on average a dozen teams) are simultaneously assessed by one panel of international experts (for more details on the assessment process, see paragraph 4.3.6). A brief description of each of these five major issues and a list of the sixteen sub-topics, with the corresponding number of INRIA project-teams (IPT in December 2007) is given below. 1 Communicating systems The Communicating systems field focuses on issues often raised in designing and implemen- Com-A 12 IPT ting the computer tools required for current and future information systems. These consist Distributed systems of computer systems where multiple processing units are spread out across communication and shared architectures networks, with particularly high standards of reliability, availability and performance, such as real time operation. This is primarily a question of architecture and systems: tools for designing Com-B 10 IPT specialized processors and compiling and optimizing source code, especially for embedded Networks and systems. Distribution and mobility of computational processing, real time operation and inte- telecommunications roperability call for synchronous programming, reactive programming and communicating processes. Meanwhile, network dimensioning and metrology require probabilistic modeling, Com-C 10 IPT simulation and graph theory. The design and study of protocols suitable for broadband and Embedded systems for the characteristics of the new ubiquitous networks (wireless, mobile, heterogeneous, etc.) and mobility is a very active field. Com-D 3 IPT Architecture and compilation 2 Cognitive systems The Cognitive systems field focuses on man-machine interaction. Cognitive psychology Cog-A 7 IPT Statistical modeling and ergonomics help make computer systems more user-friendly. Using and manipulating and learning multimedia databases involves data searches, interoperability between databases and natural language interfaces, as well as indexing, knowledge representation, statistical modeling, Cog-B 8 IPT learning and reasoning. Many new applications are placing more and more emphasis on Images and video: perception, images. Image analysis covers such varied fields as satellite images, new medical imaging indexing and communication methods, indexing of video documents and managing robotic systems. Computer-generated images enable enhanced and virtual reality, and when used with simulation, become man- Cog-C 9 IPT machine interaction resources that are particularly suited to fields such as design, surgery Multimedia data: interpretation and scientific calculation. Network development brings with it a new set of considerations and man-machine interaction for the transmission and encoding of multimedia documents. Cog-D 7 IPT Computer-generated images and virtual reality1 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory3 Symbolic systems The field of Symbolic systems focuses on designing and experimenting new programmingSym-A 12 IPTs tools in order to master the increasing complexity of software applications, improve theirSoftware security and reliability reliability and guarantee secure implementations. This requires high-level languages thatSym-B 10 IPTs feature generic concepts such as objects and constraints, and composition principles suchAlgebraic and geometric as component programming and aspect programming. Research in this field also exami-structures, algorithms nes compilation and automatic and interactive tools for testing programs and program properties, including checking computer arithmetic. New applications call upon moreSym-C 10 IPTs complex algorithms for cryptography, algorithmic geometry, robotics and bioinformatics.Content and language Designing and analyzing these algorithms use algebraic and geometric structures as well asorganization new mathematical methods and symbolic computing. Research into content and language organization is also being carried out. 4 Numerical systems The field of Numerical systems looks into new methods for modeling, simulation, optimi-Num-A 7 IPTs zation, large-scale problem solving in engineering, economics, medicine, biology and theAutomatic controland complex systems environment, and more generally stochastic or large-scale inverse problems. The theory of complex systems and their control, signal processing and data analysis applies here toNum-B 11 IPTs robotics, industrial systems management, road and air transport, non-destructive controlGrid and high-performance and telecommunications, as well as to biology and environmental issues. Simulating complexcomputing phenomena in the engineering sciences (fluid and structural mechanics, semi-conductors and electrical engineering, meteorology, new materials), financial models and models of livingNum-C 8 IPTs organisms involves a search for mathematical models, often requiring interaction betweenDeterministic and stochastic different scales and different physical phenomena, and the development of accurate and high-models: identification performance computational methods for large-scale computational simulations. In additionand optimization to grid computing, large-scale computational applications require parallel or distributed programming, program transformation and distributed application management.Num-D 14 IPTsSimulation and numericalanalysis for physical models5 Biological systems The field of Biological systems focuses on modeling and simulation for biology and medi-Bio-A 12 IPTs cine: analysis and simulation of medical images and biological phenomena, understandingModeling and simulation biological vision, bioinformatics, medical robotics and artificial movement. Current subjectsfor biology and medicine of study include modeling plant growth, as well as modeling and controlling renewable resources. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 17
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA The eight INRIA research centers in existence as of January 1, 2008 are briefly described in the boxes on the following three pages. Their scientific orientation in terms of thisResearch Centers strategic plan is described in chapter 4 (cf. 4.2). x u a st e e d u or O B d u IA S R IN I NRIA Bordeaux – Sud Ouest Research Center, along with Lille and Saclay, is one of the three centers that were incubated in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. Its 13 research teams (7 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the Bordeaux and Pau universities and with the CNRS, or more specifically with their laboratories: the LABRI, IMB, LMA and MIGP. These dynamic partnerships, in addition to staff transferred from other INRIA sites and a recruitment policy for research scientists and top-level research support staff, meant that the research center had a workforce of 273 by the beginning of 2008, 111 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 27 research scientists and 21 government-employed support staff.18 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory s le e b lp no -A e e r n G ô h IA R R INI NRIA Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes Research Center was founded in 1992; it has a workforce of 500, 260 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 75 research scientists and 66 support staff. The center’s main site is at Montbonnot, near Grenoble. Almost one quarter of the workforce is in Lyon, at the ENS sites inGerland and on the Doua university campus. At the end of 2007, the center, which has eight research support departments,had 26 research teams (23 IPTs). Most of these are shared with the CNRS and/or local universities; they were formed withthe help of close partnerships with the universities of Grenoble and Lyon (Joseph Fourier University, National PolytechnicInstitute of Grenoble, Claude Bernard University), the Lyon École Normale Supérieure and the Lyon INSA, in addition to theCNRS, and more specifically their laboratories including the LIG, LJK, LIP and CITI.In the area of technology transfer, the center has focused on start-ups, creating 14 companies since 1999, 3 of which wereincubated, and on partnerships with major local players such as ST Microelectronics, France Telecom and Xerox. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 19
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth e u le p ro E Lil rd o IA N R IN I NRIA Lille - Nord Europe Research Center, along with Bordeaux and Saclay, is one of the three centers that were “incu- bated” in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. It now has a workforce of 200, 80 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 18 research scien- tists and 15 support staff. The Center’s 10 research teams were formed with the help of partnerships with Lille University of science and technology (Lille 1), Charles de Gaulle University (Lille 3), Lille Ecole Centrale and the CRNS. There are seven joint IPTs with the LIFL, two with the LAGIS and one with the Paul Painlevé laboratory (UMR 8524 CNRS and USTL mathematics laboratory). In spring 2007, the center moved into a 4,000-m2 building located in the Haute Borne science park, on the edge of the USTL and Lille École Centrale campus, which was purchased with the help of local government and European funding.20 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory y st c E n d a n N ra IA G R INI NRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center was founded in 1986; it has a workforce of 480, 210 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 63 research scientists and 65 support staff. Its 22 research teams (21 IPTs) were formed with the help of partnerships with Henri Poincaré University in Nancy, theuniversities of Metz, Nancy 2 and Strasbourg, the INP in Nancy and the CNRS, and specifically with their laboratories, LORIA(Lorraine laboratory for computer science and application research) and IECN (Institut Elie Cartan). INRIA is also present atthe Metz, Besançon and Strasbourg sites through dual-location project teams in cooperation with Nancy.INRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center is developing international projects and special cross-border cooperation withthe Saar region. In the area of technology transfer, it has set up 9 companies since 2000, and circulates forty or so softwarepackages. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 21
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth rt n s u e ri o u a c q P c o IA R R IN F ounded in 1967 at the same time as the Institute, INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt now has a workforce of 600, 370 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 128 research scientists and 130 support staff. It has 9 departments and 35 research teams (31 IPTs), 17 of which are joint teams with Pierre et Marie Curie University (Paris 6), Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Marne-la-Vallée University and Versailles - Saint-Quentin University, the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, the Paris École Normale Supérieure, the National Higher School of Advanced Techniques and the CNRS. Its highly effective teams have enabled the Center to set up 25 companies and circulate 50 high-quality software packages, half of which are open source.22 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory e u tiq tla s n A e e n n n g e ta R re IA B R INI NRIA Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique research center was founded in 1979 when IRIA became INRIA. In Rennes and Lannion, it is a partner of the CNRS, the University of Rennes 1 and the Rennes INSA, together with the IRISA, UMR 6074 and Cachan ENS (Brittany branch). There are two joint project-teams in Nantes cooperating with LINA (part of theUniversity of Nantes, the Nantes École des Mines and the CNRS).The research center has a workforce of 580, including 67 INRIA research scientists, 82 research scientist professors, 15CRNS research scientists, 80 INRIA support staff, 21 technical and administrative support staff from other establishments,approximately 180 PhD students and 25 post-doctoral researchers. There are 7 research support departments and 26 jointproject-teams cooperating with one or several of the partners mentioned above.A large part of the research work is conducted in the framework of bilateral partnerships (international academic partners,applications partners, major industrial groups, SMEs, state bodies) or multilateral programs (national research agency,competitiveness clusters, European programs with participation in over 40 projects in the 6th framework program). Morespecifically, the center is very involved in the Images & Networks competitiveness cluster. The creation of innovating compa-nies and the application of software and patents complement the technology transfer field. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 2
    • 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth n y e ra la c -F c e Sa -d IA Île R IN T he Saclay - Île-de-France Research Center, along with Lille and Bordeaux, is one of the three centers incubated in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. INRIA Saclay - Île-de-France Research Center has a workforce of 350, 180 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 50 research scientists and 38 support staff. Its 21 research teams (15 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the University of Paris-Sud, the École Polytechnique, the Cachan École Normale Supérieure, the CNRS, and more specifically with their laboratories: the LRI, the LIX, the LSV, the CMAP and the University of Paris-Sud’s mathematics department.24 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • H istory lis o tip e n é A a ia rr ph n ite o d S é IA M R INI NRIA Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranée Research Center was founded in 1983; it has a workforce of 460, 340 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 119 research scientists and 80 support staff. Half of its 30 research teams (28 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the Universities of Nice-Sophia Antipolisand Montpellier, with CNRS, the INRA and the CIRAD, and in particular with the I3S, JAD and LIRMM laboratories.The center works in close collaboration with companies located in its geographical area and elsewhere, and its teams areworking on over 40 European-level projects. It is involved with the work of eight competitiveness clusters and is a foun-ding member of the world SCS cluster (Secure Communications Solutions). It plays a key role in the Sophia Antipolis tech-nology cluster by actively participating in associations such as Telecom Valley and through the Center’s 15 spin-offs. It isalso involved in development for the Montpellier cluster, particularly through its contributions to the Montpellier AgriculturalResearch and Sustainable Development foundation. Lastly, the center is home to the ERCIM office and the W3C Europeandevelopment team. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 25
    • ICST Research:Context and KeyIssuesIn this chapter:2.1 Societal Issues page 282.2 Scientific and Technological Challenges page 312.3 The International and National Framework for ICST Research page 33 2.3.1 International Context page 33 2.3.2 European Context page 33 2.3.3 French Context page 34
    • Context
    • 2.1 Societal Issues Information science and technology are present and protecting the earth’s environment. This 2.1 in virtually all business sectors. They play an essential role in accelerating scientific and challenge takes the form of seeking sustainable development, improving health, addressing Societal Issues technological progress and increasing produc- tivity and growth. The new infrastructures and the aging that results, and providing universal access to knowledge. resources for communication, interaction and In addressing environmental issues, combi- production have vastly altered the economy, ning modeling and simulation with the poten- in the broad sense of all exchanges between tial for observation and detection enables the people and within an entire society. complex, natural phenomena at play to be ICST is radically changing the methods and examined with ever-greater precision. These resources used by scientists and engineers to methods can provide tools for forecasting, observe, draw conclusions from vast quanti- forming strategies, prevention and adapta- ties of data, represent and abstract, model, tion, scenario analysis and risk assessment visualize, design and make decisions. This of a given environmental policy or of a lack of technology is at the heart of computational action. They supply essential tools to examine sciences and computational engineering. vital risks linked to the build-up of greenhouse INRIA has made its strategic choices so as to gases and major climatic and oceanic changes. meet the challenges posed by society and by the The possibilities for demonstrative display economic issues that ICST helps to solve. of forecasts can be used to influence public The greatest challenge in social terms is to opinion in favor of prevention, a long-term improve living conditions for all of mankind, approach that requires resources and a strong narrowing the gap between North and South commitment by politicians and society. In the field of sustainable development, long- term solutions must be found for the needs of mankind – some 9.5 billion people by the middle of the century. Meeting food requirements will demand that soil erosion, impoverishment and pollution through overexploitation and overuse of fertilizers and pesticides be brought under control. Agricultural production requirements can be met without impeding sustainable deve- lopment if the needs of both plants and their environment are taken into account. Modeling and computing techniques can make a signi- ficant contribution to solving these and other related problems, such as the issue of fishing resources. These techniques, in addition to design, opti- mization and automatic control, may also help to meet energy requirements. Support for designing HEQ buildings and intelligent management using different energy sources, in particular renewable sources, could be provided online by means of control/command systems implemented for a house, building or town. Active control can be found everywhere where energy needs to be saved, particularly in various modes of transport, where electric actuators are being increasingly used. Finally, ICST may also help in managing new energy sources: biofuels, solar, geothermal, wind, and the future ITER project generators. Health is an area where ICST has made a28 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • C ontext major impact over the past few decades public transit and new modes of travel. The and which offers significant possibilities for techniques of geo-location, personal spatial scientific and technological progress. Areas information and ambient intelligence open of interest include major viral diseases, cancer up new methods of urban organization and and neuro-degenerative disorders. INRIA is expand freedom of movement, particularly very involved in this field. Other noteworthy for disabled people. activities include: integrating various medical Education, learning and training are essential imaging and measurement methods with to a knowledge society. Communication, visua- multi-physical modeling in order to obtain lization, virtual reality and interactive tools can high-definition, personalized representations meet these needs, in particular by providing of organs; epidemiology modeling; modeling access directly to the semantic content of the effects of drugs; bioinformatics (which has information and using natural languages and led to spectacular progress in genomics and modes of interaction (speech, vision, body post-genomics); the design and control of movement). organs and palliative care for sensory or motor One important characteristic of information and impairment; and robotic-assisted surgery. Over communication technology is its high potential and above these state-of-the-art technologies, for boosting economic and industrial growth. It patients remain the focus of any healthcare has already had a significant impact. EstimatesICST is radically mechanism, such as setting up appropriate show that almost half of world economic growth information systems and developing at-home now stems from ICST. The production ofchanging the methods care using remote monitoring, remote medical goods has become considerably more effective care and even, in some circumstances, remote and flexible, leading to highly differentiatedand resources used surgery. supply, and customized products with high Demographic changes, specifically population added value. ICST has become an essentialby scientists and aging and urban concentration, open up other factor in industrial innovation through the newengineers to observe, areas of intervention, for example indepen- dence for the elderly, safety and security, urban engineering and production possibilities it offers as well as its ability to offer unprecedenteddraw conclusions organization and transportation issues. features by integrating – into a wide range of The safety and protection of people and devices – sensors, actuators, communicationfrom vast quantities organizations is becoming a major issue for and data processing circuits. developed societies; information technology ICST’s role in all products, particularly productsof data, represent is once again at the forefront, both in terms intended for the general public, is expanding of risk factors and protection tools. Intelligent rapidly. In services, the growth of ICST is evenand abstract, model, monitoring, biometrics and tracking techni- more rapid. Electronic commerce betweenvisualize, design and ques aim to improve security; the necessary precautions must be taken so that they do not companies, and increasingly between indivi- duals, is experiencing spectacular growth. Themake decisions. hamper personal freedom; this is yet another same is true of electronic exchange services, example of the essential link between ICST which are based on the technological capabili- and society. Encryption is one technique for ties of the Internet, ubiquitous access and the protecting information exchanges, but other manipulation of semantic content. Networking aspects of security and confidentiality are just among businesses and people has changed as important: detecting fraud and intrusions, the way work is organized, for example by combating economic espionage and cyber allowing greater versatility, autonomy and crime in networks and protecting privacy. delegation of responsibility. In the field of private transportation, com- These changes are continuing with the develo- puter-assisted driving and safety functions are pment of collaborative work technologies. The becoming more complex and more widespread. notion of collective intelligence is now taking There is room for improvement in overall archi- on practical meaning in all sectors, as internet tectural design, optimization and vehicle and users become involved in everything from transit system reliability. More generally, ICST epidemiology studies to expert services and can contribute through real-time or delayed technical problem solving, from engineering, optimization: multimodal journeys for private designing, testing new products and marketing individuals, logistics, road/rail freight, modular to large-scale economic, political and social Strategic Plan 2008-2012 29
    • 2.1 Societal Issues studies. The companies behind these services to micro- and nanotechnology. All of this is at rely on increasingly vast and ever-changing the heart of a social debate that will be more virtual communities; they are building new productive if scientific knowledge and culture types of working relationships. The growing have been disseminated. Such issues also possibilities for sharing and capitalizing on demand a closer relationship between ICST information, models and open-source software and the human and social sciences, in the areas to process this information are creating subs- mentioned and in others as well, particularly tantial economic value. sociology, ergonomics and economics. The information society has been respon- The Institute needs this type of interdisciplinary sible for radical changes in businesses, local cooperation to understand and consolidate its government, municipalities, public services position within our information society. It is also and the organization of society. Digital tech- very productive in terms of research, opening nology is increasingly becoming a necessary up scientific issues to be examined afresh and part of our daily, political and social life, for raising new areas for investigation. INRIA will be example in all electronic administration tools redoubling its efforts in this domain and taking and political debate. The computerization of steps to set up interdisciplinary projects esta- administration and all forms of exchange will blishing long-term relationships with partners continue, creating related needs for security in the human and social sciences. and protecting the rights of individuals and All of these challenges demonstrate that INRIA companies. No doubt much remains to be done is working in an area essential to France’s in this area before our information society is economic and industrial development. The truly at the service of mankind, particularly as Institute is deeply committed to these social new users continue to arrive. ICST itself has and economic issues and has a long tradi- to provide the means for reaching this goal. tion of industrial partnerships and spin-offs. Access for all to information and knowledge It intends to expand its work in technology requires considerable effort to make equip- development and technology transfer, thus ment widely available (networks, computers enlarging the economic and social impact of and software) and easy for non-specialists to its technology. program, adapt and use naturally, all of which requires specific research. More generally, the considerable progress made in all ICST fields (e.g., miniaturization, intelligent information searching, image proces- sing) will bring into reach scenarios which not so long ago were seen as pure science fiction, or even threats (e.g., an Internet of things, memory prostheses, inserting multiple RFID chips into the human body, tracking objects and individuals). It goes without saying that these applications will have a considerable impact on how society develops and raise many fundamental legal, ethical and techno- logical issues. Large-scale adoption of tech- nologies such as the Internet and new means of creating and disseminating knowledge and digital property already raise many legal issues: the protection of privacy, liability, intellectual property and non-discrimination. Issues of formal proof, certification, software liability and insurance, and of course problems with social acceptance and ergonomics have also arisen. Furthermore, ethical issues are becoming increasingly important, for example with respect0 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • C ontext As an internationally renowned research insti- levels of granularity between components of 2.2 tute, INRIA must maintain a central role in pure research in applied mathematics, computer a sub-system, between sub-systems, and so on. Furthermore, the functional autonomy forScientific and science and automatic control if it is to further knowledge, prepare for the technological a machine requires the sensory capacity to perceive and interpret the environment, as wellTechnological innovations of the future and meet the social as the ability to supervise, diagnose, predict, Challenges challenges discussed above. The Institute must also face the major scientific challenges plan and even learn. The scale of the data volume and complexity that will confront ICST in the coming years, to be processed has also changed radically. in particular those likely to occur within the In 200, an estimated 10 billion gigabytes scope of this strategic plan. of data were created; this figure will be 1000 Analyzing today’s digital environment reveals a billion gigabytes by 2010, with a large portion drastic change in scale in terms of the size and of the data available on the network. Beyond complexity of systems of reference. In the area considerations of quantity, new search engines of networks, the Internet now interconnects will have to deal with increasingly varied, rich 2 billion devices. This figure will continue to and complex semantic content and provide skyrocket, particularly given the projects for an effective, intelligent search for information very low cost personal computers. The trend relevant to the user. The traditional algorithms is moving toward an Internet of things that used in these areas will have to be revised to would connect a substantial number of arti- cope with the changed expectations for scale, facts. The advent of nanotechnology heralds quality and intelligence of processing, and also the possibility of intelligent dust: tiny devices to provide faster reaction time and enhanced with sensors, computing and communications interactivity and suitability for users – aspects capabilities. which, as yet, are often imperfect. The arrival of new network architectures raises It is also important to raise the issue of compu- questions of how to achieve very large-scale ters of the future that will be required to take and highly flexible distribution and communi- over from our present-day machines, as their cation, heterogeneity, interoperability, forward performance is beginning to reach its limits. compatibility, suitability to the environment Even if we believe that technological impro- and intelligent interaction at an operational vements such as multi-core architectures can level with the user, as well as issues of auto- produce further progress, the computers of nomy in terms of power supply, operations the future will likely use a radically new design, and decision making. A technology’s invisi- perhaps based on an optical, quantum or bility in day-to-day use is a good measure biological mechanism. Such progress will of its maturity. Clearly, a number of scien- revolutionize the way we see the future of tific challenges must be overcome before a ICST in many fields, with cryptography and very high degree of technological maturity problem-solving among the most affected. is achieved in the field of ICST. Interaction Furthermore, ICST is at the heart of most of the of humans with machines must be transpa- major interdisciplinary challenges of our age, in rent and use all our natural faculties in both the material, life, earth and universe sciences, directions of communication: vision, natural as well as the human and social sciences. For spoken language, body movements and touch. the computational sciences, the challenges Furthermore, intelligent interaction between will include developing representations and machines not only demands interoperability complex, heterogeneous models integrated but also requires each network component into sensors and data and implementing them to be capable of exporting an intelligible and in efficient computing, as well as developing relatively full model of the services it can processes for organizational and information provide, how it works and what its constraints searches, synthesis and optimization, verifi- are; each component must also be able to cation and proof, forecasting, simulation and correctly interpret the various components precise visualization. The interdisciplinary of the other models with which it may be issues relating to the environment, ecology and interfaced. This exchange must be possible sustainable development mentioned above with an open set of models, and at different open up vast areas for research in these Strategic Plan 2008-2012 1
    • 2.2 Scientific and Technological Challenges domains. Vital scientific and technological ticated information processing systems in challenges must be met in order to understand existence, whose workings are far from being life and observe, analyze and model biological understood. How information is represented functions at all levels - molecules, cells, organs (neuronal codes), stored (types of memory, and complete organisms. The possibilities for redundancy), updated (learning, plasticity) ICST range from nano-biotechnology, lab-on- and processed there are fundamental ques- a-chip technology, bioinformatics and multi- tions. This major scientific challenge is one modal imaging to modeling a highly complex in which INRIA, among others, has a contri- organ such as the brain. bution to make. Beyond merely acquiring Our brain is the organ we use to explore and knowledge, which is certainly an important communicate with our environment, to form goal, this research opens the door to innu- the mental pictures necessary to plan and act; merable potential applications, including the understanding it is one of the great adventures development of new types of machines for of science. At stake are not only the answers to processing information ‘neural computers), long-standing questions about our uniqueness new brain-machine interfaces, new hearing as a species and awareness of the world, but and vision prostheses and new, more effective also an urgent, legitimate and multi-faceted therapies for people with neuro-degenerative social demand in the form of public health disorders. concerns such as mental illness and dege- The problems mentioned above fall into nerative disorders, addictions, physical and various scientific fields within information sensory disabilities and dementia. Medical science and technology. Sections .1 and applications involve processing and analyzing .2 describe the seven areas that INRIA imaging data in the broad sense in order to has chosen to focus on and prioritize. The develop models, algorithms and simulations Institute will still remain open to other areas to help treat diseases of the central nervous of research and encourage initiatives such system. In addition to these uses, computa- as those presented in section .4 on emer- tional neuroscience recognizes the central ging technologies or, on the European level, nervous system as one of the most sophis- participating in the ERC. Map of the anatomical variety of the brain (seen from the left side) — ASCLEPIOS.2 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • C ontext 2.3.1 International Context In Japan, the major trends for government 2.3 ICST is perceived as a leading factor of growth action on ICST prioritize ubiquitous IT, with the u-Japan plan (FTTH fiber optic connections,The International and development, making it an R&D priority worldwide. To paint a broad picture: wireless networks, IPv, the internet of things, RFID), super calculators (development of a and National • the total amount of R&D investment for ICST in super calculator capable of up to ten petaflops, Framework for the United States in 200 was 71 billion dollars (G$) in purchasing power parity - twice that of destined to be the most powerful in the world by 2011) and robotics. The Japanese Ministry ICST Research Japan and the 25-nation European Union; • in 2005, China moved into second place of Industry sees robotics as an industry of the future, in particular domestic and service worldwide for industrial R&D in ICST, inves- robotics, with a market estimated to be worth ting 8.7G$. This amount is slightly higher 50G$ by 2025. than that of Japan (4.1G$), which in turn is higher than that of the 25-nation European 2.3.2 European Context Union (22.1G$); • after the four giants - the United States, China, In 2000, the European Commission launched Japan, and Europe - other players rank as the “European research area” concept with the follows (with the main European countries aim of coordinating research and innovation, classified separately from the community): for both member states individually and the Korea, India, Brazil, Germany, France, United Union as a whole. Previously, research at the Kingdom, Taiwan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, European level was confronted with many diffi- Finland, Israel, Singapore. culties: fragmented efforts, isolated national In the United States, military programs largely research systems and disparate regulations influence ICST funding, mainly in supporting and administrative systems, in addition to industry. ICST funding in Japan and the rest of low investment in research, well below the Asia is characterized by heavy investment from Lisbon targets. the private sector. In Europe and particularly For the period between 2007 and 201, in France, public budgets and public research the Commission will invest in research in play a major role, with a relatively low level of keeping with the 7th FP, which is organized private investment. into four major programs: Cooperation, Ideas, The key issues in the United States, based on the People and Capabilities. The relatively tradi- NITRD program’s coordination, are high-perfor- tional Cooperation program allows for indus- mance computing, networks, man-machine trial players and research organizations to interactions and the use of massive data sets, develop cooperative R&D operations. The software engineering, software and systems Ideas program, which is far more ambitious security and reliability and socio-economic in terms of pure research, will enable research aspects (training, education, social use). The scientists to invest themselves fully in prelimi- telecommunications industry has been the nary research work with significant financial target of important initiatives by DARPA and the support over a five-year period. The European NSF. In addition, the American Competitiveness Research Council has been set up to manage Initiative lists high-performance computing, the scientific aspects of this program. The advanced networks and cyber infrastructure, People program relates to the mobility of complex modeling and simulation for engi- research staff within the European Union and neering and cyber security among its major to the creation of a “European research scien- national priorities. tist” status, which is deemed necessary in In China, ICST research is managed as part forming European teams and laboratories. The of a program under the Ministry of Science final program, Capacities, is largely concerned and Technology (the MOST high-technology with major research infrastructures. development program). It focuses essentially on The 7th FP has a budget of 50.5G€ for 2007- intelligent perception and advanced computing 201, 1G€ of which is earmarked for the technologies, intelligent networks and commu- European Research Council. In addition to nication technologies, virtual reality technologies this European community-level funding, each and cyber security. country in the Union has agreed to make subs- Strategic Plan 2008-2012 
    • 2. The International and National Framework for ICST Research tantial investments, both public and private, in the fields of biology, health, energy and the in ICST research, aiming to reach the Lisbon environment - also stated priorities for our target of % of GNP for R&D by 2010. nation. Most developed countries have ICST INRIA’s work is part of this ambitious project policies that they are resolutely determined to build the European research area. to implement. One essential step in increasing recognition In fact, ICST is a priority in France, as demons- of the excellence of INRIA research is having trated by the resources devoted to the field some Institute research scientists participate in in 200 by the ANR (€155 M, or 20% of its projects supported by the European research budget), the AII (€25 M, or 45% of allocated council, along with outside researchers inte- support) and the DGE (€8 M, or 45% of rested in joining the Institute for a prolonged support from the FCE for competitiveness period on one of its teams. Furthermore, cluster projects, in addition to extensive as part of the Cooperation program, the support from local government). To say the Commission is promoting the creation of least, these are established priorities. “European technology hubs” focusing on stra- Research resources in France are orga- tegic subjects such as embedded systems, nized around higher education establish- software and services, satellite communica- ments, research organizations, companies tions, etc. INRIA is heavily involved in imple- and resource agencies. Universities and menting these far-reaching efforts, which will engineering schools conduct their training, structure European R&D ventures in support research and innovation within large depart- of industry. ments studying standard, enduring subjects. In complement to the Commission’s efforts, Research organizations develop and carry initiatives will be implemented with the even- out a research strategy, focus on issues and tual goal of founding European-level labo- projects of excellence in partnership with ratories. To this end, as already discussed, universities and socio-economic players, and INRIA aims at forming joint project-teams with ensure that research is consistent with appli- major research players in several European cations, playing a broader role as a driving countries. force in the national community. Funding agencies provide resources for competi- 2.3.3 French Context tive programs implementing national policy. This model is currently being established by For all areas with growth potential, research is specialized research organizations, which are a source of innovation and a driving force for currently among the best in the world in their economic development and social progress. field, and universities which now have tighter It is carried out worldwide, and the competi- governance tools, drawing these partners tors are heavyweights. France accounts for closer together and increasing their interna- less than 1% of the world population, and tional visibility and attractiveness. its gross national product represents less At the same time, the Research Bill has than 4% of world GNP. One measure of the created research and higher education clus- international importance of French research ters (PRES), which are a way to help univer- is its scientific production, evaluated at 4.7% sities realize their desire of uniting to form a (the proportion of all global publications that single entity on one site that is visible and are French, across all disciplines). France is attractive worldwide, and Advanced Research not the country with the highest GNP, nor the Field Networks (RTRA), which despite their most densely populated, and it is not excel- vague name serve to provide a framework lent in all fields. It is therefore necessary to for international-level teams to form on one restate national priorities for fields where we single site to study a clearly identified field have a strong advantage and which produce of research. Both mechanisms bring univer- the most growth. ICST falls into this category, sities together, creating a structure for better and doubly so since ICST research not only dynamics between universities, engineering leads to innovation by its very nature (Internet, schools and research organizations wishing digital infrastructures, embedded systems, to develop world-class excellence clusters. etc.) but is also essential in developing R&D In this context, it becomes natural and very4 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • C ontext productive to join forces with competitive- the members of the European University in ness clusters for industrial purposes, as they Brittany PRES, the University of Nice - Sophia serve as national meeting spaces encouraging Antipolis and Eurecom and the PRES currently synergy between all key players in innovation, being formed around Paris . These three sites industry and SMEs, higher education and will be combining their efforts in an original research. This promotes innovation on the initiative in their field. part of laboratories. Nine PRES were formed in 2007, four of As part of its 200-2009 four-year contract, which involved the INRIA research centers in INRIA intends to continue its development Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes and Nancy. Others strategy by creating large-scale research are in the preparation phase, for example in centers to provide momentum within inter- Grenoble, Lille (where a cross-border PRES is nationally visible sites, improving both the being developed), Nice and the Paris region. quality of research carried out and its impact In keeping with its site policy, the Institute on industrial development. This strategy was wishes to be associated with these PRES, already in place when the government called though the exact form of this association for candidatures to set up competitiveness remains to be decided.INRIA intends to use clusters and later RTRAs, and is still being pursued as universities adopt new models INRIA intends to use these developments to build a strong position within eight nationalthese developments of governance and the first PRES are being excellence sites combining research, higher formed. education and innovation, and to help theseto build a strong All INRIA research centers play an important clusters achieve the highest international role in the competitiveness clusters working levels in ICST.position within eight on the Institutes’ issues (modeling, complex software, digital infrastructure, data proces-national excellence sing, research at the intersection of computersites combining science and life science), whether they are international in scope (Aerospace Valley inresearch, higher Aquitaine and Midi-Pyrénées, System@tic in Île-de-France, Minalogic in Rhône-Alpes andeducation and SCS in PACA) or simply have international ambitions (for example in Brittany, Île-de-innovation, and to France, and Nord Pas-de-Calais, the Images and networks, Vehicle of the future, Cap Digitalhelp these clusters and Trade industry clusters). The Institute’sachieve the highest teams are currently involved in some sixty cluster projects. This partnership policy isinternational levels also being pursued for ANR operations: the Institute is currently participating in over 120in ICST.. ANR projects, most of which involve indus- trial partnerships. This level of involvement has been made possible by the quality of the research carried out. In the area of RTRAs, INRIA is a founding member of the Digiteo RTRA in Saclay and the Infectiology RTRA in Lyon. Through its research centers, the Institute should soon be connected to the Mathematical Sciences RTRA in Paris, Agronomical Sciences in Montpellier and Nanosciences in Grenoble. The Institute also aims to form excellence clusters on sites in Rennes, Sophia Antipolis and Paris in the field of Telecommunications Sciences in cooperation with the GET and Strategic Plan 2008-2012 5
    • INRIA:Strategic Prioritiesand AmbitionsIn this chapter:3.1 Modeling, Programming, Communicating and Interacting page 41 3.1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems page 42 3.1.2 rogramming: security and reliability P of computing systems page 48 3.1.3 Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere page 56 3.1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds page 643.2 Computational Sciences and Engineering page 71 3.2.1 Computational Engineering page 72 3.2.2 Computational Sciences page 78 3.2.3 Computational Medicine page 883.3 Social Concerns Covered by INRIA Priorities page 933.4 Emerging Fields page 95
    • Priorities
    •  INRIA Strategic Priorities and Ambitions INRIA is a highly visible international leader in • interacting: this area focuses on the inte- computer science and applied mathematics. raction between real and virtual worlds, Modeling and Programming are among its through several sensory means for the natural priorities, of which Communication analysis, reconstruction, and understan- and Interaction are two logical extensions, ding of the environment, with decision- motivated by scientific and technological making, action and interaction in robotics needs and by socio-economic concerns. In and virtual reality. these four fields, INRIA has based its strategic These four priorities cover other important plan on the following priorities: areas such as control, optimization and • modeling: this area focuses on mode- decision-making, which are taken into ling, simulating and optimizing complex account in particular for the first and fourth dynamic systems, which are addressed priorities. through heterogeneous, multi-model and ICST is on the leading edge of a revolution multi-scale representations, combined with in the methods and tools of investigation, resolution and data assimilation methods abstraction, modeling, experimentation and and high-performance computing tools; design in science and engineering. Techniques • programming: this area focuses on for collecting and using of huge data stores, computer system security and reliabi- for simulating, visualizing, virtual prototyping lity, aiming to ensure that complex software and in-silico experiments are radically trans- behaves correctly and that data, commu- forming all sectors of science and technology.LICST is on the nication and exchanges are secure; INRIA wishes to play an important role in • communicating: this area focuses on this revolution, whose economic and socialleading edge of information, computation and commu- stakes are high. This ambition creates three nication everywhere, through ubiquitous additional priorities, namely computationala revolution in the systems deployed within new networks, engineering, computational sciences andmethods and tools communication and computing infrastruc- tures, through semantic web, services and computational medicine: • computational engineering: this areaof investigation, ambient intelligence; focuses on the design of software andabstraction, modeling,experimentationand design in scienceand engineering. MODELING COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMMING COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATING COMPUTATIONAL MEDICINE INTERACTING The seven priorities of Strategic Plan.8 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities embedded systems within physical are reachable within the scope of this plan, objects, requiring high levels of flexibility few “key challenges” are introduced. Theses and security; challenges instantiate the strategic priorities • computational sciences: this area into objectives that INRIA will pursue with its focuses on ICST’s contribution to several partners. The Institute will make the effort essential interdisciplinary topics in the necessary to achieve these objectives, in material sciences, life and environmental particular through various incentives (see sciences; 4..2). These key challenges are not to be • computational medicine: this area focuses seen as deliverables, they correspond to on the development of models and algo- high-risk research objectives. They will illus- rithms for medicine and medical biology. trate the Institute’s activities, demonstrate The aim is to closely combine the imaging, its priorities and provide common ground modeling and data assimilation techniques for its teams. The exact content of each in order to place ICST at the crossroads key challenge will be refined as the plan of biology and medicine. advances and the corresponding research These seven priorities define long-term goals work is launched. Finally, research on the and research directions for several years seven priorities will take into account all of ahead. In order to break down these priorities their objectives, not just the key challenges into concrete, intermediate objectives that chosen to illustrate them. The scientific issues covered by the strategic priorities require increasing investment in experimentation and development activities. The Institute currently has a very strong interest in creating research and support platforms for its development activities. In practice, this ambition is reflected through technology development actions as well as through the expansion of development- specific resources (see 4..2). The scientific fields covered by the seven priorities listed above are not indepen- dent. For example, Interacting relies on Communicating: managing the content and semantics of exchanges must begin with communication and be reflected through interaction. Safety issues naturally occur in Programming and Computational Engineering. Modeling is needed in every research activity. It appears in all the priorities, particularly in Computational Engineering, Computational Medicine and Computational Sciences. The connections between priorities can be highly productive because of the cooperation they generate among project-teams. This is particularly the case through the key challenges, since they often overlap over several priorities, although for convenience each key challenge is presented within one priority. Details on the seven priorities are provided in the following sections, with boxes coveringPlatform for a 3D visual and echograph medical robot the related key challenges and INRIA’s current— LAGADIC. or desired position for each of these topics. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 9
    •  INRIA Strategic Priorities and Ambitions A brief section is devoted to the social issues touched upon by the priorities of this plan (see .). The Institute will also be fostering the emergence of new research topics within its teams that differ substantially from current paradigms in information and communication science and technology. The final section in this chapter is dedicated to these emerging topics. MRI image of the main cortex connection paths — ODYSSEE.40 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities 3.1 Modeling, Programming, Communicating and Interacting Strategic Plan 2008-2012 41
    • .1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems 3.1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems42 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities One of the major scientific challenges of our times is improving our understanding of the complex systems around us, natural or tech- nological. Modeling large-scale meteorological phenomena, the effects of pollution, flooding, earthquakes and the climate, for example, are impor- tant to society. The same is true of modeling nanosystems, whether in a biological context or for producing circuits using new types of nanocompo- nents. Other significant examples of broad fields of scientific investigation in modeling include the entire cell, the human brain itself, epidemiology, the Internet and major communication software packages. All of these are difficult challenges for applied mathematics and computer science in terms of the modeling, simulation and optimization of complex dynamic systems. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 4
    • .1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems All complex systems share a certain set of about data and models. Lastly, optimizing, Scientific characteristics. Several disciplines must work identifying and controlling these systems are Objectives together in order to study these systems: they involve multiple models and scales in time and/ difficult scientific problems. From a mathe- matical point of view, they can be modeled or space; they can be continuous or discrete using infinite dimension systems (EDP) or and irregular. Data on them are highly variable finite (hybrid systems, differential inclusions, in nature and quality: heterogeneous, noisy variational inequalities) and which are deter- and sparse or else plentiful but not always ministic and/or stochastic. reliable. This makes the problem of connec- Modeling complex dynamic systems is a multi- ting data with models critical, which justifies disciplinary issue resulting from the interaction the intensive focus on identifying, benchmar- between mathematics, computer science, king and assimilating data. Simulating these automatic control and the disciplines dealing systems requires substantial research efforts, with application challenges and contributing particularly in computational algorithms. The techniques. The main fields involved are: widespread availability of multi-core proces- • material sciences, chemistry and physics: sors and GPUs means that both mathematical fluid mechanics, plasma physics, materials, and computing factors must be accounted for. propagation of acoustic, electromagnetic Predictions from simulations must be carefully or seismic waves, atomic and quantum assessed for quality given the uncertainty physics; INRIA’s Position Scientific computing is one of INRIA’s tra- internally and externally, for example in toolboxes In the future, a special effort will be made ditional fields of excellence, both for applied for scientific computing itself, support tools for to emphasize issues relating to data assimi- mathematics and computational algorithms parallelization or implementation on clusters or lation, inverse problems and multi-scale and for high-performance parallel com- grids, dedicated software for automatic differen- computing. A special arrangement will be puting. Some forty teams are working in tiation - such as Tapenade - and meshing. made to actively participate in the simulation the field, with internationally recognized INRIA teams have established a network of close programme with ITER. expertise in the areas concerned. Particu- partnerships with scientists in other disciplines. larly noteworthy are mathematical analysis In addition to universities, graduate engineering of partial and mixed differential equation schools and the CNRS, major organizations such systems (fluid, structural, molecular and as the CEA, IFREMER, ONERA, and DGA are circuit dynamics, wave propagation); dis- leading partners for many subjects. Also worth cretization methods and computational mentioning are the strong relationships which patterns (dynamic and irregular meshing, have been forged in some application sectors: handling singularities, unilaterality, hete- with the ENPC through the CERMICS, in ocea- rogeneity); stochastic modeling; optimiza- nography with MERCATOR, in meteorology tion methods (gradients, combined/mixed, with the LMD, and the IRSN for monitoring air optimal control); automatic derivation; quality (Polyphemus software), as well as with a high-performance solvers; distribution and variety of European laboratories in connection sequencing methods; software and mid- with the SICONOS platform for the study of dleware for parallel computing, distributed irregular dynamic systems. The final component on a large scale. is the Institute’s industrial partnerships with Many codes and software resources produced Airbus, Alcatel-Lucent, EADS, EDF, FT R&D, by INRIA’s teams are used operationally both STM, Thalès, Total and Turbomeca.44 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities • life sciences: molecular dynamics, metabolic in understanding classes of distributed networks, gene interactions, cancerology, systems communicating asynchronously biochemistry for predicting the effects of over a complex network. drugs, mechanical properties of living tissue, One initial challenge for research is to bridge and neuroscience; the gaps between disciplines to interact in • environmental and earth sciences: meteo- new ways, as has already been done for rology, climatology, seismology, hydrology, image assimilation, which involves specia- glaciology, oceanography, energy, agronomy lists in satellite imaging and computer engi- and pollution; neers to combine meteorological models. • human and social sciences: economic and Another factor to consider is the emergence financial systems, population studies, demo- of many application areas, such as the graphics, epidemiology, distribution networks development of circuits based on nano- and transportation; technology, a major economic objective • engineering: the design and control of for the coming years that must integrate embedded systems; mechanical, electronic an entire hierarchy of models, from atomic and computer design of major systems for physics (nanosciences) to the behavioral avionics, space and energy. model of a processor core, and perhaps Computer science offers its own challenges even including non-standard mechanics in for applications in this area, for example the case of MEMS. INRIA’s objective for modeling is two-fold: include neural networks, robot populations, Modeling: to pursue research on the most critical multi-agent systems and large hybrid systems.the Challenge subjects while opening the door to new fields deemed to be important in the domain. It is Many specific outstanding questions remain in the research domains associated with theseof Complexity also becoming increasingly necessary to combine models on different scales or of models regarding parameter identification, data assimilation and learning-related opti- different types. At the same time, stochastic mization. In general, a complete methodology approaches are receiving more attention, for constructing complex models based on both in modeling and as a tool for analyzing elementary components and their theore- deterministic systems. Stochastic filtering tical analysis and calculation has yet to be is already proving to be an effective tool for established. data assimilation, but more general approa- A final point concerns the specifics of modeling ches combining stochastic and deterministic for automatic control. The command objective elements need to be developed. Several fields often requires the opposite approach to deve- have a very strong interest in such methods, loping computational models that faithfully for example geophysics and neurosciences. reproduce and simulate the complexity of Finally, although pursuing theoretical research physical and natural phenomena: instead, is constantly expanding current approaches the aim is to simplify, to extract the main to modeling, they are still limited; for example, mechanisms of interaction at work in a chan- introducing simplifications into these models ging process and to model only the essential at a certain scale can conceal significant elements and ignore anything of merely secon- effects which are propagated to other scales, dary importance, so as to develop effective and traditional models are sometimes inap- strategies to achieve a given objective. This propriate for describing a particular system need to reduce models to their most impor- architecture. In such cases, a viable distinction tant components poses a genuine scientific can no longer be made between modeling challenge when the systems involved are and simulation, and calculation methods dimensionally or structurally complex. involving vast quantities of frequently simple, interacting elements must be used: examples Strategic Plan 2008-2012 45
    • .1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems In simulation, developing new computational the lens of adaptive techniques. Certifying Simulation: schemes is a constant necessity, both to handle the increasing complexity of multi-scale approximations, building robust algorithms and processing data and very large objects Changing Scales models and to effectively simulate and control at various resolution levels are just a few of irregular dynamic systems. These schemes the challenges to be met in this field. From must be precise with efficient computing the perspective of geometry, problems include times, and be able to run effectively on high- representing deformable objects and working performance computing platforms: multipro- in non-Euclidean, multi-dimensional space. cessor systems, large clusters and large-scale In addition, simulations produce large-scale distributed systems. Improving overall perfor- data flows, which can be difficult to exploit. mance in simulating large, complex systems This requires dedicated offline data sear- requires both efficient algorithms and the ching techniques; online, virtual reality or ability to program and make effective use immersion techniques dedicated to scientific of platforms with very different memory and visualization must be used for interactive, real- computing resources. These are the main time simulation. Lastly, as a forecasting tool, objectives for the research INRIA intends to simulation should also improve management undertake. To achieve them, computer scien- of risk prevention, both by forecasting rare tists must cooperate with automatic control events – a major challenge – and by mana- specialists and mathematicians to address ging uncertainty. It is particularly vital to look issues of asynchronous computing as well as into quantifying prediction uncertainty and to node and connection failures. Various meshing study the sensitivity of results to environmental and computing tools must also be combined variations. In general, these concerns with to make multi-model processing effective and uncertainty must be addressed starting with to capitalize on software developments. The the data collection phase (inverse problems) issue of discretization inevitably requires the and be reflected if necessary in the models subject of meshing to be examined through themselves. Simulation of Atlantic ocean flow in the Celtique and Cascogne areas — MOISE. When optimizing extremely large-scale the resistance of solutions to constantly Optimization: systems, the robustness of results in the changing input data must be accounted for. Toward a Cross- face of uncertainty or minor variations still needs to be improved, especially for PDEs. Significantly improving optimization efficiency will require a combination of techniques that Disciplinary Furthermore, calculating successive deriva- tives for optimization is still a problem in many can continually adapt to slow variations and to failure-detection methods, which serve Approach cases and automatic derivative methods that to improve optimization algorithm efficiency have worked for some types of equations and online derivative estimation. In general, must be expanded to very large systems optimization is becoming increasingly impor- without sacrificing performance in terms of tant as an interdisciplinary tool, requiring the time and accuracy. In general, optimizing Institute to develop its skills in the field. multiple entities from different disciplines is still difficult. Optimization itself offers a variety of challenges, for example when continuous and discrete components must be addressed simultaneously, although they require very different methods and ways of thinking. Mixed methodologies must be developed for such situations. When optimizing dynamic systems,4 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities Some of the fields currently or potentially fusion, combining magnetism and plasma Fields of affected by this research will be studied physics. For the technology sector, one of Application specifically by INRIA because of their impor- tant role (see .1.4). Biological systems on the main challenges for the coming years will be simulating complete circuits based various scales fall into this category, from on nanotechnology. molecules (biological nanomotors) to organs to gene interaction networks. Typically, multi- scale and multi-model problems occur when trying to fully model complex sub-systems such as cells or the brain. The environment is another main field of investigation, offe- ring challenges such as understanding the connections between ocean and atmos- phere on a global scale, forecasting floods and studying global warming. Here, too, multiple scales are involved in research such as studying ecosystems in close detail. In the field of energy, one subject that will be the focus of further research is large-scale Key Challengesi Simulation and Scientific i Fusion Plasma SimulationVisualization for the Environment for the ITER ProgramThe objective of this challenge is to develop The objective of this challenge is to develop a set will be able to simulate turbulence moreand implement a life-size interactive simu- of 5D gyrokinetic and magneto-hydrodynamic accurately. In addition, simulating localizedlation and visualization of a complex envi- simulation codes for the magnetized plasma modes at the edge of the plasma is essentialronmental problem, for example in clima- models studied in the ITER program. Studying to understanding and forecasting energytology or oceanology (see 3.2.2). The chosen a specific tokamak such as ITER in detail must losses in ITER and validating the approachesapplication will demonstrate the need for precisely account for the actual configuration suggested to correct them. Currently, there iscomplex visualization and interactivity, e.g. of the plasma balance, which in turn requires no program that can simulate the instabilityin sensor positioning or in managing multi- the use of a system of specific coordinates called of these modes completely. The objective is toalgorithm simulations. This challenge, which flow coordinates, which respects the isosur- develop a high-resolution software solutionwill produce a demonstrator, will require faces of the magnetic field. Using this system, to simulate a full cycle of instability for edgeclose cooperation between specialists in the longitudinal and transverse dynamics can be local modes (ELM) using highly efficientenvironmental sciences and researchers in separated, allowing a more realistic dynamic solvers for large, sparse linear systems andmodeling, simulation, virtual reality, com- to be used for electrons. This approach, which high-resolution computational methods onputer graphics and intensive computing. requires specific computational developments, unstructured meshing. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 47
    • .1.2 Programming: security and reliability of computing systems 3.1.2 Programming: security and reliability of computing systems48 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities With new computational technology, software packages are having an increasingly direct impact on the life of ordinary citizens and the way compa- nies and nations are run. This situation raises many challenges, including: • the security of technical infrastructures (transport, energy), major infor- mation systems, banking networks, and medical equipment; • the security and confidentiality of infrastructures of a sensitive nature (defense, government data); • the protection of personal information and private life (medical files, elections, various private data); • mutual trust in communication between entities and integrity of exchanges; • availability and credibility of various applications (traceability and gua- rantee of the origin of products, home automation.) In light of these issues, user confidence in digital technologies is crucial in developing and deploying new applications. From the user’s point of view, trust includes a system’s ability to resist attacks and fraudulent use (security), to work correctly under certain conditions (reliability), and to determine liability in the event of malfunction (technical and legal concerns). From the perspective of system and application designers, the technological issues are: providing strong, adequate and proven security solutions; checking applications in advance to ensure that they work cor- rectly; and providing high-performance programming environments that include the production of source code and proof. Since confidence-related technology and services rely heavily on software, INRIA clearly has a role to play in this field. One area for study will be deve- loping reliability and security technology to build user confidence, thus improving authentication and identification, confidentiality, certification, content and personal data protection, traceability and service resilience. Another possibility is exploring new ways to build confidence, for example the emerging fields of electronic evidence used in the legal field, repu- tation-based confidence systems and confidence platforms. This can be more generally described as studying the foundations of safe, mobile, decentralized computing, where data and application access is controlled through managing rights and identities, in the most transparent manner possible for the user. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 49
    • .1.2 Programming: security and reliability of computing systems Rapid progress in technology has also opened the door for new approa- ches in programming and software engineering, such as service-oriented architectures to resolve companies’ concerns regarding reusability, inte- roperability and reducing coupling between the various components of IT systems. Referencing, coordinating and locating these services requires standards, as well as specific protocols to manage transactions and secu- rity within the architecture. This area has yet to be fully explored. The concept of a system of systems has developed at the intersection of software engineering, information and decision-making systems to enable the large-scale integration of systems made up of a large number of stand-alone, heterogeneous hardware, software and human compo- nents, which may be geographically distant from one another but work through the interactions between these components, depending on the system architecture, its changes over time and variations in its environ- ment. Such systems require specific monitoring and a maintenance policy defined during the design phase and adjusted throughout the system’s life cycle. This in turn requires appropriate modeling and simulation techni- ques, as well as assessment and certification methods, if the system is to function reliably.50 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities INRIA’s priorities for this area relate to two services and systems components, and inte- major objectives: grating these techniques into the broader • ensuring that complex software behaves context of software engineering to improve correctly in its hardware environment. ease of use and expand distribution; The Institute produces reliable development • providing security for data, communica- methods based on formal languages, mathe- tion and exchanges between computer matical logic, construction of proof, and systems. Priorities in this area include cryp- code and software component verification tography, security policies and virus protec- and certification. The central focus is on key tion, all of which are possible solutions to the issues such as scaling up, reusing existing weaknesses and failures of systems that are code, accounting for all hardware, software, increasingly open, distributed and mobile. High-level programming languages, type matical developments) and building reusable Secure Proof systems and static analysis have done a great deal to improve software reliability. However, libraries in important areas of mathematics and computer science, including numericaland Programming there is still a gap between the source code computing, geometry and probabilities. Before Environments to be executed and the models for this code, used first for design and later for verification. proof assistants can be scaled up for adop- tion in an industrial setting, highly automated This gap must be reduced, both by developing methods of description, animation and analysis dedicated programming languages with related must be developed. code generation and static analysis techno- Formal methods now allow programmers to logy and by using general languages with a establish guarantees of their source codes broad range of expression and capacity for and models. Extending these guarantees to generic and compositional uses (functional executable code and its execution requires two programming, aspect- , contract- , constraint- additional factors: first, code production and programming, etc.). validation tools (compilers, code generators, The experience of the last few years in deve- static analyzers, model-checkers, theorem loping proofs has revealed new engineering proving tools) must be certified. Second, a issues. Designing general mathematical certificate that can later be checked by users of languages to describe theories and proofs the source code, must be produced and linked that a computer can check requires effec- to it. Both of these steps require significantly tively integrating computing and deductive more research before they can be applied in capabilities (both are needed major mathe- producing real-world software. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 51
    • .1.2 Programming: security and reliability of computing systems Despite remarkable progress in formal poration of commercially available compo-High-Performance methods and verification techniques nents, previously developed software and Methods for through model-checking, formal verifica- tion is not yet scaled to real-world critical open-source software: most systems, including systems with high reliability andChecking Software systems. Progress will be made by combining the security requirements, include external components or software. New fields of and Systems use of tests and existing proofs (verification experimentation have opened for source of models, static analysis, refinement, inte- code verification techniques, including ractive proofs, test generation) and inte- post-developing verification of existing grating these methods into system design code as well as reverse engineering of and source code production environments code designed for use in secure systems for both software and hardware. to restore its correctness properties and Another area to be developed is the incor- prove that no residual risk remains. Creating specifications and designing confi- The need for cryptographic primitives whose The Building dence platforms involves security and integrity control mechanisms that connect the hardware robustness and compliance has been demons- trated is one of the key points in developingBlocks of Security: to the basic software, mechanisms for making secure the operating system and techniques confidence systems. The difficulties in deploying public-key solutions raise different Cryptography, ensuring that different application classes are questions regarding how to build and guarantee Protocols and safely partitioned. Current solutions are based on the development of proven security micro- trust relationships between communicating entities in open, distributed environments. Policies kernels and a variety of techniques such as virtualization. Cryptographic primitives using both symme- tric and asymmetric cryptography must be INRIA’s Position More than 40 project-teams are working on good position with its academic and industrial which means being attuned to industrial, research subjects related to this challenge. It partners (Alcatel, Dassault, France Telecom legal and social expectations relating to risk is the main focus of some 20 project-teams. R&D, ILOG, Microsoft, Thalès, Trusted Logic, management, security and privacy in the INRIA’s expertise in cryptology, formal Esterel Technologies, etc.) to address challenges development of services and companies, methods, proof environments, formal veri- of reliability and security which are not only confidence platforms and virtualization. fication of protocols and critical systems priorities in Europe (for example, the two topics To respond to these issues, the Institute has is internationally recognized, and the Ins- for the 7th FP: Information and communication adopted an integrated view of security and titute is a world leader in model-driven technologies and Security and space) but also safety for software and systems. engineering. This expertise takes the form crucial to the independence and sovereignty of designing and distributing high-visi- of nation states worldwide. bility software for proof environments, INRIA is working to expand its industrial synchronous and asynchronous program- relationships, particularly within the AESE and ming, cryptographic protocol verification, System@tic competitiveness clusters, and its program proving tools and functional lan- partnership with the DGA. Its goal is to provide guages. These advantages put INRIA in a expertise and advice on computer security,52 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities improved and validated, new primitives must be protocol verification techniques, most of the developed based on cryptographic principles findings apply only to simplified protocols. to ensure that they are robust when deployed, Addressing complex security protocols in and cryptographic algorithms must be designed real-world environments is a major challenge. which take into account effectiveness (low It requires the development of modular proof consumption, speed) and resistance to covert- techniques to demonstrate that the abstrac- channel cryptanalysis. Methods for resisting tions under consideration are correct with cryptanalysis must also be designed. respect to the more precise models used in Cryptographic protocols for new applications cryptography, and to formally validate the such as elections, signature delegation, secure cryptographic primitives. The need for new negotiation of security services for multi-level security properties handling anonymity and applications and the execution of complex privacy is also growing. security policies must be proven in terms of One final avenue for promising new research their design and their hardware and software is designing languages to formally express implementation. security policies and their properties, and While significant progress has been made in developing methods and tools to check these both theories and applications for security properties. The first stage in dealing with cyber-attacks is vulnerabilities are more complex and require Viruses to analyze and list the security vulnerabilities specific investigation.and Vulnerability and weaknesses of software and systems using effective analytical tools. For the verification The emerging field of computer virology aims to detect viruses and study their propagation, Analysis phase, there is still no solution for handling previously developed components. Although based on static analysis of data or control flows; it also covers designing and building the failure models used for dependability defense strategies, in particular to respond analysis do provide a great deal of inspira- to metamorphic viruses where the program tion, the models for operating and propagating changes each time it infects a new host. With the increasing quantity of sensitive data Digital technologies and the advent of open Data Integrity, stored in databases today, it is becoming urgent to ensure their integrity (authenticity, systems also generate risks in terms of intel- lectual property and distribution rights. Current Confidentiality exhaustivity, up-to-date status), confidentiality technology is able to produce perfect copies of and Privacy (access control) and appropriate use (tracea- bility). Current solutions based on centra- content. Redistribution is easy and difficult to trace. It is therefore necessary to develop new lized administration are difficult to deploy and technologies to protect multimedia content: to fail to meet trust requirements for dynamic identify its origin, protect copyrights, check its and distributed environments. Cooperation integrity and trace illicit use. This can be done between database and cryptography research by inserting into the content an undetectable, is a highly promising avenue for dynamically inimitable and indelible mark, which must highly establishing trusted relationships between robust given the different types of attack to entities in space and time. which the signal could be subject. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 5
    • .1.2 Programming: security and reliability of computing systems Risk control is integral to the process of desi- complex environments whose behavior cannot Risk Control gning software-intensive systems – not only be fully described, it becomes necessary to in Open and information systems but also critical real-time systems and mass distribution systems. Risks formalize dysfunctional interactions and express them as constraints to ensure that the system as Distributed are often identified as failures in or obstacles to availability, security, robustness under peak a whole functions correctly. These formal models may also be used as a basis for establishing Systems loads and changes of scale. The perception legal liability in the event of a malfunction. of these risks has increased as online services In mobile ad hoc networks with no fixed infras- based on open and distributed systems are tructure, which are often spontaneous and implemented. volatile, and which use networks of ubiquitous Many critical and embedded systems are now sensors to interface between the physical envi- open systems that coexist and interoperate ronment and communications and informa- with information systems. This leaves them tion infrastructures, security must be carefully vulnerable not only to failures but also to attacks examined and ensured before deployment. and malware, unexpected user behavior and Distribution of data and computing on the grid unspecified or incompletely specified interac- also raises new challenges for security, which tions between components. must be guaranteed even in an environment In a distributed context, and more generally in lacking in reliability. Key Challenges i Cryptography offensive and defensive systems against mali- i Certified Development of and Ambient Network Security cious codes (viruses, worms). They will serve Industrial Software Components “Light cryptography” is critical in industrial as a first step for detecting loopholes, security The first step in increasing the number applications and is needed for low-cost and auditing and system certification. of proven software components (compi- potentially volatile objects. Developing tra- lers, certified libraries) used in industry ceability and object location applications, for i Joint Verification of Reliability is to provide a platform for designing, example using RFID, requires authentication and Security Properties modeling and verification of systems and mechanisms which are easy to implement Although reliability and security have been software that takes into account component and inexpensive to deploy but still guarantee fairly separate up to now, integrated approaches assembly and the re-use of existing code, an adequate level of security. The goal here should be developed for a variety of issues, so that companies or third party projects is to develop these mechanisms. specifically automated verification of security can use these tools for real-world cases policies (for example for Web services, access and supply genuine feedback. The main i Vulnerabilities, Attacks and Defense control, signature delegation), the design of objective is to demonstrate that the process The focus here is to study attacks and secure electronic voting protocols and the of critical code certification can be based their prevention by conducting significant formalization and verification of their essential on a rigorous mathematical approach, spe- experiments within a legal framework. The security properties. cifically by producing a proven compiler first objective is to identify the security which can be used in an industrial setting. weaknesses and vulnerabilities of software, The broader objective is to increase the to analyze and list those vulnerabilities and number of proven components used in to develop effective analytical tools. The industry (compilers, verification tools and experiments will also be used to deploy libraries).54 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Strategic Plan 2008-2012 55
    • .1. Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere 3.1.3 Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere5 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Communication technologies and infrastructures have consis- tently been the focus of many key issues in all civilizations. Digital com- munication technologies have provided a breakthrough in quality and a drastic change in scale. Their economic and social results can now be seen in all business sectors, from the production of goods and servi- ces to health and safety. They are critical in developing an information society (see 2.1). Significant needs have driven the rapid growth and deployment of these technologies: more than 2 billion devices are now connected to the Internet, and an equal number of cell phones are in use, 20% of which have data exchange capabilities. The volume of data that any individual can readily access or produce will soon be quantified in moles* of bytes. Another revolution is occurring in parallel to this growth: the objects we possess now communicate between themselves autonomously to provide us with additional, integrated functions, configuring themselves and adjusting to their environment and to users within a large area of observation (sensor networks) and addressable objects (Internet of things). In order to continue developing, communication technologies must resolve many scientific problems relating to protocols and communi- cation networks, distributed computing and the web of knowledge and services. Together, these three components are used to develop auto- nomous systems of ambient intelligence incorporating processors and sensors distributed throughout space and many everyday objects and capable of reacting to their environment to provide users with access to customized information, knowledge and radically new means of expres- sion and action, at the right time and in the right place. INRIA has consistently emphasized controlling communication services and network infrastructures as one of its priorities. The Institute now has highly developed skills at its disposal as well as a high level international visibility in this field, and has set ambitious scientific goals for networks, computing grids and the semantic Web of knowledge and services. * By analogy with the chemical unit: one mole = 6,022 x 1023 atoms. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 57
    • .1. Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere INRIA has three objectives for this strategic These three areas present common, funda- priority: mental problems in mathematics, communi- • networks of the future: modeling them, cations and information algorithms, which the designing their architectures and protocols Institute will continue to be heavily involved and overcoming the heterogeneous nature in. It will continue its research into several of communication infrastructures to work of these fundamental issues, for example toward a network which is continuous quantitative modeling, formal methods for across space (to respond to the chan- proving protocols, distributed algorithms ging magnitude of the number of intercon- with partial information, and replication and nected mobile or fixed devices) and time consensus algorithms. Encoding and infor- (to ensure a consistent and transparent mation theory – in particular encoding and quality of service for a wide range of users compressing images and videos to increase and uses); the capacity of mobile ad hoc networks – are • computing grids: one of the major chal- important research topics as well. Network lenges for distributed computer science and data security are also essential to the in providing vast resources virtually content discussed here: confidence, security anywhere; proofs, confidentiality and privacy, and the • the Web of knowledge and services: protection of multimedia documents. providing access to the semantic content of These three areas are detailed below, in information available and helping communi- addition to the issue of autonomous infras- ties of users to use, deploy and integrate an tructures for communication, computing and increasingly broad range of applications. information, which affects all of them. The Internet of the future is currently the New theories of network architecture must be Communication focus of considerable academic and industrial devised to achieve these goals. The protocols Everywhere research, as demonstrated major international initiatives such as those of the NSF (FIND, and structures controlling this architecture must be reorganized in a coordinated, consis- and the Networks GENI) and DARPA (on wireless technology) in the United States, the European Commission tent way. Although a great deal of progress has been made over the last ten years, the of the Future (EIFFEL, FIRE, ARCADIA, EUROFI), Korea network layer remains critical for applica- (Future Internet Forum) and Japan. In 2007, the tions with strict requirements in terms of French government asked INRIA to supervise time limits, bandwidth, jitter and reliability. a think tank on this subject. These applications cannot yet be deployed Research in this field aims to develop a foun- on the Internet. INRIA will perform both theo- dation for algorithms and new architectures retical and experimental research into quality for communication networks and services that of service and level of service agreements, will fix the structural weakness of the Internet, differentiated routing and routing with quality in particular in terms of security, quality of of service. service, mobility, real-time use and intercon- Our work will also address Internet overlay nection with the physical world via networks of networks, which enable a large number of sensors. INRIA intends to be actively involved peers to interact when participating in a joint in designing the Internet of the future. The task, either as relay points or direct contribu- Institute will focus specifically on making the tors. Research will concentrate on structures network more secure and robust, facilitating that can develop autonomously and in a the integration of new technologies such as self-organized manner, such as peer-to-peer heterogeneous wireless networks, improving systems (P2P) for sharing multimedia files, quality of service and implementing higher- where group participation is highly dynamic level service infrastructures. and volatile.58 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities In addition, we must better understand and sharing for wireless networks, including hybrid control the Internet as we know it today in networks, is also necessary. The design of order to plan the Internet of the future. INRIA network services that provide genuine support will concentrate on designing new methods without reducing mobility or localization raises of network supervision, measurement and important questions. The same is true for the control, Internet tomography, inference of design of wireless video applications, which traffic matrices and automatic detection of impose additional constraints in terms of anomalies. low-complexity or low energy consumption In addition to the Internet itself, our work will encoding techniques. also deal with networks of operators, focusing Networks have recently been increasing in mainly on wireless access and network complexity, dynamicity and heterogeneity of management. networks, which makes them more difficult to The development of wireless networks manage. They demand new architectural and depends on fundamental advances in infor- distributed algorithm models to be designed mation theory and coding, innovative algo- so that fault, configuration, cost, performance rithms and new ideas for architectures. INRIA and security management mechanisms can will continue contributing to the vast effort be implemented in an autonomous, reliable to build algorithms for better controlling and robust way. The ability to scale and the these networks (power, control of admis- functional impact of network management sion, access to resources and congestion, imperatives are crucial, especially for optical and scheduling), in particular using inter-layer networks in which reconfigurable components optimization. A better understanding of band will enable operators to meet demand on aModeling of the coverage of a networkusing CDMA protocol antennas— TREC. INRIA’s PositionOver thirty project-teams are studying laboratory of Alcatel-Lucent, a key player Several INRIA researchers and teamssubjects related to this priority. In the in the field of network equipment, as well wield international influence in the areafields of networks and communication, the as the head office and main research and of databases, knowledge bases and theInstitute has a strong international posi- development laboratories of Orange, a major Web, in particular for XML. Active par-tion in modeling and metrology. Network European player in wireless access. INRIA has tnerships have been established withstandardization efforts are coordinated established several joint laboratories: with the best teams in the world (includingby the Internet Engineering Task Force Orange-FT, in the form of a “collaborative UCSD). Transfer operations increase(IETF), within which most of the com- research center”; with Alcatel-Lucent, in the this impact.panies and laboratories working on the form of “joint strategic operations;” and with This position for content, services, uses,Internet are competing to have new proto- Thomson and Philips, in the form of a joint and communication must be consolidatedcols adopted. INRIA has long been a very AIR&D laboratory on ambient computing. even further.active participant in the IETF, chairing INRIA is a driving force for distributedworking parties, contributing to MPGs computing, computing grids and peer-to-and proposing standards such as UDLR peer systems within the French community,and OLSR. INRIA also participated in the leading several platforms such as GRID-5000.standardization of IEEE 802.11. Considerable effort is also being devotedFrance has an outstanding industrial to pervasive computing, which has alreadyenvironment in the field of networks, generated substantial transfer operations,as it is home to head office and research for example around UbiQ. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 59
    • .1. Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere terabyte scale, and which will require high- continue to study new distributed control performance, programmable control methods algorithms for such networks, particularly capable of scheduling network resources in for accessing shared radio channels, routing, real time. admission and congestion control and Finally, self-organized networks must consumption control. The general concept also be addressed. INRIA will focus its requires distributed algorithms enabling users research on ad hoc networks, hybrid wire- to be constantly connected, as effectively less networks, spontaneous information and fairly as possible, particularly for flexible systems and networks tolerating time limits radios. Research into economic models will where intermittent connectivity is typical Most focus on developing new ways to deploy and of these networks are based on “multihop” integrate management functions through routing, which consists of using other termi- models such as the use of incentives, game nals or components in the network as relays theory and cooperative and collaborative to transmit information. The Institute will approaches. Key Challenges i Design and Evaluation must be identified and circumscribed. Finally, i Services and Uses of New Internet Architectures experimental and simulation platforms must The aim here is to provide intelligent answers For the past thirty years, the Internet has be integrated to simplify the design and eva- to queries on the Web using semantic data been changing gradually in ways that are luation of new architectures. The aim here content, for example in collaborative work compatible with what already exists. This will therefore be to develop a platform and where information will be incorporated approach has unquestionably been suc- evaluation methods, including a simulator and presented to users who will be able to cessful, but it has reached its limits since it such as NS3 and an experimental platform interact with the intermediate results and cannot resolve major structural problems such as OneLab. thus help to structure the final response in terms of security, continuity of service to the request. These new services must on heterogeneous infrastructures, robus- i Experimental Grids be designed to allow analysis of their effec- tness in transition, and observation and The challenge here involves demonstra- tive uses: appearance of communities and diagnosis tools. ting ambitious up-scaling of programming social networks, dynamic construction of This key challenge involves exploring new techniques for computing grids by carrying individual and collective profiles, detection network architectures which are radically out several dimensioning experiments on of trends, diagnosis of performance and different from those already in existence. the Grid’5000 infrastructure developed by quality of service. As information about The objective is to design architectural the ALADDIN initiative. The experiments uses is being produced more and more components that provide native, secure will use a grid infrastructure to specifically quickly and from an increasing number of support for services such as data distri- address large-scale generic combinatorial sources, data flow analysis must be possible, bution, peer-to-peer data sharing and optimization problems that have never been which implies extracting knowledge, inter- automatic diagnosis. These new architec- solved. Experiments will also be performed preting it and managing its changes. tures must also be evaluated before being in the field of structural biology, such as the deployed on a large scale. This requires problem of anchoring large molecules. These realistic, easy-to-configure simulation plat- and other experiments will be conducted on forms that can control experimental and several thousand processors on several sites comparative analysis conditions involving to provide experimental validation for scaling real users. Simulations must include better up with significant gains in robustness and models and real source code. Their limits performance.0 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities Communication networks and micropro- fically to designing network-based operating Computation cessor technology have progressed to the systems, providing distributed management Everywhere point that the computing power available to a user is no longer limited locally to a single of a domain and enabling better separation of applications and the underlying infrastructure machine, but can draw upon vast resources through virtualization and abstraction. available at low cost and distributed on a Resource management can no longer be large scale. The aim of ubiquitous computing local; it must work in the context of widely is to make these resources easily accessible distributed resources. This means that, for everywhere, at any time, in a transparent and some applications, data flow management reliable way. Computing grids, one of the major must fit into communication constraints, challenges of distributed computer science, which are difficult to predict and can become raise specific issues relating to middleware, more restrictive than computing resource operating systems, resource management constraints. Good resource availability models and programming models. must be developed that are able to adapt to Distributed middleware is a software layer substantial changes as computing nodes above operating systems that facilitates appear and disappear during processing. deployment of an application on networked The Institute will also focus on management machines. Designing it raises questions of mechanisms offering guaranteed performance, heterogeneity management, changing availa- for example in designing efficient, predictable bility of resources and the transition from and reliable end-to-end protocols for the client/server organization to peer-to-peer transfer of large data collections. architectures. In addition, existing middleware Finally, new programming models are needed has a one-way relationship with applica- to efficiently use the grids. The intrinsic tions that does not allow for negotiation. This complexity of distributed processes on hete- handicap can be overcome if applications rogeneous and forward-compatible resources are able to exploit the nature and topology must be taken into account, for example by of resources and specify the communication specifying the characteristics of the appli- patterns they use in advance. cation that relate to those of the computing In the future, operating systems may handle infrastructure. New programming paradigms some of the functions of middleware and inspired by nature and chemistry must also offer better performance. This applies speci- be explored.Computer cluster at INRIA RennesResearch Center. Transitioning to a web of knowledge and Our research will focus specifically on the Information services requires the ability to control substan- tial volumes of heterogeneous data (structured representation of knowledge, as well as on learning and on the automatic processing Everywhere data, text and multimedia documents, online of natural language, to develop ontological and the Web services) and the development of new func- tions relating to data content and the high-level and semantic annotations that will clarify contexts, and their use in queries and data of Knowledge needs of individual users and communities. Access to semantic content depends on management. This management also requires merging information from multiple, hetero- and Services the convergent development of two types of geneous sources, which in turn requires the complementary approaches: relevant resources to be acquired, understood • those based on XML and related languages, and monitored so that they can be enhanced in particular RDF (“resource description (qualification, semantic indexing) and cohe- framework,” allowing for metadata intero- rently integrated. Online services can provide perability) for structured documents and sources of active information; the compo- data; sition of web services relies on planning • those of the semantic Web used to express and learning techniques. Data searching and and exploit knowledge. monitoring are most relevant in connection with Strategic Plan 2008-2012 1
    • .1. Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere semantic content, thus requiring substantial role touches on the issue of basic functions progress in developing and integrating several of communication, interaction and interope- techniques, including statistics, linguistics and rability on the semantic level, which will be the extraction of semantic information from discussed further in the following section on multimedia documents. social interaction and mediation (see .1.4). It is essential to recall that users of the web Another connection with the following section of knowledge and services are not passive is ambient intelligence systems, in which many readers. They are key players within a commu- interconnected devices perceive and interpret nity, producers of knowledge, services and their environment to interact with one another even goods within a collaborative space. This and provide users with the means to act. Autonomous information systems are a for self-optimization (detecting deterioration Communication, central concept in addressing the problems of performance and optimizing their beha- Computation posed by an increasing demand for acces- vior accordingly), self-correction (diagnosing sible, sustainable resources at all times and in potential problems and reconfiguring them- and Autonomous all places. Such systems comprise a collection of components that adjust their internal beha- selves in order to continue functioning) and self-configuration (dynamically adjusting their Service vior and interrelations according to high-level resources according to their own status and Infrastructures rules. One challenge is developing effective that of their operating environment). They solutions that can implement some or all of must adapt to their conditions easily (be able the key characteristics of such very large- to observe their environment and react to scale distributed communication, compu- changes in it), be open (portability onto various ting and information management systems. hardware and software architectures, use of The characteristics to be observed are self- standard and open protocols and interfaces), supervision (knowledge by the system of its and be able to effectively anticipate their own own status and behavior) and self-protection needs and behaviors as dictated by their (detecting both internal and external attacks operating situation and behave proactively. and protecting its resources while maintaining Research into these subjects will cover quali- the system’s overall security and integrity). tative and quantitative modeling, supervision, These systems must also have the capacity diagnosis, reconfiguration and planning.2 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Strategic Plan 2008-2012 
    • .1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds 1.1 From Inception to the Late 1990s 3.1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds4 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities A tool is an extension of the hand. Tools derived from information technology also increase man’s sensory, motor and cognitive capacities. Several forms of inte- raction with the physical world, with computational models or in social mediation arise through the use of such tools, directly or remotely when the tool becomes auto- nomous. The scientific problems posed by the design of these sensory-motor and cognitive extensions to humans, and by related interaction mechanisms are major topics for research. Examples of the type of problems to be investigated include: • how to detect and interpret sensory information to recognize objects, understand scenes and behaviors using several different senses: vision, hearing, touch and smell; • how to represent, reconstruct and visualize data and simulations, enable data to be explored visually and manipulated, and take part in virtual scenarios by rendering the computing tool invisible in the interaction; • how to represent and use symbolic and linguistic information to obtain and supply information, exchange and generate knowledge; • how to act autonomously and deliberately in completing a task, perceiving and modeling the environment, deciding and planning actions and improving behavior by learning. INRIA is heavily involved in these scientific topics. It aims at making significant contributions, since the scientific, social and applicative stakes are high in many sectors. For example, interactions with the real world involve the use of robotics applications in hostile environments and difficult tasks (mines, building sites, deep- sea and planetary exploration, demining, etc.), service robotics (surveillance, han- dling goods, cleaning cold rooms and clean rooms, etc.), transportation and driving assistance systems, “intelligent” roads and safe cities. Other applications include home automation applications, applications to assist reduced-autonomy individuals, and personal automation (domestic assistance, recreational machines, and robots or robotic functions to be used by humans). Medical robotics (see 3.2.3) raises sensitive public health issues. Virtual interactions meet very important needs. In medicine, for example, it would be advantageous to be able to examine and feel a computational heart, built from medical imaging models and data, through a haptic device. Teaching and training are prime fields of application for virtual reality, immersive and interactive environments. Visual and multimedia flow interpretation involves many interdisciplinary issues, including the safety of goods and individuals. The leisure economy, a burgeoning Strategic Plan 2008-2012 5
    • .1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds industry, relies on perception and interaction (video games, film design, ubiquitous communication, etc.), appropriate assistance for broad access to multimedia servi- ces and information on the Web, and geo-localized, personalized information. Com- putational engineering throughout the life-cycle of a product or complex industrial or urban installation involves visualization and virtual reality within collaborative design techniques, often requiring behavioral models for human users. At last, techniques for visualization and interaction using sophisticated computational models that can manage complex simulations may become accessible to a very broad public. From a social point of view, these tools must be used effectively, enabling everyone to prac- tice hands-on science so that science becomes popular again, and they must bring scientific debate back to the forefront of social concerns. Interaction occurs when two or more entities and data. Multi-sensory fusion, for analysis actively exchange information and influence or synthesis, combines the methods already each other, and it requires mechanisms for mentioned and also touches on feedback, perception, action and comprehension. Before the interpretation of movements, attitudes turning to the specific objectives for real and and behavior, as well as the link between the virtual interaction, we will discuss the objec- various senses and natural language. tives common to all the scientific topics dealt Action-related problems vary from the with here. command loop hinging on perception, to These objectives relate first and foremost to decision-making, planning and learning. The sensory modes: developing analytical, reco- dynamic environmental modeling required for gnition, categorization and semantic interpre- perception and action raises further, as yet tation capabilities that use vision or hearing unresolved problems. in speech and natural language interactions. New, higher performance human-machine Currently, there is no effective way to analyze interfaces are needed to make the computer complex sound tracks in detail based on a invisible for the user and enrich interaction recording with only a few sensors. Processing potential. This involves designing sensory and understanding natural languages are major interfaces based on the five senses and able to challenges for computer science; natural analyze expressions, movements, tone of voice language is an essential vector of communi- and gaze. Designing completely or partially cation for exchanges involving high semantic immersive systems that combine multimodal content. For vision, areas for progress include tactile, touch and sound interfaces, inclu- robustness, adaptation to lighting changes ding communication and location capabili- and the condition of sensors. The key is to ties (for example in “wearable computing”), establish a link between semantics and the is a true challenge. It is compounded by the scenes observed. Other objectives relate to need to study humans themselves, both using the synthesis of sensory feedback from models sensory-motor models and from a cognitive and Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities behavioral point of view. New means of direct • computational techniques, in meshing and brain-machine interaction pose both scientific structuring of virtual reality data, multi-sensory and ethical problems requiring close collabo- fusion and environmental modeling; ration with neurosciences and the designers of • natural language processing algorithms; brain activity measurement technologies. • decision-making and planning algorithms. If we are to solve these problems, we must Of course, several of these techniques are develop more advanced algorithms in a number the basis for developing robust methods of of areas, such as: perception, action and interaction. In turn, • semantic interpretation and learning, achieved their integration raises questions of computing using statistical and probabilistic techniques architecture, distribution and organization of for signal processing, speech and images, high computing power. to describe heterogeneous flows and distin- It is essential to emphasize the interdiscipli- guish between sources; nary nature of these challenges, which require • geometric and image processing algo- the contributions of ICST and neuroscience,Similarity search in image databases rithms, for vision, environmental modeling cognitive science and the human and socialwith IKONA — IMEDIA. and planning; sciences. INRIA’s PositionINRIA has the resources to rise to these For robotics, INRIA’s teams rely heavily on Networks and System@tic in particular).challenges. All of the disciplines mentio- applied mathematics for vision and for gra- The Institute has strong ties to the CEA,ned above are already actively pursued phics, as well as on real-time computing and FT R&D, INA and CSTB, and cooperateswithin the Institute, with some thirty formal specifications. They work together closely with its start-up companies. Far-project-teams focusing their research on actively on projects combining perception reaching European partnerships suppor-them. Another twenty are also making and computer-generated images, perception ted by FP programs are also working insome contribution through their work. and robotics. They also collaborate closely the field. Lastly, formal collaborationThe Institute is on the front lines inter- with experts in cognitive sciences and neu- through bilateral and multilateral pro-nationally, both in terms of mass and rosciences. grams, associated teams, and informalquality, in the field of computer vision, INRIA’s strong, long-standing commitment collaboration with the best teams in theand the same holds true for computational to the field of graphics and images has given world (MIT-Csail, UCSD, etc.) demons-geometry. In computer graphics, INRIA’s rise to many academic and industrial par- trate that INRIA holds a prominent inter-teams have also proven their excellence tnerships. In France and in Europe, it works national position in this area.and represent the strongest core team in with the main industrial players in the field In the future, particular effort will beEurope in the field. INRIA has a high- (for example, Thales, Philips, EADS and concentrated on new interfaces, includingquality critical mass in robotics, speci- Renault), as well as video game manufactu- brain-machine interfaces, and on incor-fically for cutting-edge work on parallel rers, banks and the RATP transport authority porating semantics and other human androbots and the control of nonholonomic (for video surveillance) and post-production social factors.systems. The Institute also has advan- companies. RIIT networks have been heavilyced skills in natural language and speech involved; INRIA also participates actively toprocessing. several competitiveness clusters (Images and Strategic Plan 2008-2012 7
    • .1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds In this area, the major challenge is to attitudes and behavior, and in particular Robotics combine the diversity of tasks that may be accomplished autonomously by allowing for example-based program- ming. For users, remote exploration of the and Interaction a machine with the variability of open physical world using a machine requires with the Physical environments in which a machine may act efficiently. Effectively achieving this dynamic synthesis of an enhanced reality, which raises new problems of sensory World relies on robust commands, environmental modeling, reliable and rich perception, feedback, perception and modeling that are distinct from the problem of tasks planning and dynamic learning and desi- completed by machines alone. gning reliable, high-performance, modular Somewhat closer to home is the concept computing architectures. The techniques of direct interaction, or the “enhanced already mentioned can be used to meet human”, which could be equipped with this challenge, along with models from such devices as exoskeletons, ortheses cognitive sciences and the design of and prostheses, as well as a range of controllable self-organized systems. In proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors all cases, integration is the core of the (in particular for geo-localization). Scientific scientific problem: integrating perception problems in this field relate to algorithmic and movement, planning and action, lear- and automatic control; they involve proces- ning and exploration. sing signals from sensors to supply data Performing assignments and tasks through on the operator’s attitude and movement interaction with an autonomous system intentions, and closed-loop control, which requires recognizing movement and human involves high security considerations. Biped walk control — BIPOP & DEMAR. Creating and managing virtual and enhanced effective spatial and temporal co-location of Interaction worlds has already combined graphics and computer vision. The computing possibilities multiple sources of sensory data), mobile 3D interaction (the ability to move around thewith Virtual Worlds available enable us to create and view complex, virtual universe with maximum freedom of multi-scale information, in quantities too large movement and to work from outside of rooms to be easily grasped. New methods of visuali- containing expensive equipment), collaborative zation using geometric and functional modeling 3D interaction (collaboration between partici- are needed to fully use the data from scientific pants equipped with different peripheral devices computing or data mining. Algorithms must be which may have complementary objectives), significantly enhanced for interactive use. and finally cognitive 3D interaction (accessing Motion sensor techniques must be improved for and managing semantic information about the use of animation techniques; for example, objects in a virtual scenario, and working on the need for markers must be eliminated. Visual, the mental representations and intentions of the auditory and haptic multimodal rendering must user, for example through brain-computer inter- be able to rapidly co-locate a host of sensory faces). Globally, interaction techniques must be data; extensive research is required to improve able to adapt to complex parameters including realism and readability. Providing and acces- the context, difficulty and level of completion of sing ubiquitous computing resources means the task to be accomplished, as well as users’ adapting to the limits and variability of these physical and cognitive capabilities. Multi-scale resources. techniques must be developed, not only for In addition, D interaction with virtual universes structuring a virtual environment to address must develop and incorporate a better unders- graphic rendering problems, but also for D tanding of users (physiological and psycholo- interaction itself. The many possible fields of gical studies, biomechanical models, behavioral application include designing, producing and models and virtual tasks). This will help to maintaining manufactured goods and training improve multimodal 3D interaction (obtaining for technical as well as more cognitive tasks.8 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities Perception and synthesis open up new possi- of working relationships. This new type of Social bilities for interactions between individuals relationship will also affect associative and Interaction and social mediation. For example, the virtual political relationships. or physical avatar of a remote person may It is not hard to foresee that as today’s participate in a collaborative activity or in new sensory interaction capabilities are made situated learning methods during the course increasingly richer and more natural, such of normal professional situations. Within applications will improve in both quality and private social networks, people may wish to quantity, expanding collective intelligence maintain the same social contact they have in and the use of social mediation. This opens person when they are physically remote. This many new fields of research with respect to requires the development of light, easy-to-use designing, developing theories and expe- communication methods that indicate when rimenting with the uses provided by such the other person is present. They could signi- forms of mediation. INRIA wishes to form ficantly improve the independence of elderly partnerships, especially with researchers in or disabled individuals. Another possible the human and social sciences, to contribute application might involve several remote to solving them. individuals exploring and creating the same virtual environment together for engineering requirements, artistic purposes or leisure. Still another could revolve around a large-scale social simulation such as Second Life, where individuals exist virtually with a high degree of freedom, enabling them to create, produce and interact in a parallel economy that also has an effect on the real economy. Many new tools, new services and very open- ended new uses now rely on a very large community of hundreds of millions of internet users and on rapidly changing modes of interaction. The possibilities for expression, design and creation are increasing rapidly as inexpensive tools offer increasingly rich graphical possibilities and image capture, geo-localization, communication and computing resources become available in conjunction with software to input and efficiently process multiple services. The notion of collective intelligence, introduced by programmers’ forums to build shared experience, is illustrated by Wikipedia, an encyclopedia with over 10 million articles in 250 languages. This concept is now taking on practical dimensions in all sectors: geogra- phic exploration and the classification of planets and stars for the largest astronomical catalogue ever designed; expert services and technical problem-solving via enginee- ring, design and functional test services for new products; marketing and simulation services and large-scale economic, political and social studies. The companies behindGRIMAGE, a virtual reality platform these new types of services rely on largerat INRIA Grenoble Research Center. and larger communities, creating new forms Strategic Plan 2008-2012 9
    • .1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds Key Challenges i Real-Time Semantic categorization usually consider only the textual component in indoor and outdoor environments, as The challenge here is to devise a portable of documents. The challenge here is to make well as open architectures that are easy vision system able to categorize seman- use of entire documents and to obtain answers for untrained individuals to reconfigure tically the contents of an indoor scene to questions asked in natural language, written and use. One or several research actions in real time and interpret the actions of or oral, without using requests that presup- aimed at significant demonstrations will people as they move. Consider a video pose partial knowledge of the answer. This will be conducted for this challenge. camera operator filming a room: users involve users in an interactive, learning-based may wish to interpret the video stream consultation process, customize searches, i Assistance and Service Robotics in light of the objects in the room, their and consider the context of the request, for in a Human Environment spatial relationships, the type of scene example to give more focused answers for environment. Such systems can be being viewed and the activities taking business consultations by specialists. We wish deployed in various contexts such as place. INRIA’s teams are currently deve- to be able to exploit all intelligible results towns, public places and homes to supply loping geometric and statistical models (not just complete documents), supported services such as domestic help and assis- of images, objects, scenes and actions to by references determining their relevancy, tance with mobility. serve as the words and grammar of this and to significantly improve the performance These systems must be able to learn, adapt, language, techniques for learning models of online access to multimedia documents and interact naturally and ergonomically in categories of interest, and efficient with audio, musical, language and video in an open and constantly changing envi- methods for finding instances of these components (recordings of meetings, radio ronment. They must functionally integrate models in image databases, video and and television programs, texts) in terms of the perception/action loops, modeling, control/ perhaps audio streams. Problems include interfaces used (interrogation modes, delivery command and cognitive functions. Their the natural variability of the shape and of results) and the volumes processed. design must take into account the constraints the appearance of the objects in the scene, of robustness, operating safety, and uncer- the characteristic difficulty of building a i Independence for the tainty management. Scientific work for this “visual language” and the volume of data Elderly and Disabled challenge will focus on these various func- to be handled. How can elderly and disabled persons live tions that occur in the human environment more independently? This may require assis- and seek to integrate them with cognitive i Multimodal Consultation tance with mobility and daily tasks, methods demands, modeling and commands. of Multimedia Data of surveillance and easy and natural inte- From an experimental point of view, this It is still fairly difficult to access selectively raction with loved ones, and a heightened challenge will lead to demonstrations in the enormous volumes of information sense of belonging to a family or professional realistic contexts, such as assistance for available over the Web. The document community. Many challenges involve techno- movement in public places, including as the main search unit, is not precise logy for actuators and relatively non-invasive fixed infrastructures (cooperative or enough. Search engines do not correctly sensors (audio, visual and biomedical) that enhanced environment) and heteroge- process requests on semantic content, and can be worn by people or else fixed or mobile neous robotic technologies.70 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities 3.2 Computational Sciences and Engineering Science and engineering methods and tools for modeling, experimenting and designing are changing radically, as exemplified in the in-silico experiments and virtual prototyping approaches. This results from the developments of representations and algorithms for modeling, simulation, imaging, signal processing and visualization. To contribute to these developments, INRIA has three strategic priorities for: • Computational Engineering; • Computational Sciences; • Computational Medicine. These three priorities represent an ambitious goal for ICST in the advancement of science and technology. It is an interdisciplinary ambition covering several scientific fields to which the Institute will contribute, in its own domain, in partnership with other organizations. Integrative research actions will be encouraged, particularly in computational medicine, where the objective is to bridge the gap from biology to medical technology. These three priorities correspond to distinct but overlapping focuses. The life sciences are naturally present in computational sciences, in cellular biology, animal and plant biology and bioinformatics, while an integrated perspective naturally includes medical biology in computational medicine. Medical technology also includes a clear engineering component. The dividing lines between these three priorities should not be over-simplified. Topics such as computational neuroscience, for example, which have been included in the third priority due to the large number of medical applications involved, are also highly relevant in computational sciences. Finally, the links between these three priorities and the four preceding ones, on Modeling, Programming, Communication and Interaction, are very productive, particularly in defining certain challenges. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 71
    • .2.1 Computational Engineering 3.2.1 Computational Engineering72 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Most manufactured items now exist computationally before they exist materially. This computational design was initially focused on the geometry of an object’s parts (CAD models). Today, computational engineering has to move further towards multi-physical (mechanical, electrical, thermal) and functional models for each component of an object to be designed, and towards the composition of the components models into a global design according to the object’s overall functio- nal, non-functional (reliability, safety, maintainability, cost) and life-cycle properties (the so-called Product Life Cycle Management approach). This ambition raises major challenges for designing and developing complete computational specifications for an object, from the drawing up of the initial models to their implementing in simula- tion, optimization, virtual prototyping, testing and qualification, up to the automatic synthesis of software controlling the object’s production and behavior. Many everyday objects and all complex systems include software and processors that use sensors, actuators and communication capabilities to extend the object’s functions, improve its performance and operating conditions, and meet require- ments in terms of safety, ergonomics, mobility, robustness and reliability. Only 2% of the 1010 processors (CPUs) sold in 2005 were in computers; 98% were imbedded into various other objects. Many chemical and physical sensors – gas, pressure, temperature, acceleration, distance, video, and RFID labels – are embedded in cir- cuits along with processing and signal transmission units. Likewise, an increasing number of actuators are available, embedded in gear mechanisms, sensors, com- putational and energy management controllers. More and more, objects are capable of wireless communication and able to communicate and function in a distributed mode. These software and hardware components, implemented in an object, are embedded systems. They are embedded in transportation systems (avionics and space systems, of course, as well as rail transportation and cars), in everyday objects (home automation, household, cultural and leisure equipment) and in industrial and medical equipment; people can also wear them. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 7
    • .2.1 Computational Engineering INRIA wishes to support the development and embedded systems. The main focus in of computational engineering throughout achieving this objective will be on systems the entire design and life cycle of an object. embedded onboard physical objects, which This involves establishing the basic building rely heavily on computational engineering, blocks for a global engineering approach, from with high constraints in terms of critical modeling the object, its functions and desired behavior, dynamics and safety. This cate- behavior and its architectural design, to virtual gory of problems, of interest to automatic prototyping and synthesizing its embedded control specialists and computer scientists, software. This ambition is consistent with vital is particularly relevant for all transportation economic issues for industry in France and systems. Europe. It is based on the previous priorities, To clarify our objectives, we will discuss in particular with respect to: several essential functions in the following • modeling: physical (mechanical, elec- section: models of the physical object, trical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.), dynamic the architecture of the embedded system, and command models; software synthesis, validation and verification, • programming: formal programming and the object’s life-cycle. Computational and proof techniques, compilation, engineering requires that all of these func- source code synthesis, reliability, safety, tions be highly integrated, which is one of harmlessness; the scientific and technical challenges in • communication: distributed high perfor- this area, in particular when co-designing mance data and computing, collaborative hardware and software. Industrial partnership design; is the natural extension of interdisciplinary • interactions: signal and image processing, partnership, and it is crucial for the twin prio- visualization, virtual reality, interfaces to rities of computational science and medicine. support design. INRIA will develop roadmaps and take indus- The Institute aims to combine these four trial imperatives into account in its scientific avenues for the development of compu- strategy, including essential international tational engineering targeting software standards in this area. INRIA’s Position Some fifteen INRIA project-teams are In this area, the Institute’s teams benefit projects, some of which fall under the heavily involved and highly visible in from the Scilab-Scicos chain, which covers ARTEMISIA initiative. these research topics. In the field of syn- everything from computing to simulation The very computer science and automatic chronous languages, the “French school”, and can be extended with Syndex to code control communities have traditionally within INRIA especially, has made many synthesis for various architectural confi- claimed the fields of fault detection, outstanding scientific contributions, gurations. quantitative risk assessment, the relia- including some which have led to such The Institute also participates in competi- bility of instrumented and programmed high-value spin-offs as Esterel Techno- tiveness clusters dedicated to applications systems, safe system design processes, logies and TNI-Software. The Institute for embedded systems. Some of the most supervision, diagnosis, adaptation and is also successful in other fields such as important include Aerospace Valley, focusing reconfiguration techniques for deployed compilation and formal methods, and on avionics and space systems, System@ systems and prevention and protection has produced many high-quality software tic, for embedded systems in automobiles, against computer attacks. Joint work in packages such as the CADP toolbox. Minalogic, which addresses problems on the this area must be fostered and encouraged Another area of INRIA involvement is scale of microsystems (SoC), and SCS for in order to provide solutions with signifi- automatic control and computing for traceability, RFID and security. In Europe, cantly better performance than those that modeling, in particular dynamic systems. the Institute is involved in several joint either community could create alone.74 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities Designing and modeling physical objects complex objects are based on designs which Designing requires the integration of multi-physical (mechanical, electrical, thermal, electro- combine or even reuse existing compo- nents. In order to do this, a description of and Modeling magnetic) models of the object and of its the components and the block diagrams Physical Objects desired behavior, reliability and security in a multi-level simulation that can predict its showing how these components are arrayed must be associated with specific properties properties and accomplish the initial stages of composition. A new component concept of virtual prototyping. will be needed for automatic control showing The difficulties are the same as those of how to assemble closed control loops while multi-physical and multi-scale modeling. maintaining the correct properties for the Integration of component models for the entire object (stability is not a compositional object creates its own challenges. Of course, property). Embedded system architecture has several in particular the non-determinism inherent to Embedded aspects: the communication and computa- tion model, the combined specifications and multicore processors). Of course, architecture affects an object’s System design of hardware and software components overall functional properties. For example, Architecture for the embedded system, the elements ensuring fault tolerance, operating systems the robustness of command laws depends on control distribution characteristics: the impact and associated executables. of latency, jitter and perhaps loss. These in One basic problem involves resolving the turn affect non-functional properties, such as various temporal mechanisms used in dependability, resources (dissipated energy), communications: synchronous, asynchro- maintainability, the cost of production and use nous, sampled, and perhaps at different levels of the object. Command techniques based of the architecture in hybrid communication on automatic control can be used to actively models. The resulting properties, for example control certain significant variables (sampling, in terms of blocking or non-blocking commu- communication modes, scheduling, power) nications, impose significant constraints in situations with limited resources. on embedded software engineering. These All of these issues must be studied in order temporal mechanisms are at the heart of to move toward a computational enginee- embedded operating systems, which pose ring environment with which designers can specific problems. explore a design space providing different Currently, a radical change in processor architec- architectural options: the communication ture is underway: their performance is improving model, number and performance of proces- by adding more cores rather than accelerating sors, software organization, task scheduling, clock speed. This technological change has etc. A method must be developed for compa- led to component-hosted parallelism and has ring these architectural options with one had a general impact on programming and another and to specifications and means to software architecture. Its effects have been assess them. This requires precise metrics, especially noticeable in embedded systems, which is a significant and still largely an with potential gains in specialized proces- open problem. sing, performance and safety. These changes have opened wide avenues for research into programming and code compilation for these new processors, highlighting the need for an innovative way to reconcile demands for relia-CYBERCAR, a fully automated city vehicle bility and performance in real-time embeddedat INRIA Rocquencourt Research Center. systems with the increasing non-determinism of the architectures on which they rely (and Strategic Plan 2008-2012 75
    • .2.1 Computational Engineering Computational engineering uses the models consumption, and that respond to the unique Embedded developed in the previous design stages to produce executable codes that conform to characteristics of processors and architec- ture, especially multicore architecture, for Software system specifications. Moving from automatic control and computational simulation models which parallel processing should be occurring automatically; Synthesis to embedded code is one specific, central • algorithm synthesis for certified source code; goal for this priority. Given the critical nature • the static nature of many embedded codes, of the systems concerned, it is essential to with a fixed memory allocation, which simpli- the scientific objectives being developed in fies verification. the area of programming. Other objectives are Lastly, it is important to emphasize that more specific and include the following: software synthesis is closely linked with • compilation techniques that meet the specific hardware and system architecture synthesis. constraints of embedded applications, for This is particularly relevant for the design of example limited response time or low energy Systems-On-Chips (SoCs). One issue in this area involves verifying the ties using model checking, static analysis, Software functional properties of a physical object based on the models previously described, and abstract interpretation methods, whose performance and scope need to be expanded. Validation and and in particular verifying its dynamic beha- vior. The development of tests to accomplish Both source codes and object code must be checked. Given this requirement, developing Verification this verification is a problem for automatic certified compilers and machines is an impor- control; it has received little attention to date tant objective. and remains essentially unresolved. The verification of non-functional properties, A second problem specific to computer in particular dependability, raises other funda- science involves verifying software proper- mental problems that are dealt with below. The requirements for dependability and • specific data protection requirements in the Dependability compliance with reference standards have a considerable impact on embedded system event of attacks or malfunction (the “fail securely” principle). and Security architectures. INRIA’s contribution to these There is still no solution as to how to forma- areas comes in the form of formal specification lize these “dysfunctional” requirements and methods and proof-based engineering. include them in formal methods. Architects of complex systems understand INRIA will also contribute to the area of the importance and the difficulty of speci- modeling and verifying the architecture of fying conditions for logically and temporally systems that meet processing requirements correct execution. Specifications must take while experiencing faults or attacks. Current into account elements such as: research into model-based engineering and • distributed-system fault models (lost model transformation techniques must be messages, arcane breakdowns in processing continued, focusing specifically on the difficult components, asynchronous behavior); issue of testing. • hardware platforms that are increasingly Finally, research into sound software veri- complex and include local components fication techniques for embedded critical with non-deterministic behavior; functions on hardware circuits is needed for • placements and routings on these new non- verifying hardware components and imple- deterministic hardware architectures; menting secure hardware design flows.7 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities Supervision and diagnosis functions are hardware components. Intermittent faults Life-Cycle, designed based on the safety and reliability properties of all previous engineering stages, and drift raise specific problems. Specific modeling for the needs of supervision and Supervision, for example: • designing reliable systems, studying fault diagnosis must be applied starting with the initial design stage, in particular when the Diagnosis, trees and assessing failure risks; system is under-instrumented. Reconfiguration • closely studying the risk of failure propa- gation according to operating modes, and Systems must be reconfigured after a diagnosed fault (for example by isolating aand Maintenance combined reliability and functional design study; sensor or getting rid of a redundant element) in order for the main operation to continue, • designing fault-tolerant architecture, with perhaps with lower performance, when main- redundancy and voting protocols for super- tenance intervention is not possible (space vision during operation. systems) or can be postponed. In addition, procedures must be developed Research problems in this area involve deve- for supervising the overall operating condi- loping non-nominal operating models and tion of the artifact, identifying anomalies, using them to meet supervision, diagnosis diagnosing their sources and isolating faulty and reconfiguration requirements. Key Challengesi Virtual Prototyping Platform expected to cover computational engineering i Integrating Model- and Component-The objective here is to develop a flexible, technologies, synchronous and asynchronous Based Approachesopen, experimental research platform languages, verification and validation tech- This challenge relates to developing awhich will enable us to explore new design niques, code synthesis and the exploration component-based architecture designprocesses for embedded systems, provi- of architecture design areas. method for critical embedded systems withding extensive possibilities for virtual difficult real-time constraints, that enablesprototyping, from the design phase for the integration of a model-based approachmodels of the physical object to the exe- and a component-based approach forcution architecture to be embedded. It is middleware and execution platforms. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 77
    • .2.2 Computational Sciences 3.2.2 Computational Sciences78 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Biology, physics, chemistry, and other fields such as earth and environ- mental sciences, address increasingly complex processes combining the inte- raction of many different phenomena; each phenomenon need to be understood using specific approaches and mathematical representations. This complexity can be mastered by using several complementary analytical techniques in com- bination within a single, integrative approach. The possibilities for computatio- nal integration of multi-physical and multi-scale models, combined with rich measurement capabilities, multi-sensory data fusion and processing possibili- ties, and access to vast stores of data and powerful computation and visuali- zation codes, create very promising prospects for the development of scientific knowledge in most disciplines. In addition to the major scientific challenges of this area, there are also educa- tional, training and social issues at stake. Hopefully, massive access over the Web to simulation, real-life visualization and interaction tools will broaden the interest of many science lovers, make science popular again and encourage society as a whole to participate in culture and scientific debate. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 79
    • .2.2 Computational Sciences This section describes some of the major stochastic mathematic representations within areas in which ICST and INRIA can make an algorithms and software components; important contribution to the material, life and • creating equipment and measurement tools environmental sciences. These challenges for a broad range of phenomena, on a large are very diverse, ranging from atoms and scale if necessary, for example on compu- molecules, cells and organs, up to indivi- tational ecology sensor networks; duals, populations, biotopes and the entire • processing and automatically interpreting planet. They relate to computational material, data using multi-sensory fusion; computational cells, computational plants, • combining models and data in real time, computational ecology, and the computa- calibration, validation, classification of tional biosphere and environment. Naturally, uncertainties; INRIA will work toward these interdisciplinary • visualizing and manipulating predictions in a objectives in cooperation with expert labora- multimodal manner, designing and planning tories at universities and organizations such experiments, analyzing long term scenarios as the CNRS, INRA, INSERM, and CEA. The for change, and performing essential in-silico Institute’s objectives are ambitious in terms of experiments, particularly when live experi- computational integration, but they are clearly mentation is impossible or too complex. focused on applied mathematics and computer INRIA’s ambition is to make significant contri- science, in particular in the following areas: butions to these research topics, specifi- • developing direct and inverse mathematical cally through its Modeling priority, which models; is strongly concerned. The two priorities of • creating effective algorithms to respond to Communication and Interaction are also the explosive growth of multi-scale model highly relevant, particularly for ubiquitous dimensions and effectively mapping these computing and visualization. The Institute algorithms on intensive computing platforms, aims to combine contributions produced within grids and suitable architectures; these priorities with multi-disciplinary research • computationally integrating heterogeneous, efforts involving partners in the material, life differential, geometric, combinatorial and and environmental sciences. From the nanoscopic scale to everyday objects account the complexity of these phenomena, Computational and large structures, progress in the design and the way they interact and are superposed Material of materials relies heavily on computational simulation. Material science has demonstrated on various scales to produce different quali- tative effects on a macroscopic level. This the crucial role of the relationship between the applies, for example, to biocompatible mate- microstructure and properties of materials. For rials for medical use, adaptive materials (shape example, refining the microstructure and/or memory alloys) and piezoelectric ceramics. reducing grain size is one way to optimize Lastly, modeling and computational simula- the properties of a material and adapt them tion of the complex phenomena that occur to a specific function. Combining components during manufacturing processes (vibrations, within a composite material provides excep- instabilities, etc.) can be used to improve tional physical and mechanical properties. those processes. Material mechanics has also developed micro- On the atomic level, new materials using mechanical modeling tools to computationally metallic, ceramic, semi-conducting, supramo- simulate the behavior of materials according lecular or polymer components are profoundly to descriptions of basic physical mechanisms changing many technological sectors, from (slip systems, phase transformation, etc.), thus micro and nanosystems (MEMS, NEMS, improving our understanding of them. New NOEMS) to transportation, and from housing materials can only be designed by taking into to healthcare and energy. In the field of energy,80 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities for example, new materials for photovoltaic thermal and mechanical properties of the cells and fuel cells are expected to produce material. However, this approach raises many substantial progress. Another example is the questions for ICST: data from very different thin film and nitride, borate and lithium niobate measurement devices must be collated and crystals that can enable optical functions with the reliability and relevance of simulations a very high capacity for storing high-density assessed. In addition, when dealing with atoms, information. computing costs will be prohibitive unless Such progress raises many interdisciplinary dedicated algorithms can be developed for questions, particularly in developing mode- use on large computing grids able to interact ling and multi-scale computing techniques with one another. for nano-simulation materials – INRIA’s main priorities in the field. Complex materials require both micro-level analysis of atoms and of the basic chemical forces caused by interactions between electrons (governed by quantum models), and macro-level analysis of the mechanics of heterogeneous continuous environments. In addition to meshing, the entire field of modeling and simulation must be applied at the nanometric scale (the best-known objects on this scale are carbon nanowires and nanotubes). Simulation must be used as much as possible, both in studying and designing nano-components and in “assembling” them to produce usable devices. Simulation using physics and chemistry-based models can beGeometrical modeling of a nano structure used to assess the consequences of choicesmaterial — GAMMA. in terms of the electrical, magnetic, optical, Up to now, bioinformatics has focused mainly to grow in importance, giving rise to new Computational on processing and mining systems for large approaches using new data, which will require Cells data and knowledge bases and genome analysis. This field will continue to develop new algorithm and computing methods and generate research topics, which fall within by substantially improving existing techni- INRIA’s objectives. ques (genome and metagenome sequencing) At the multicellular level, the aim is to esta- and continuing to develop new technologies blish models accurately describing the (DNA chips, mass spectrometry, Chromatin exchanges of energy and signals used to ImmunoPrecipitation-on-Chip) that produce coordinate cells, their motility, migrations, new types of data. These developments will splits, differentiation and apoptosis, to turn expand the current role of bioinformatics in these models into effective algorithms and biological studies and their applications. integrate them. These scientific challenges Above all, they will create new prospects and involve key issues in medicine, pharma- improve the quality of genome knowledge. cology, agronomy and animal production Eukaryotic genome sequencing will continue science. at an ever-faster rate in the coming years, Cellular exchange must first be understood at like the recent developments in sequencing the biochemical and molecular level. Myosin hundreds of bacteria and Archaea genomes. and other cell regulatory proteins that play a Comparative genomics will therefore continue key role in these exchanges convert energy Strategic Plan 2008-2012 81
    • .2.2 Computational Sciences chemically and mechanically through changes changes on a molecular level (for example in molecular formation. Kinetic models rely through drugs) affect the temporal-spatial on analyses of molecular structures from processes of tissue regeneration. crystallographic imaging data, RMN and As has already been stated, we are not electronic microscopy. Structural algo- seeking to develop one single, generic cell rithmic biology studies the links between model. Many types of models will be neces- structure, space and topology and macro- sary depending on the types of cells studied molecular function. It raises a large number and the applications for which these models of questions for computational geometry are used. In pharmacological research, for and motion planning, for example how to example, predicting the effects of a molecule reconstruct and model the interface areas in on a cell population will require models, which biochemical contact to ascertain constraints are suited to the physiological role of these and flexibility and to analyze admissible cells and the genetic activity of the enzymes, conformations, allowable relative motion and their different metabolisms (energy, hormonal) docking possibilities, which are essential to and their ability to proliferate. One objective the functional expression of molecules. in terms of computational integration is to Genetics and functional genomics expand organize and formalize the vast and growing these structural biology models to protein body of models, data and knowledge and gene expression mechanisms and the dynamic develop effective combinations. This inte- links within gene interaction networks. All of gration should produce substantial advances the proteins expressed at a given moment in scientific knowledge and progress for within a cell (the proteome) participate in agronomical, pharmaceutical, medical and a range of intracellular processes (inhibi- veterinary technology. tion, regulation, amplification) and threshold INRIA is already involved in several of the phenomena, which are usually, viewed as preceding ICST topics, combining dynamic non-linear dynamics. Epigenetic regulation and active intracellular imaging with geome- mechanisms make these processes even tric, combinatorial and graph algorithms, more complex, requiring a systematic, inte- constraints, temporal logic and automatic grative, biological approach to representa- control. The Institute wishes to redouble tions and computing tools to be developed for its efforts to improve understanding of the use in describing the rules of basic interac- cell in cooperation with its partners in the tions, as well as in modeling and simulating life sciences. the global dynamics which these interactions may cause in cell cycles and in the cell’s responses to constraints and signals from its environment. Other types of modeling are needed to establish computational models of cells, for example models of cytoskeleton defor- mation, which allows a cell to move (moti- lity), cell migration mechanisms, intracellular exchanges and cell population dynamics. For example, the unstructured cell popula- tions in tumors and in regenerating tissues such as the liver and skin present a strong coupling of spatial architecture and func- tion. In the liver, the cells (hepatocytes) are structured in columns and layers to ensure optimal exchange of substances between the blood and hepatocytes. Data analysis Study of the interface of a complex from and mathematical modeling methods on a the immune system: a nano-peptide wide variety of temporal-spatial scales are caught between two proteins. required to predict how intrinsic or extrinsic82 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities One fundamental problem for sustainable course interdisciplinary links with botany, Computational development is mastering the many causes agronomy and genetics. Plants of soil erosion, impoverishment and pollution from over farming and overuse of fertilizers Developing and integrating effective models on different levels, combining deterministic and pesticides. Agricultural production needs and stochastic components and enabling can be met without compromising sustainable inverse problems to be solved effectively development if the needs of both plants and are key challenges. By meeting them, we their environment are taken into account should be able to progress from modeling an over the long term. This is the challenge of individual plant to modeling a plot of many “computational plants”. different plants or species, or study the inte- INRIA’s objective is to develop and integrate ractions of plants with insect populations. growth models for plants and the many ways ICST offers a way to expand computational they interact with their environment. In the plant models to cover seed selection, crop field of agronomics, this involves unders- density optimization, control of fertilizer and tanding the mechanisms of organogenesis, pesticide input, and planning, environmental photosynthesis, production and spread of development and its visualization. biomass; soil water and mineral resources; In the field of computational plants, INRIA atmospheric exchanges (light, humidity, is also interested in modeling the growth of temperature, wind, oxygen, carbonic gases) phytoplankton and controlling the growth of and the other physical constraints to which micro-algae. Some phytoplankton species a plant is subject (mass breakdown, incline, are capable of absorbing carbonic gases and etc.). The challenge for biological modeling is discharging them at the bottom of the ocean. to analyze the genetic structures and develo- Known models for these processes are incom- pment mechanisms of meristems. ICST topics plete, fail to match observations and need to affected by this research include applied be reviewed, in particular for calcification,Simulation of tree growth mathematics, automatic control, computer photosynthesis and warming mechanisms.— VIRTUAL PLANTS. graphics, geometry, combinatorics and of Micro-algae offer a promising source of biofuel INRIA’s PositionINRIA’s expertise in modeling, computa- nisms underlying the dynamic workings of CEA, the Institut Curie and the NIH.tional simulation and scientific computing cells. For example, modeling, simulation and Plant growth modeling is being developedis already recognized. The Institute is analysis of gene regulation networks have in partnership with Inra, CIRAD andalso an expert in meshing, particularly been used to understand the response of IFN. Agricultural landscape simulationnon-structured meshing. Through its various bacteria to nutritional stress caused (one application of which is improvedwork with physicists specializing in nanos- by the network of interactions between its control of the use of GM crops), mode-cience, it may contribute significantly to genes, proteins and small molecules. Mode- ling and control of plankton growth indeveloping the “computational material” ling the cell cycle has led to optimization a chemostat and modeling microbialof the future. algorithms for therapy schedules that account ecosystems leading to waste water depol-As bioinformatics and the life sciences for the circadian rhythm of the drug’s enzyme lution processes are just a few examplesexpand in scope, several INRIA project- mechanisms, its genetic polymorphism, and of the contributions to computationalteams are working on studying the interac- descriptions of normal and tumoral growth ecology made in partnership with Inrations between genes and their products in of cell populations in homogeneous tissues. and Ifremer.order to understand the regulatory mecha- The main partners in the field are the Inserm, Strategic Plan 2008-2012 8
    • .2.2 Computational Sciences production: if their biological processes can production energy. Research will focus on be properly modeled and understood, they developing realistic models of interactions should produce much higher yields than those between species and substrates, producing from terrestrial plants. The Institute will work biogases, and designing control strategies to develop complex microbial ecosystems for effective depollution and optimization of for use in treating polluting substrates and energy production. This is a particularly important interdiscipli- and computing, sensor networks, geogra- Computational nary field at a time when the environment is changing rapidly and significantly. Input from phic information systems and geographic visualization. The Institute wishes to apply Ecology ICST is crucial to computational ecology some of this work to the interdisciplinary for integrating heterogeneous models and field of computational ecology. combining them with geographic informa- tion systems, geo-referenced data, sensor networks and environmental observation systems. The Institute aims to integrate animal popu- lation models at various trophic levels, for example differential models for insect or plankton populations, spatially structured models for reptile, fish or amphibian popu- lations, and individual models for species at higher trophic levels, such as birds of prey and large mammals. Each model describes the changes in a population according to its biotope, reproductive and feeding charac- teristics and its prey-predator relationships. Computational interactions between diverse populations (with one another and with the environment) can be used to study the responses of an ecological system to attacks from natural (fire, floods, etc.) or human (deforestation, farming, urban expansion) sources, and to develop effective conser- vation measures. Microbial ecology also raises issues relating to the density and distribution of microbial species, their competition and interactions with a substrate. Models of these systems are essential in designing control methods and techniques for treating waste and polluted water and depollution using an anaerobic process with optimal conversion of organic waste into energy. Counting flamingos in aerial images INRIA is involved in several complemen- — ARIANA. tary areas of research that could relate to computational ecology, such as modeling84 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities The biosphere is the part of the atmosphere, in public awareness campaigns for preventiveThe Biosphere and earth and oceans that supports life; studying it combines the two previous subject areas action over the long and even shorter term that demands significant investment as wellthe Computational with climatology, geology and oceanography, as political and social commitment. Environment and involves widely disparate scales. Much is at stake: the accumulation of greenhouse Computational environmental models require solutions for observation, modeling, data gases, global warming, changes in rainfall and assimilation, forecasting and monitoring over distribution of fresh water, desertification of highly variable time frames (from real-time certain areas, rising sea levels and changes to very long term) with many interdependent in coastlines, all of which affects the majority processes. These can include geophysical of the human population. flow, circulation, exchanges and matter and The Institute intends to develop forecasting energy transformation. For instance, in atmos- capabilities for use in designing and deploying pheric chemistry, complex gas kinetics, air strategies prevention and adaptation, which mass movements and thermal exchanges are critical in light of the inevitable changes are being studied in order to monitor local, underway. Computational environmental regional and more global pollution. In hydro- models will be used to analyze risk assessment logy, the conditions of water runoff and scenarios for environmental policies or the lack evaporation, soil absorption and erosion thereof. Using demonstrative visualization and the agronomical and ecological impact capabilities, these models can also be used of developments (urban, hydrological, etc.) Key Challenges i Protein Docking division cycle on the scale of a cell popula- experimental observations. The physio- The objective here is to gain a better unders- tion, as well as physiological (hormones, logical model should also be useful in tanding of the cooperative mechanisms of growth factors) and pharmacological stimuli. agronomical forecasts, depending on the protein folding and docking by developing Applications could include cancerology, for environment, and crop management: this methods for analyzing biophysical data developing systemic biological models of is one of the objectives of a source-sink (crystallography, RMN) and simulation metabolic cell networks and of disturbances model. Support through experimenta- data (molecular dynamics). The challenge to physiological control in tumoral cells. tion on cultivated plants will be a further will be achieved if such developed methods touchstone in this area. The work will be are validated within experiments forecas- i Plant Agrobiological Models developed by studying typical plants such ting the structure of a protein complex from Plants grow through a coordinated set of as arabidopsis and rice. isolated partners (CAPRI experiment) and physical, molecular and cell processes whose This challenge has two components: those forecasting the structure of a protein complex interactions remain unclear. One modeling in order to better understand from its sequence (CASP experiment). objective in this area is building mechanistic the biology of plant growth, with long models to better understand how the shape term impact on selection and on varietal i Cell Dynamics and identity of a leaf, flower or meristem can improvement, and predictive modeling We wish to develop cell signaling reduced emerge from the integration of these mecha- of production, crop practices and the models for several important biological and nisms and how these are controlled by genes response of plants to climate variations medical applications. These models must and/or the environment. Computer experi- (CO2 levels in the atmosphere, tempera- include energy metabolism and physiolo- mentation will be used to compare various ture, precipitations). gical regulation (gene expression, protein hypotheses on the underlying mechanisms status, any enzyme activity) within the cell and support the models’ predictions with Strategic Plan 2008-2012 85
    • .2.2 Computational Sciences and catastrophes (spates) are modeled. In lite imaging and geo-referenced data. Data coastal oceanography, research into tides and acquisition requires solutions for representa- currents is used to study pollution and shore- tion and adequate algorithms for identifying line development. In general, studying the and monitoring the movements of interesting interactions between ocean and atmosphere phenomena, which can be applied to early is vital to understanding ocean circulation and detection of disasters. It also requires an effort its climatic and ecological impact. Physical to optimize the observation system; and biological environmental models must • modeling, and more specifically combining also be merged, for example the biological heterogeneous representations, assimilating phytoplankton models mentioned previously incomplete, imprecise and uncertain data, in the field of oceanography. and qualifying models (see .1.1); In this vast field of research, INRIA and its • early detection, monitoring rapid phenomena partners will focus specifically on the following and slow drifts, improving diagnosis; ICST-related issues: • in-silico experimentation, assistance in plan- • observation, using fixed or mobile sensor ning and environmental risk management; networks (balloons, floating probes), satel- • viewing long term environmental changes. Hydraulics of the Pearl river (China) — MOISE.8 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities Strategic Plan 2008-2012 87
    • .2. Computational Medicine 3.2.3 Computational Medicine 88 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities The field of medicine and human biology offers many scientific and technological challenges. It covers significant health-related social issues, which also have major economic implications. INRIA’s stated scientific ambition in the field is to contribute to the transition from knowledge expressed as collections of cases, describing the highly complex reality of living beings, to mathematical models explaining and forecasting the mechanisms involved in a given biomedical process. This priority focuses on a multi-disciplinary contribution to biomedical observation, modeling and simula- tion at all levels, leading to a better understanding of human biology and also to diagnosis, design, implementation and optimization of new therapies. The Institute intends to focus specifically on a few important categories of pathology, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative and nervous system diseases. This priority is the natural extension of the preceding ones, in particular mode- ling, interaction and computational sciences. There is a continuum between the biology issues presented here, which focus on human biology, and those presented as part of the previous priority, which cover other aspects of animal and plant biology and bioinformatics. Other promising links between medical technology and computational engineering can also be seen, for example in the development of systems to assist and compensate for motor or sensory impair- ments (prostheses, neuroprostheses). Strategic Plan 2008-2012 89
    • .2. Computational Medicine This priority has two aims combining science INRIA’s scientific and technological ambitions and technology: cover a broad range of multi-disciplinary topics • tightly coupling the observation, modeling requiring expertise in applied mathematics, and assimilation of biological data to create signal and image processing, automatic control a thorough description and accurate measu- and computer science. The Institute’s research rements of living beings by developing and scientists, in partnership with biologists, using new biological, medical and multi- doctors, chemists and physicists, will speci- sensory fusion imaging and observation fically address problems relating to imaging, methods. The models designed must be modeling, computing and simulations, at the just as complex as the observations they molecular, cellular, anatomic, functional and cover if the models are to be reversed for physiological levels. data assimilation, and their precision and In biological and medical imaging, the properties correctly qualified; Institute will work to improve control of the • combining biology and medicine. These various means of in-vivo data acquisition: precise, personalized, clinically qualified intracellular imaging, confocal microscopy, biological models will be used to develop optical imaging, anatomic and functional medical and pharmacological technolo- magnetic resonance imaging, magneto-ence- gies for predicting change, detecting and phalography, x-ray tomodensitometry and diagnosing conditions, stimulating physical positron emission tomography. This involves and biochemical actions and measuring developing complete algorithms for processing their effects, commanding prostheses, and interpreting images and signals stem- planning, optimizing and providing assis- ming from the use of these various methods, Simulation of heart dynamics — MACS. tance for therapy protocols and surgical and then merging them with one another or interventions. with complementary biomedical signals (ECG, INRIA’s Position Over twenty INRIA project-teams are Naturally, INRIA relies on national and inter- At the European level, INRIA has many focusing on this priority. Another twenty national partnerships, which are essential in academic connections, for example with project-teams are working on related sub- this multi-disciplinary field. Within France, Guy’s Hospital in London, the Swiss Insti- jects relevant to this field, from meshing, its main relationships are with Inserm, Inra, tute of Bioinformatics and the Weizmann modeling, probability and geometry issues CEA-DSV (as part of the Neurospin plat- Institute. These relationships will no doubt to learning and robotics. Nationwide col- form), the Institut Pasteur, Institut Curie, be consolidated as part of the work on the laborative research work is underway for hospital departments and the CNRS. INRIA is Virtual Physiological Human described in the objectives described here. The Institute a member of the Institute of Complex Systems the 7th FP. On an international level, the is drawing on a long tradition of research scientific interest group, and a founder of the Institute is developing a close working and strong, internationally recognized skills Rhone-Alps Infectiology Therapeutic Inno- relationship with the NIH, in particular in modeling and scientific computing as vations RTRA advanced research network. with its National Institute of Biomedical well as in vision and image processing. Collaboration within these institutions, for Imaging and Bioengineering. A great deal of software is available to which it provides modeling and computing support INRIA’s work on this topic, and support, will be relevant for this topic. In several software packages have been used in addition, the Institute has several industrial industrial applications, generally through partnerships, which will be developed as part spin-offs. of this priority.90 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • P riorities EEG, flow and pressure measurements, etc.). analysis, geometric and probabilistic compu- The objective is to acquire anatomical and ting techniques are closely tied to biology, functional data with the best possible spatial chemistry and physics. and temporal resolutions. This increasingly The ambition to combine biology and medicine complex data cannot continue to be interpreted requires customized models, which in turn using visual means alone. A quantitative and demands the development of computational possibly stochastic interpretation may help anatomy and computational physiology. The to manage the acquisition and measurement former uses anatomical statistics to determine processes; it may be combined with diagnostic the normal variations between individuals for aid and therapy processes. Intracellular and a given organ, clearly distinguish these varia- tissue imaging may be used to identify cellular tions from pathological deviations, and detect and intercellular signaling paths used in the such deviations in medical images and data. molecule metabolism, both endogenous and In the latter, customized physiological models exogenous, and in cell proliferation, and thus would be used to explain and predict functional to develop and validate the models needed properties, explore the incidence of physical to understand living beings and design and conditions and perfect therapies. For example, optimize new therapies. in cancerology, pharmaceutical genetic studies Modeling and biomedical data assimila- using DNA chips could be used to prescribe tion will focus on processes in cells, organs, customized chemotherapy. complex functions (for example cardiovas- For medical technologies, INRIA’s ambition is cular or locomotive functions) and organisms. to build on its algorithmic research into imaging They will include both anatomical (structural) and modeling to help develop techniques and physiological (functional) representa- for prevention, detection and quantitative tions and heterogeneous data. For example, diagnosis, forecasting changes, simulation, a cardiovascular system model may include regulation and optimization of therapies. combined geometrical, biomechanical and Several of these objectives are inseparably bioelectrical representations with fluid dyna- linked to one another. Others require comple- mics and cardiac muscle perfusion. mentary research, for example into the appli- Solving inverse problems for such models cation of virtual reality to therapy, into surgical using estimation, learning and optimization robotics and enhanced reality for simulation, techniques is very difficult in terms of algo- and into intervention assistance for radiation rithms. Data assimilation leads naturally to a therapy and non-invasive surgery, guided close association between modeling problems by comparing images and models. Another and data acquisition, processing and inter- example of the link between measurement pretation problems. The depth of the models and action involves quantifying the mecha- required to understand a highly complex biolo- nical characteristics of muscles in the case gical situation will be limited by the wealth of of motor deficiency to provide patients with data available. The resulting compromises will optimized stimulation. depend on the application of the model, most Finally, it should be stressed that this research likely leading to each specific organ or function must be carried out in close cooperation having its own type of model. For an appli- with biologists and doctors, particularly cation in therapy optimization, for example, when essential experimental components a model must represent the expected effects are concerned. This field raises questions of of a combination of therapies (drug synergy) ethics and best practices, which INRIA will and the toxic effects on healthy tissue. This monitor during dialogue with user associations requires detailed observation of cell physiology and elsewhere. well beyond the growth or mortality rate. Developing such models raises problems for computing, simulation, optimization, visuali- zation and uncertainty measurement (listed in section .1.1) and more generally for qualifyingModeling of the brain activity — ODYSSEE. models, which is essential for medical applica- tions. In the context of this topic, computational Strategic Plan 2008-2012 91
    • .2. Computational Medicine Key Challenges i Modeling, Viewing and Interactively enabling surgery guided by overlaying images nervous system structures. The implants Manipulating a Computational Heart and models. In general, understanding multis- of the future will be capable not only of The goal here is to develop personali- cale interactions between neuron populations activation, but also internal, and therefore zed models of the human cardiovascular in the human brain requires INRIA and its highly accurate, observation of the periphe- system that include all of the processes of partners to develop and share mathematical ral or central nervous system, broadening electrophysics, electromechanics, blood modeling and simulation tools, and to build fields of diagnostic and therapy application flow dynamics, arterial circulation, per- and implement neurobiological measurement which are currently limited. fusion and cardiac muscle biomechanics. databases. Better understanding these pheno- The Institute aims at developing imaging mena will move us substantially closer to the i The Computational and instrumentation techniques needed to necessary synergy between neurosciences, com- Surgery Environment elaborate and qualify these models. This puter science and mathematical modeling, pro- The aim here is to develop and experimen- challenge includes building an interactive viding neuroscience specialists with methods tally implement visualization, planning, platform for biologists and doctors to view for assessing the computational properties of enhanced reality and robotics capabilities cardiovascular phenomena. The platform their phenomenological models. to help with interventions such as heart should be able to explore a personalized and/or brain surgery, using the models and computational heart using a multimodal, i The Interface Between the Nervous methods developed in the two previous visual and haptic interface and implement System and Artificial Systems challenges. diagnostic and therapy simulation software This challenge involves using anatomical and tools. Its purpose is to address clinical pro- functional models to compensate for a motor i Medical Model Simulation and blems and contribute to improving medical or sensory impairment by activating the rele- Integration Software Platform devices. Close cooperation between INRIA vant central nervous or peripheral structures This challenge involves developing a robust researchers and biologists and doctors will (neuroprostheses). software kernel in which the different be the key to this milestone. Just as a pacemaker can trigger a contraction models and components of a simula- of the myocardia, it is possible to restore motor tion can co-exist, such as rendering and i Computational and functions by stimulating the motor nerves, and collision models, deformable, haptic, Functional Brain Mapping the same applies to sensory functions (such as physiological models, together with the This challenge consists in developing perso- hearing, with cochlear implants which stimulate management of relationships between nalized anatomical and physiological models the cochlea). These therapy approaches have a the different representations of the same of the human brain, combining various common base in technology and electrophysical organ. In addition to the kernel, there will types of functional brain imaging techniques research, but must be adapted to each applica- be a set of modules and software libraries and including them into maps locating the tion. It is now possible to contemplate resto- providing different functions: collision neuronal fibers and cortex activity. These ring very complex functions such as standing detection algorithms, deformable models, models would highlight the link between upright in balance, certain sensory functions, realistic photo rendering methods, optimal the spatial structure of the maps and their and to modulate the central nervous system management of computing resources, function, and analyze observed variability in the case of diseases such as Parkinsons and parallelization, computational solvers according to genetic and behavioral infor- epilepsy. However, accurately controlling forms and management of interactions between mation. Eventually, these models would be of sensory and motor replacement requires heterogeneous objects within the same developed further for clinical technologies, new measurements and models of the relevant simulation.92 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities 3.3 Social Concerns Covered by INRIA Priorities The reasons for which the Institute has chosen the seven priorities have already been given and explained in the previous sections with respect to social issues and economic stakes. At this point it is worth returning briefly to the main social motivations behind INRIA’s priorities, particularly those that concern several priorities. Environment and related issues fall into the categories of modeling and interaction. The stated objectives for computational ecology, the biosphere and the computational environment explicitly address several envi- ronmental challenges. Sustainable development is mainly present in the areas of computational plants and computational ecology. Health is a priority in its own right, through computational medicine. Other priorities also address health challenges, e.g., in Interaction, or Computational Sciences. Demographics and the issues raised by an aging population are partially covered under the priorities of Interaction, Communication and Medicine. Energy will be the subject of research efforts for modeling, controlling and optimizing the use of traditional sources of energy and for developing new sources, such as solar power, biofuels and thermonuclear fusion within the ITER federation. Transportation is covered mainly under Computational Engineering, since embedded systems play an increasingly important role in this field, and within the Interaction priority. Services for people and the development of the information society are dealt with mainly in the Commu- nication and Interaction priorities. Training and education are covered in the Interaction priority, particularly through visualization and virtual reality. These challenges raise problems that are also present in the semantic and service Web and in the Communication priority. Security raises problems dealt with in the Programming, Communication, Interaction and Computational Engineering priorities. The Institute’s efforts in this interdisciplinary field will be coordinated specifically within the Scientific Interest Group dedicated to the surveillance, safety and security of large systems. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 9
    • . Social Concerns Covered by INRIA Priorities94 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Priorities 3.4 Emerging Fields The Institute’s seven strategic priorities raise important fundamental problems, which are unresolved and have major scientific and technological implications. INRIA’s research resources are mainly devoted to address these priorities. However, INRIA wishes to remain open to emerging themes in clearly formalized scientific fields. In order to encourage the emergence of new scientific fields, INRIA is gathering the appropriate resources to carry out “exploratory operations.” The research supported by these resources is very long-term and high-risk. It should serve as an incubator for brand new research ideas to be explored by both experienced and junior research scien- tists. As in ERC’s case, the fundamental criteria will be creativity, originality and excellence for conducting advanced research that clearly departs from the traditional disciplines. INRIA intends to encourage highly exploratory work. Examples of exploratory research areas include: • new forms and means of processing information. The fundamental characteristics of matter (quantum behavior, atom dynamics, cells, etc.) can be used to develop radically new types of logic and components; • new computing methods and new algorithmic paradigms inspired by nature, biology and chemistry. Current models (based on the Von Neumann model) are reaching their limits, and other models will soon be necessary; • new modeling and simulation paradigms; • new approaches for building reliable, safe and highly available information systems (durable over several centuries); • pervasive computing based on highly dynamic architectures containing a potentially large number of components of sometimes-uncertain behavior, with paradigms to facilitate the emergence of significant properties; • new approaches to programming, for example using imitation; • representation, model and data integration techniques over a very broad spectrum, capable for example of easily establishing the environmental effects and energy consumption of any product (end-to-end life cycle); • new capabilities for user interfaces. This recurrent subject deserves as much attention as can be spared. New methods such as 3D spatial interaction must be studied to provide robust support to other, older methods such as speech. New directions for interdisciplinary research, particularly in the human and social sciences, can also provide avenues for exploratory operations. For example, modeling techniques for the “computational human” are relevant to socio- logy. ICST is also useful to the legal sciences for the formalization and semantic use of legal texts as well as liability, legal protection, and even software and systems ethics. INRIA will seek out new prospective research both internally and with its partners; it will remain very attentive and open to the emergence of new research areas and encourage risk-taking that may lead to potential scientific breakthroughs. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 95
    • Actions andStrategy for Achievingthe ObjectivesIn this chapter: A4.1 INRIA’s Role in France page 984.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness page 1004.3 Research, Development and Transfer page 110 4.3.1 Organizing Research page 110 4.3.2 Technology Development page 110 4.3.3 Technology Transfer and Innovation page 112 4.3.4 Training through Research page 114 4.3.5 Distributing Scientific Information and Knowledge page 115 4.3.6 Evaluating Research and Technology Transfer page 1174.4 European and International Relations page 118 4.4.1 INRIA’s Commitment in Europe page 118 4.4.2 ooperation with Asia, North America C and Southern Countries page 1194.5 Internal Organization and Operation page 120 4.5.1 Human Resources Policy page 121 4.5.2 Internal Operations page 122
    • A ctions
    • 4.1 INRIA’s Role in France The general organization of research in zation focused in ICST who is able to: 4.1. France, which is built around the same institutions created in the 1950s to 1980s, • work with universities to motivate the best teams in France – those with high visibility INRIA’s Role has recently been experiencing accele- rated growth with the creation of the ANR and a reputation for scientific excellence – and provide attractive training through in France and competitiveness clusters, the crea- research; tion of PRES’s and RTRA’s, the research • develop a national scientific strategy based program law and the law on the freedom on a European and international pers- and responsibility of universities (see 2..). pective, and focus most of its projects This change is a response to the incredible proactively around this strategy; pressure of globalization in research and • implement a development, technology innovation work and its role as a driving force transfer, innovation and spin-off policy behind social and economic development through partnerships with the main indus- and world competition. In particular, it aims trial players in the field. to strengthen the position of universities as ICST is a young field experiencing pheno- regional research and training operators, menal growth, which from the outset has making them world leaders. been global and competitive in nature, INRIA has to play an important role within this relying more on intelligence than previously national policy to strengthen university sites acquired technological assets or major and form world-class teaching and research infrastructure (apart from the Internet). INRIA clusters. It is responsible for defining and has carved out a niche and developed an carrying out established scientific policy in organizational structure, which is perfectly high-priority fields. Several countries have suited to current conditions. This organi- begun structuring their scientific policy, in zation, structured around highly mobile particular in ICST, around national opera- people rather than strict, compartmentalized tors. Several examples include Max Planck structures, is one of the essential factors in Gesellshaft and Fraunhofer Gesellshaft in the Institute’s success. Germany, which are foundations receiving INRIA is an organization which is fully dedi- most of their funding from the government. In cated to a high-priority scientific domain and Holland, the CWI, whose scope of activity is whose mission is to develop a consistent similar to that of INRIA, is part of the NWO, a nationwide scientific and technology transfer government body. In the United States, most policy, in keeping with European policy. In of the large government departments fund a field which is growing rapidly and diffi- and directly or indirectly manage national cult to predict, and which is essential for research organizations such as the NIST economic, social and cultural development, Laboratories, NIH Institutes and Centers it is crucial to analyze impacts and strengths and National Centers administered by the before defining a research strategy, making Battelle Group. In Australia, the NICTA choices and adopting a dynamic, proactive research center is funded by the govern- organization. ment and various Australian ICST bodies. This is why INRIA considers itself to be an In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced essential link between the research funding Industrial Science and Technology plays a agencies (ANR, European Commission, leading role for national scientific policy in ERC) and regional university teaching and its fields. While the organizations mentioned research clusters. To this end, the Institute in these examples all have specific charac- reaffirms the four basic tenets of its work in teristics and distinct organizational models, favor of research, development and tech- in all cases these centers organize global nology transfer in ICST: research strategies and team up the univer- • close-knit teams working on a focused, sities they support. high-level scientific project. To maximize Given the specific nature of the information the impact of its work, the Institute initially science and technology field, the changes chose a horizontal structure with little already underway in France must go along hierarchy, entrusting its scientific policy with a stronger INRIA, the national organi- largely to project-teams under scientific98 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions leaders with ambitious, competitive and sectors. INRIA has worked for over 25 highly focused projects. These autono- years to perfect a highly effective model mous project-teams, which exist for a for facilitating technology transfer and limited amount of time, are assessed natio- start-up companies, based on a high- nally according to a procedure, which quality, decentralized, coordinated, profes- emphasizes international positioning. The sional internal structure. The Institute Institute is convinced that these research has demonstrated its ability to complete project-teams are an essential element of its mission by signing a series of stra- its success. tegic agreements with major companies • dynamic partnerships. INRIA is acti- and joint teams with industrial partners, vely involved in partnerships with French performing research and development universities and research organizations work, creating start-ups and developing located on its geographical sites. Today, a clear policy on distributing software and over 80% of INRIA’s project-teams are defining standards. joint undertakings with partner establis- The boxes in this chapter define in detail hments. By building these joint teams of the way these tenets are applied by the international-level researchers who believe Institute’s eight research centers for all in INRIA’s strategy, the establishments research, development, technology transfer build entities with sufficient critical mass. and partnership tasks. Each center must The Institute is committed to working with adopt specific agreements with its regionalINRIA considers itself partners willing to provide resources, parti- partners specifying the details of joint cularly human resources, to support the support for research operations within jointto be an essential link project-team and its work. Cooperation INRIA project-teams, and then design and is established in a climate of trust and implement a dynamic scientific policy.between the research transparency, based on sharing results The cornerstones of this organization arefunding agencies and revenue in proportion to the resources allocated and sharing efforts to maximize assessment and recruitment. An assess- ment must be performed before any decision(ANR, European efficiency; affecting the future of a project-team can be • project-teams involved in producing made. This strict assessment is performedCommission, knowledge and technology. Scientific by independent academic and industrial research produces both knowledge and experts from France and abroad, chosenERC) and regional technology. The relationship between for their competence and impartiality; it knowledge and development meets social takes place every four years for all project-university teaching expectations as well as scientific require- teams working on the same topic nationally.and research clusters.. ments. To a greater or lesser extent depen- ding on the precise field, ICST involves The experts’ recommendations are taken very seriously. They decide the future of an experimental aspect, and research project-teams in each discipline (whether uses and often develops technological they should be expanded, continued or shut and software platforms. Project-teams down) and also provide a better unders- generally adopt a scientific procedure tanding of INRIA’s international position in that produces both knowledge and tech- each discipline and any improvements that nological development, and its results must be made. are assessed based on both of these In such a rapidly growing organization components; with a very dynamic structure, the value • project teams committed to technology of individuals is paramount. The Institute transfer. The government has entrusted aims to attract the best people for every INRIA with a special mission in promo- position type and level. It does this using ting ICST. By placing the Institute under a variety of employment categories – both the Ministry of Industry, the government permanent and fixed-term positions – that has demonstrated its political desire take advantage of legislation. Having a for the Institute to transfer technology variety of employment categories provides in partnership with all socio-economic some flexibility in terms of salaries. INRIA’s Strategic Plan 2008-2012 99
    • 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness recruitment policy is extremely open to The future of ICST in France will depend on international applicants, particularly for INRIA and its partners’ capacity to build upon scientific positions; in fact, the number and develop this operational model, ensuring of foreign researchers has been steadily that it remains attractive and relevant on an inter- growing since 2000. Fostering the right national level, and above all constantly seeking conditions for high-level recruitment is a young research scientists worldwide who will priority for INRIA’s management. be the scientific leaders of the future. The field of ICST is characterized by fierce French-English Masters courses, enabling 4.2 international competition in which productivity non French-speaking students to come to and scientific quality rely not on substantial France. This opening for students with foreign Improving capital investments but rather on research scientists themselves. Because of this, a diplomas will also be available through the postdoctoral hosting program. the Institute’s fundamental objective for research in France is improving its attractiveness on an inter- Facilitating scientific cooperation with leading international teams as well as mobility for Attractiveness national level. INRIA’s influence and attrac- researchers is very effective in improving tiveness within the international scientific attractiveness. Programs developed and community are and will remain major criteria implemented over the past several years for its success and ability to energize national will be continued and expanded, including research. associate teams (promoting cooperation It is clear that the Institute cannot attract new with foreign universities by providing financial researchers solely based on the reputation of support for exchanges and joint workshops), excellence that it has developed, although that sabbaticals (long stays for researchers) and is certainly an essential factor that must be explorers (short assignments for researchers, protected. Instead, it must expand its human post-doctoral and PhD students). Mobility of resources, communications and international scientists within universities and companies policy. increased considerably in recent years, but it Increasing INRIA’s capacity for hosting and has just begun to slow down. The Institute will recruiting foreign researchers and students will take advantage of existing and future regula- remain a major priority for the coming years. tory provisions, as well as the economically The policy for recruiting permanent research dynamic ICST sector itself, to boost mobility staff aims to maintain a proportion of roughly through incentives and assistance measures; one-third foreign scientists, by advertising with the agreement of its governing authori- positions even more widely and emphasizing ties, it is prepared to develop experimental the Institute’s image and presence on the programs in this area. international scientific market for ICST. For The results of INRIA’s hosting policy over students, INRIA will expand its internship the last eight years have been very posi- program for hosting Masters-level interns from tive, in terms of promoting openness among foreign universities, as well as its CORDI-S the Institute’s teams and producing results program, begun in 200, which is specifically for the scientists and engineers who have directed at young (French or foreign) PhD participated. The ambition for the next few students wishing to do their thesis at a univer- years is to expand it even further, to hosting sity or school far from the one in which they university professors and senior scientific civil did their Masters, and prioritizes candidates servants on assignment for specific projects, who have studied abroad. The Institute is providing “associate engineer” contracts for committed to working with French engineering young graduates and employing industrial schools and universities to provide bilingual and academic specialists on a short-term100 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions basis. The Institute will attempt to make its permanent positions more attractive not only through its basic tenets – the dynamic nature of the teams, interaction with the economic world, good working conditions, flexible organization and effective research support – but also through support for career plans and improved salaries and benefits. With the Research Treaty, some measures have been discussed and others already implemented, such as changes to the rules for promotion and provisions for “remuneration for public- interest positions,” which provide assistance for taking on positions of responsibility. If necessary, INRIA is willing to experiment in this area as well. The Institute must make a concerted effort to appear more attractive in all of its external communications, well beyond information about the institution and its assets. Although researchINRIA’s influence and into computer science and applied mathematics are the basis for the current transformations inattractiveness within society, the general public is still largely unaware of this fact. This lack of knowledge, and occa-the international sionally mistrust, by people in general is ascientific community problem for scientific research, especially for computer science and automatic control, whichare and will remain are commonly perceived as “tools” rather than scientific disciplines, whether they are seenmajor criteria for its as promising or threatening. This perspective is of particular concern among young people,success and ability who have begun to abandon scientific study in increasing numbers. The Institute must correctto energize national this incorrect image: scientists are responsibleresearch. for opening the “black box” and demonstrating the educational value of their research in this field to a wide audience. This is why INRIA will be directing its external communications mainly at the non-scien- tific public, including young people, to help remedy their lack of knowledge about computer science research. A special effort will be made to increase the media presence of the Institute and its researchers, to provide more general scientific presentations on INRIA’s website and to organize events dedicated to ICST research. In order to reach young people effectively, over the next 4 years the Institute will also be promoting scientific culture in secondary schools (see 4..5). Additional effort will focus on informing French and European decision- makers about research results and technology transfer work. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 101
    • 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness The Scientific The eight INRIA research centers, which are briefly described in Section 1 (see 1.3), apply the Institute’s strategic orientations as shown in the boxes on the following pages. Specializations of INRIA Research Centers INRIA Bordeaux – Sud Ouest constructively meeting algorithm development Research Center challenges and studying and implementing sequential and parallel systems allowing INRIA Bordeaux – Sud Ouest Research for virtualization. Models for the behavior Center’s skills will be used to support topics of autonomous machines interacting with studied by the Aerospace Valley competi- their environment will also be developed in tiveness cluster; INRIA intends to plan its cooperation with local cognitive and robotics growth in Bordeaux according to the develo- research partners. pment of this cluster. Industrial and academic partnerships will also be a determining factor; Simulation and visualization these include Total, Safran/Turbomeca, Thales, INTERACTING Rhodia, the CEA (for the Laser Mégajoule Viewing multi-scale exogenous or simulated research program), France Telecom, EDF, information requires research into algorithmic, Airbus and the SNCF, both directly and as part graphical and audio representation (which of the Aerospace Valley cluster. The center’s depends on the rendering context, ranging development capacity and its committed from mobile phones to advanced D virtual partnerships suggest growth will attain at reality devices). These methods, combined least 50% over the next 4 years. with scientific simulations in pilot environments, The center’s main priorities, which benefit from lead to chains of interactive processing serving world-class expertise available in the region as the initial building blocks for computational as well as substantial external contributions, platforms developed by the Institute’s industrial are as follows: partners. Fundamental problems include data representation and transfer. Modeling, computing and parallel systems Formal systems MODELING – COMPUTATIONAL PROGRAMMING SCIENCES Formal systems are at the center of several Life-size simulation of complex physical, teams’ research projects, in terms of both chemical, geological, biological and medical deduction and semantics in natural language for systems relies on concepts and techniques computational linguistics, and of programming drawn from computer science and mathema- environments involving proofs and programs. tics. These methodological developments, Research efforts are focusing on first- and conducted in close cooperation with applica- higher-order linear logics and deduction and tion sectors within industry, are highly inter- related proof mechanisms. Specific concerns disciplinary and rely on optimized adaptations involve the modularity and orchestration of for the effective use of high-performance basic components for programming systems, computing platforms. More faithful, interac- and proof in situations requiring reliability and tive and rapid modeling will be possible by security.102 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Actions INRIA Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes tructures are essential to the development of Research Center distributed systems, peer-to-peer architec- tures and sensor networks. INRIA Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes Research Center is committed to building on the three Modeling and simulating multi-scale major scientific subjects that require conti- and multi-component phenomena nued investment to achieve the best possible MODELING – COMPUTATIONAL results, while participating in the strong regional SCIENCES dynamic present in the area’s world-class Many phenomena, both natural (from geophy- competitiveness clusters. These include micro sics to life sciences) and artificial (light effects, and nanotechnology development on the robotic system movement), are multi-scale Grenoble site, which relies heavily on software (occurring on several scales in space and components, and biology and health modeling time) and multi-component (involving the on the Lyon site. In Lyon, the Center’s teams interaction of several partners). Providing take part in the “infectiology innovations” explanations for them, producing virtual topical advanced research network. instances of them, modeling and simulating The center’s three major priorities are as them all raise common questions in terms follows: of algorithms and digital technologies. The computer science subjects involve a broad Mastering dynamic and heterogeneous activity range from data representation and resources: embedded systems in assimilation to probabilistic modeling and the computing and communication study of dynamic systems. One key challenge infrastructures is combining individual models to explain COMMUNICATING – COMPUTATIONAL the complexity of the phenomena involved. ENGINEERING Finally, an important characteristic of this As the traditional model of a fixed program area is that interdisciplinary collaboration is running on a well-defined architecture has required in each of its fields of application become outdated, the design and use of (physics, biology, medicine, etc.). systems using software have experienced radical change. Software deployment Perceiving and interacting with real environments now range from embedded and virtual environments systems-on-a-chip to computing grids and INTERACTING even self-organized networks, and are highly Developing tools to serve human activity specific, dynamic and heterogeneous. In involves mastering data acquisition and order to design reliable software geared to processing (understanding, classification the requirements of communicating microsys- and ordering) and their impact on the outside tems, researchers must consider hardware- environment. Understanding the processes software interfaces and architectures and of multi-sensory perception and cognition apply advanced compilation and verification increases interaction capacity in both direc- techniques. Algorithms and scheduling for tions, between users or automated systems the purpose of optimizing computing infras- and real and virtual environments. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 10
    • 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness INRIA Lille - Nord Europe Software infrastructures for ambient Research Center intelligence COMMUNICATING INRIA Lille – Nord Europe Research Center will An important issue for the Center is transpa- expand to reflect the Institute’s partnership rent, adaptable and easy-to-deploy ambient policy within the Haute Borne science park, systems. These systems will interact with which will be the geographical center for people in a variety of increasingly natural this development. Joint project-teams will ways through widely distributed sensors. The be created with other establishments in the Center’s scientific objectives include solving region and neighboring European universities, the problems of self-organization, coope- and 50% growth is projected over the next five ration with a large number of ambient and years. The competitiveness clusters (I-Trans personal devices and working with limited for land-based transportation and particularly resources (energy, memory, low cost) based the Trade Industries cluster) and the research on a combined hardware/software design campus for interdisciplinary research and approach. These systems must be reliable, technological innovation studying ambient forward compatible and interoperable, requiring intelligence under the supervision of the progress in the fields of formal measurement, CPER will together offer a golden operating systems and middleware. Service opportunity for scientific deve- applications will be given priority, particularly lopment and partnership with within the Trade Industries cluster. businesses. The Center’s scien- Modeling and interaction with living tific priorities are systems as follows: COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES – COMPUTATIONAL MEDICINE The multi-scale and multi-model approach to virtual and enhanced reality will be used to develop increasingly realistic platforms for medical simulation. Work with biologists, both for regulation networks and comparative gene- tics, will combine bioinformatics algorithms and computational methods such as symbolic and statistical computing. Modeling and simulation MODELING The Center’s objectives in this area include solving problems relating to the environ- ment and electromagnetism. Discrete and continuous generic modeling techniques will be developed, in addition to learning, identification and control techniques using algebraic methods.104 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Actions INRIA Nancy – Grand Est Simulation, optimization and control Research Center of complex systems MODELING – COMPUTATIONAL INRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center SCIENCES is working to finalize its efforts with partner The complexity and size of real systems to universities in the Nancy cluster to make orga- be modeled, simulated or controlled offer nizational changes facilitating the development significant scientific challenges. Meeting of ICST research in keeping with the scientific these challenges demands high levels of policies of the various establishments. The expertise combined with intensive compu- Lorraine institute’s main strength is in compu- ting methods and computer science, and ting research, which it will continue to develop, mathematical theory for control and opti- but it also wishes to move into applied mathe- mization. In this area, the Center aims to matics, automatic control and interdisciplinary develop methods and tools for use in the topics combining ICST and other scientific identification, control and optimization of sectors, in particular the life sciences and systems combining different large-scale the human and social sciences. The Center dynamics (both continuous and discrete, hopes to expand its influence throughout the and of finite and infinite dimensions). region, particularly in Strasbourg, Metz and Research will focus on systems from plasma Besançon; in the medium term it intends to physics (ITER project), rapid computational create cross-border joint project-teams. All methods for graphic computing, scientific of these avenues of growth will ensure high- visualization and the design and control level, international scientific excellence and of autonomous robots, particularly for the development of priority research. biomimetics. INRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center will prioritize the development of three areas Computing systems security of activity: and reliability PROGRAMMING – COMPUTATIONAL Cognition: Perception, language ENGINEERING and knowledge The reliability and security of software integra- INTERACTING tion systems play a vital role in the adoption The Nancy center has earned international of those systems in an economic, legal and recognition for its work in modeling and social setting. They may be software, hard- computational analysis of the cognitive ware or hybrid systems, such as embedded capacities that make us human - our ability systems or computing infrastructure. Research to perceive, reason, communicate and use focuses on the reliable design and certifica- information. Research focuses on automatic tion of software and protocols, verification language processing, speech processing, of correct operation and guarantees with extracting semantic information from large respect to the use of resources; the neces- multimedia databases, autonomous robotics, sary performances for an acceptable level of statistical model-based learning, enhanced services; computer security; and prevention, reality, collaborative work and developing detection and protection techniques guarding computational models in an immersive or against attacks on networks and distributed interactive setting. services. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 105
    • 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness INRIA Paris – Rocquencourt Reliable software and security Research Center PROGRAMMING Our everyday environment is becoming richer Today, INRIA Paris – Rocquencourt Research every day in technological products with an Center is a major player in research in the Paris important and often invisible software compo- region. The Center is actively involved in the nent - from smart cards to cell phones, auto- CapDigital, Mov’eo and System@tic competi- mobiles to planes, doctor’s offices to operating tiveness clusters and in the Digiteo and Paris rooms. The Center is developing tools for Mathematical Sciences advanced research designing increasingly high-quality, efficient networks (RTRA’ s). Much of this joint work is and reliable software more rapidly. Its research carried out in close cooperation with the focuses on high-level languages and program other INRIA Research Center in metro- analysis, software specification and valida- politan Paris, located in Saclay. tion and constraints solving. It also strives to The main objective for the INRIA develop reliable algorithms useful in computer Paris-Rocquencourt Research science and calculus, that can be used in widely Center is to be a key player distributing high-quality software, in particular in the major scientific and tech- for engineering design and simulation. nological changes underway in the following three research fields, where it Modeling living systems applies its computer science and applied and the environment mathematics skills to conduct leading scientific COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES – research over the short and medium term: COMPUTATIONAL MEDICINE New techniques in experimental biology, the Networks and communication systems remarkable progress in medical imaging, COMMUNICATING the enormous quantity of satellite data and The Web, mobile networks, peer-to-peer the intensive deployment of sensors for systems, computing grids and broadband monitoring ecosystems at all scales require terminals rely on increasingly dense and sophis- enormous sets of data to be structured and ticated network infrastructures. The Center controlled. In order for specialists in these intends to contribute significantly to designing fields to put this progress to good use, these networks and optimizing their perfor- complex mathematical models must be mance. One of the general objectives of the developed and analyzed, along with formal research is to ensure rapid, reliable, distributed computer science methods to validate and circulation of information at minimal cost to all manage these models. The Center’s efforts points of the network in question. The specific focus on combining these models and data, focus of research is on the design and mathe- modeling and simulating organs (such as matical analysis of distributed algorithms, the the heart) and sets of cells (tumor growth), impact of mobility on related protocols and the and forecasting changes in the biosphere use of measurements to ensure control. and soils.10 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Actions INRIA Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique Design, analysis and compilation Research Center of embedded software PROGRAMMING – COMPUTATIONAL INRIA Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique Research ENGINEERING Center intends to pursue its long-standing The aim of this priority is to study partnership policy with higher education new paradigms based on the notions establishments and local EPSTs. In addition of models, aspects, contracts and to consolidating its strengths, however, it also components for designing and validating aims to develop significant research work embedded software, operations which at the frontiers of ICST and other scientific are becoming increasingly important disciplines and strategic fields of applica- in such varied fields of application as tion. The three-way intersection of computer transportation and telecommunications. science, telecommunications and multimedia Program analysis and testing methods is a prime area of investigation for the Center, must be improved and integrated in order as demonstrated by the many collabora- to guarantee software reliability. Special tive efforts with industrial and application attention will be paid to the problem of partners in this sector, on the regional (Images modeling and optimizing non-functional & networks cluster), national (ANR projects) aspects (time, memory and power), and international levels. The Center is also which cover a continuum from statically heavily involved in European programs, parti- determined systems to dynamically cipating in some forty projects in the th FP adaptive systems. and coordinating three of them. The Research Center focuses on three main Images and multimodal data: priorities that express the scientific challenges from methods to uses to be met in addressing the major issues in INTERACTING – COMPUTATIONAL our information society and their industrial MEDICINE and application implications: Images and other media are increasingly present in a variety of contexts for professio- Mastering large-scale networks nals and the general public (such as mobile and distributed systems phones and the multimedia Web) and in COMMUNICATING –PROGRAMMING various scientific fields (medicine, biology, Achieving this objective involves studying physics, etc.). New methods and sensor and designing new software, computing and networks are also appearing. Some of the programming models for distributed infras- main challenges the Center intends to take up tructures whose components are only partially include communication, protection, the use of aware of the system as a whole due to its image-related content, videos and multimodal size and possible mobility, heteroge- data, the development of interactive virtual neity and dynamism. This requires environments and the combination of images studying the software mecha- based on physical and biological models in nisms providing virtual access the life and environmental sciences. to resources within computing grids, and new fault tolerance algorithms in dynamic systems. In general, these large- scale systems pose new challenges in terms of management, surveillance and security. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 107
    • 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness INRIA Saclay - Île-de-France High-performance computing and Research Center distributed knowledge on the Web COMMUNICATING INRIA Saclay - Île-de-France Research Center The miniaturization and multiplicity of compu- will work closely with the System@tic competi- ting and storage components has fundamen- tiveness cluster to achieve future development, tally changed data processing and computing participating in the Digiteo RTRA founded by the models. Data may come from sensor networks CEA, CNRS, INRIA, the École Polytechnique, and distributed resources on the Web. Finding the Paris-Sud University and SUPELEC, in and organizing data requires new exploration close cooperation with the Paris-Rocquencourt and restitution methods based specifically on Research Center. The Center will also be buil- learning techniques and innovative interaction ding a strong relationship with the CEA and its models. Computing capacities are increasing, partners through the NeuroSpin brain-imaging but they rely on heterogeneous, dynamic and project conducted in the MediTech competi- distributed components. Using them in high- tiveness cluster. performance computing requires the develo- INRIA Saclay - Île-de-France Research pment of new architectures and computing Center will focus on developing three areas models, such as the grid model. This raises of activity: a new set of questions in terms of efficiency, breakdown tolerance, new algorithms and Software security and reliability programming models. PROGRAMMING Improving reliability for the critical compo- Modeling, simulation and optimization nents of computing systems requires deve- of complex dynamic systems loping advanced security models and program MODELING analysis methods which will be supported by Complex dynamical systems appear in many tools for scaling up. The Center’s work is based fields of natural (physics, biology) and artifi- on advanced mathematical knowledge: cial (Internet) science. They can be modeled elliptic curves for cryptography, type using various approaches (partial differential theory as a basis for computer proofs, equations, evolutionary systems, discrete, probabilistic models, etc. It aims to continuous, deterministic or stochastic develop methods and tools to methods, computational or algebraic resolu- improve user confidence in tion). The main fields of investigation involve computational technolo- image processing, more specifically medical gies using a rigorous imaging, shape recognition, the construction mathematical of mathematical evolution models for plants approach. and organ aging, as well as models of how the brain works. The optimization and robust control of these systems, and their fault tole- rance, remain difficult problems.108 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • Actions Le centre de recherche INRIA networks, grids) and on exploring resources, Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée in addition to integrating knowledge and services into community networks through INRIA Sophia Antipolis -Mediterranée the semantic Web. Research Center is a leading partner in networks of key players in its fields because Computational medicine and biology of its internationally renowned research COMPUTATIONAL MEDICINE – teams, its presence in the PACA compe- COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES titiveness clusters (SCS, Pégase, The Center aims to design, implement and etc.) and its success in the ANR control computational and computer models and European programs. The of living systems ranging from microbial Nice-Sophia Antipolis site has ecosystems to human body organs and three main objectives: actively forests and to identify parameters using multi- participating in the ICST Campus modal measurements (imaging, biological and with the University of Nice-Sophia biochemical signals). This research requires Antipolis (UNSA) and Eurecom in order to studying and developing new mathematical develop it into an excellence cluster; building and algorithmic tools in cooperation with synergy between ICST research and medical the fields of biology, medicine, physics and research, in particular with the UNSA, the chemistry. The Center will focus on computa- Center Antoine-Lacassagne and the CHU tional modeling of biological, anatomical and teaching hospital; and working actively with physiological systems, imaging and medical a network of companies to offer suggestions robotics to assist with diagnosis and custo- for industrial players. The Montpellier site aims mized therapy, computational neurosciences to work closely with the INRA, CIRAD and and the modeling of plants and ecosystems partners of the LIRMM to make its presence for sustainable development. sustainable. One organizational objective is to involve INRIA successfully in the founda- Modeling, simulation and interaction tion established by the sustainable agrono- with the real world mical and environmental science RTRA to MODELING – INTERACTING create and develop a “computational plant” Modeling and computational simulation are program. well established in sophisticated industrial INRIA Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranée focuses processes (space systems, transport, energy, its research in three areas of activity: etc.) and will be used increasingly in various sectors (risk management, industrial secu- Ubiquitous communication rity, urban planning, surgical interventions, and computing physical rehabilitation, gaming, etc.). In many COMMUNICATING of these areas, the fundamental dimension The proper functioning of networks and mobile of interactivity is overlaid. The processes of entities and the transparency of their uses physical and cognitive interaction between are vital issues, because the services and the virtual and real worlds require virtual applications using them require a ubiqui- and enhanced audiovisual environments tous, safe and reliable network. Developing to be created and rendered and the condi- and operating complex, heterogeneous tions for real-time haptic interaction with networks relies on algorithms, protocol design, users to be met, including the conditions for performance assessment, simulation, formal their evaluation. Robotics is another field in methods and experimentation platforms. The which modeling and simulation are becoming Center’s research focuses on problems related increasingly important for applications such to security, reliability and robustness, new as robot-human interaction, development of network architectures (networks-on-chips, service robotics and rehabilitation robotics peer-to-peer, self-organized networks, overlay in immersive environments. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 109
    • 4. Research, Development and Transfer 4.3.1 Organizing Research researchers who, after one project-team has 4.3 INRIA strongly advocates its organizational come to an end, are considering joining exis- ting or new teams, particularly those who are Research, model into project-teams, which is widely recognized, cited and adopted by various prepared to adjust their research topics to reflect the priorities of INRIA’ scientific policy. Development other foreign organizations. A project-team INRIA will encourage the autonomy of junior and Transfer is a group of limited size (approximately 10 - 25 members) with clearly defined scientific researchers, providing them with opportu- nities for mobility and greater responsibility, objectives and research programs targeting by enabling them to manage collaborative a focused topic over a set period of time. research efforts and exploratory work. In It is directed by a scientific leader who is the latter area, the Institute will encourage responsible for coordinating the work of the the emergence of new research work, which entire team. INRIA insists on clear objectives is radically different from established topics shared by all members of a project-team and in the field. on the scientific leadership of project leader, INRIA will improve its organizational tools to who is responsible for proposing objectives create an overall vision of its research and for their project and ensuring that research is development and technology transfer work and focused on them. to implement its scientific and technological This form of organization has many advan- policy. The new responsibilities of the scientific tages that the Institute holds dear. The visi- departments, the role of overall coordination bility and impact of the work carried out in played by the head of research and technology the Institute gains traction by promoting the transfer for innovation, and the creation of an collective aspect of research and by gathering observatory for the Institute’s scientific work research scientists into teams with clearly iden- are essential factors in achieving this goal. tified goals. It provides levels of flexibility and responsiveness that the Institute has further 4.3.2 Technology Development improved over the past few years by increasing turnover on its research project-teams. Technology development is becoming The project-teams work toward the three goals increasingly important in ICST research: of knowledge production, technology develo- meeting the specific needs of research in pment and technology transfer, and they are the knowledge-production process; respon- assessed on the results in each of these areas. ding to the economic and social issues; and The relationship between knowledge and tech- meeting industrial needs as part of a techno- nology development fulfils social needs and logy transfer and innovation policy. For INRIA, the requirements of scientific research. whose mission closely combines research and To further enhance the efficiency of its orga- technology transfer, technology development nization into project-teams, the Institute is is crucial. increasing its resources for coordinating the Research in ICST is becoming increasingly work and projects of its eight research centers complex; large-scale experimentation is neces- (the boxes in this chapter identify each Center’s sary to address real problems and develop and research priorities and their relationship to validate realistic models. When studying widely the strategic plan). This coordination takes distributed computing grids and architectures, the form of scientific events, interdisciplinary for example, it is difficult to simulate the beha- research and development work, and wider vior of thousands of heterogeneous machines integrative projects. More effort should be and their interconnections. Experimentation devoted to this area, which combines the work platforms must be built in order to approach of several project-teams and outside partners, problems and evaluate solutions on a real- focusing on the challenges set out in this plan world basis. Similarly, designing and evaluating and on integration and/or interdisciplinary new network architectures requires realistic, projects aiming to make ambitious connections easily configured platforms, which allow real between knowledge and development. users to run comparative analyses and control In order to facilitate this change in directions, experimental conditions. Robotics research the Institute will strive particularly to support can only be carried out with robots and open110 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions experimental environments. Technological more project-teams and one or more EDT’s, a development and experimental platforms are scientist is in charge of and responsible for the also needed for the Institute’s other priorities, work (except in exceptional circumstances). from studying the vulnerabilities of computing This work may be conducted jointly by INRIA systems to virtual reality. Finally, many of the partners depending on the nature of the work topics in this strategic plan, in particular in and the partner. computational engineering, computational The software development operations science and medicine, require the deployment program is a component of INRIA’s technology of sensors, actuators, specific instrumenta- transfer and use policy. It aims to facilitate the tions and embedded processors in substantial development and circulation of high-quality experiments. software from INRIA research projects and The Institute will be developing experimental increase its technological impact. The program platforms for all of these fields, in cooperation provides an additional development resource with other organizations such as the CEA, for project-teams in the form of “associate CNRS, INRA or INSERM for multi-disciplinary, engineers” assigned for two-year periods. nation-wide or international issues. These This program will be continued. platforms will be open to the national scien- Experimental platforms are technological tific community. Developing these platforms research resources made available to several clearly requires investing in more than simply project-teams. The software and/or hardware off-the-shelf equipment. It demands substan- components of a platform are generic and tial technological development, particularly in shared. The platform allows teams to share terms of software. infrastructure, operation and supply costs and also facilitates partnerships between teams by Resources Used facilitating access, paving the way for more The Institute will be investing even more, ambitious developments and improving the particularly in terms of human resources, to visibility of research. INRIA already has several support the technological developments of experimental platforms in its centers, for robo- its teams. The principal means to support this tics, virtual reality, computer-assisted vision strategy are described in this section. and distributed computing. To meet scien- Support for development will be increased by tific needs relating to the Institute’s strategic reinforcing the experimentation and develop- priorities, and particularly to reach the related ment technical units (EDT’s) and considerably challenges, some platforms must be modified increasing the number of permanent staff and and others created; for example, a high-perfor- visiting staff positions in these departments. mance computing platform for simulation, These engineers will be integrated into our updated GRID 5000 equipment and a platform project-teams to actively support software for studying embedded system security are and experimental development. In addition needed. Varying degrees of experimentation to collaborative work with the project-teams, on embedded systems, sensor networks and EDT’s will also be responsible for producing, interactive robotics could also be supported by deploying and updating generic software to platforms set up as needed, in partnership or encourage better software development prac- as part of national or international initiatives. tices within the Institute, such as software We will be seeking to streamline management forges and porting platforms. of existing and future platforms with a coor- Technology development initiatives (TDI) dinated policy and systematic assessment are a new instrument within INRIA. They fit in of their impact. with the logic and dynamics of a collabora- Standardization support will be reinforced tive project and provide common ground for and expanded. Standardization work is very project-teams and development services. important because it improves the visibility of These initiatives rely on scientific resources research and helps to publicize it in the world within project-teams, as well as the technical, of business. It must be based on develop- human and experimental resources managed ment work that can support standardizationCYCLOPE, a sensor device by the EDT’s. Technical development work proposals, such as software production tofor virtual reality. is defined and performed jointly by one or demonstrate feasibility and relevance and Strategic Plan 2008-2012 111
    • 4. Research, Development and Transfer provide the benchmarks required for certain ups. It intends to pursue a vigorous policy in types of de facto standardization. In addition to this area to account for significant changes in this assistance, a method for making proposals the socio-economic environment, new chal- to standardization bodies will be offered to lenges and the increasingly broad issues in project-teams, mainly in the form of support for relevant business sectors. engineers. The Institute is already active within R&D has become a key factor of competitive- standardization and normalization entities in ness. Market position is increasingly depen- the fields of networks and communication dent on technological progress, and innovation services and information and multimedia data management is now at the heart of all industry processing, among others. INRIA is a member sectors affected by ICST. Against this backdrop of WC, the OMG, ETSI and the JCP, and is of rapid technological and economic advances, also playing an active role in the IETF and the interaction between operational units in ISO. INRIA intends to consolidate its presence companies and pure research must be envi- in these organizations and in the decision- saged at a very early stage. Technology making bodies of de facto standardization transfer and innovation cannot occur after organizations such as Eclipse. knowledge production, but must contribute Finally, the intellectual property protection to identifying and formulating the problems and use policy defined by the technology that must be resolved to achieve economic transfer and innovation strategy (see 4..) will breakthroughs. be taken into account explicitly in the initial Early interaction is tightly constrained by stages of each development project. It will shorter and shorter industrial development provide guidance for technical decisions (for cycles, in particular in ICST. It requires a shared example, including open-source components vision and closeness among teams operating with inherited license obligations), partnership at various points in the development process, connections and initial protection and/or distri- from research to design. bution safeguards. Paradoxically, research and development support programs, such as European Emphasizing Development Work framework and ANR and competitiveness It is important for technology development clusters programs, also limit the possibilities work to be esteemed as one component for the preliminary interaction required for of ICST research, alongside the knowledge technology transfer. These programs have production demonstrated by top-level inter- given new life to R&D activities by facilita- national publications. ting the development of many collaborative This is why INRIA intends to work with other initiatives for pre-competitive developments organizations to implement technological and common-interest tools. The efforts of contribution assessment mechanisms, parti- corporate R&D teams within these programs cularly for evaluating software developments. have weakened their direct partnerships with The objective is to have peers offer an asses- public research. The Institute’s technology sment of software relevance, originality and transfer policy must take this redistribution quality that is recognized within the community, into account and respond to it appropriately similar to the recognition offered by scientific by developing areas of special interaction with publications. This will allow software develop- certain partners, upstream from joint participa- ments to be included effectively in assessing tion in R&D support programs. It is hoped that researchers and teams. such bilateral partnerships, based on shared technological perspectives, will lead to joint 4.3.3 Technology Transfer participation in national and European program and Innovation initiatives rather than the opposite. INRIA’s technology transfer policy already INRIA consistently combines scientific excel- involves players such as systems specialists, lence with technology transfer. To-date, the infrastructure manufacturers and telecommu- Institute’s technology transfer and use policy nications operators. However, the Institute has been active, decisive and highly succes- must invest more into the industrial sectors, sful, in particular for innovative business start- which have become essential for its strategy,112 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions including biotechnology, pharmaceutical and innovation initiatives, as well as skill mapping, medical technologies as well as energy and the analysis and forecasting resources. INRIA will environment. Another example is the service also provide significant training in entrepre- sector and its use of information technologies. neurship and innovation internally. Service providers, which have not participated The main external initiatives will involve a small in R&D for a long time, are now involved in number of partners with whom the Institute can mediating and deploying innovative techno- meet at a very preliminary stage, for joint vision logies. They must be properly integrated into and technology transfer objectives. These INRIA’s technology transfer policy. are the Institute’s strategic partnerships, These considerations have led the Institute to whose strategic dimension rests on several adopt a proactive technology transfer policy aspects: their ability to develop research chal- for spin-offs and direct technology transfer, lenges relevant to the Institute, their needs identifying key sectors relating to its priorities for innovative technology used to maintain and adjusting its technology transfer actions their industrial advantage, their potential for as much as possible to their specific charac- realizing high-impact benefits by implementing teristics. It does so by offering greater support INRIA technologies. With its strategic partners, for technology transfer to its project-teams INRIA wishes to develop program initiatives forIt is hoped that through partnership networks within compe- every phase of the innovation cycle, from defi- titiveness clusters, as well as through joint ning topics to implementing solutions for thesuch bilateral programs with strategic partners. partner’s processes or products. Initiatives may take several forms, such as joint research/partnerships, A Proactive Technology Transfer Strategy industry laboratories. INRIA intends to identify potential avenues for INRIA’s technology transfer objectives are notbased on shared technology transfer far in advance and on a limited to its strategic partners. Managementtechnological case-by-case basis and make choices accor- ding to its innovation objectives, possible deve- of the innovation portfolio will naturally also include seeking partners for direct technologyperspectives, lopment initiatives for the target technology and transfer and spin-offs. the related technology transfer methods. There Technology startups yield essential leve-will lead to joint are more synergies to be realized between the rage for the transfer policy. Opportunities for innovation target, the potentially applicable new businesses must be sought as widely asparticipation technology and the implementation strategy. possible to facilitate synergy between tech- Along with the Institute’s partners, the Institute’s nical innovations and innovations in the usesin national and research, technology development and transfer and applications of technology. Several toolsEuropean program and innovation divisions are fully involved in developing these complex connections, which will be made available to define a proactive process for launching businesses, including ainitiatives rather require multiple layers of interaction between virtual meeting place for working on spin-off the scientific vision and economic and social projects. Improving the support mechanismsthan the opposite. requirements. for spin-offs, monitoring and assisting with Concrete actions for implementing this strategy these projects during their incubation period will naturally develop both within and around in order to find test clients and demonstrating the Institute. the technological and marketing concept will Internally, INRIA will analyze technology fore- be essential to technology transfer. casts and current research work in order to The direct technology transfer policy is identify potential technology transfer initiatives another component of the Institute’s proactive as early as possible according to industrial strategy. It requires an understanding of busi- needs. Small groups open to industrial experts ness sectors and key players’ expectations, as and innovators will carry out this process. It will well as prospecting, assistance and support be used to identify a portfolio of innovation for deploying the transferred technologies. initiatives in the form of research incentives, The innovation portfolio must be managed to technology development, early technology develop a consistent, logical INRIA offering. transfer and possibly intellectual property The technology transfer process requires protection. The corresponding process will use upstream study of development procedures monitoring and management mechanisms for and how software is actually transferred. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 11
    • 4. Research, Development and Transfer In addition, a technology transfer policy for Developing an international technology open-source software and other freely transfer and industrial partnership policy is available resources (models, data and docu- another objective of this plan. Several factors ments in various formats) must also be devised come into play, such as the presence of INRIA- and developed as part of this proactive stra- supported academic laboratories in emerging tegy. This involves identifying the leverage countries, the international deployment of expected from free circulation via communities industrial partners and the interest of foreign of developers and communities of users. It also companies in INRIA startups. requires providing mechanisms and tools to These objectives will have an impact on the create and lead these communities and to track Institute’s intellectual property policy. INRIA will the process of value creation for services and reinforce the mechanisms for protecting and uses. Achieving these objectives relies on an exploiting the intellectual property produced understanding of economic models for inno- by its teams. These mechanisms materially vative startups using open-source software, contribute to raising the profile and visibility which is now beginning to be effectively used of technological development. In addition to within INRIA in a few successful spin-offs (for software registration procedures, which are example ActiveEon and GeometryFactory). fairly well integrated within its teams, INRIA Finally, the policy described for supporting will be implementing a patent-filing policy standardization work in technological develop- with a clearly defined technological scope, ment (see 4..2) will also consider technology along with resources for raising awareness, transfer objectives. Wherever possible, it will training and assisting researchers. These intel- be implemented in a way that supports the lectual property protection mechanisms will objectives of our main strategic partners. be supported by developing a clear policy on open-source software (particularly for CECILL Business Sectors and Partnership licenses) whenever this method of technology Networks distribution is preferable. For instance, it may The proactive technology transfer strategy will be chosen for reasons of impact, because be consistent with business sector develop- communities of developers exist, or to support ment plans, accounting for every key player service activities with high technological or and identifying the initiatives most appropriate economic added value. for each sector. The Institute intends to work in the areas of telecommunications (infrastruc- 4.3.4 Training ture, services and equipment), energy, trans- through Research portation, sustainable development, defense and health, specifically biotechnology. The One of INRIA’s essential functions is to ICST sector as a whole will be approached support training through research for junior with a view to producing software and high PhD students in computer science and applied added value services. mathematics. It does this in close relationship INRIA’s must improve its position in compe- with its partner doctoral schools. PhD students titiveness clusters, which are open meeting have always had a key role in INRIA’s dynamic places for collaborative work with large industrial organization. companies and SMEs. The projects undertaken To encourage and monitor initiatives in favor of within clusters demonstrate this collaborative PhD students, the Institute has implemented an dimension through supportive, interdisciplinary active training through research program in technologies such as modeling and verification each center. INRIA supports the organization techniques and security tools. Our short-term of discipline-specific schools for PhD students objectives, in particular in clusters where INRIA and junior researchers and also awards grants is strongly represented, involve taking a greater to PhD student organizations. Sometimes the part in the decision-making bodies of the clus- Institute partners with these associations to ters, improving the clarity and consistency of collect reliable data on the future of junior PhD the projects’ underlying topics, and building graduates after their thesis. strong partnerships with SMEs to disseminate INRIA intends to continue to actively support these technologies. doctoral training, specifically emphasizing the114 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions quality of theses written within its research attract candidates (the proportion of female project-teams and, more generally, the quality PhD students has increased slightly but is of training received by PhD students and still low at 18%) and initiatives to increase their preparation for entering professional life the international recruitment pool (8% PhD after their thesis. To this end, the Institute will students were from abroad in 2007, a figure develop relationships with the doctoral schools which has been rising constantly since 2002). to which its researchers and teams are atta- Finally and most importantly, the Institute will ched. It will also continue to experiment with continue to work with its industrial partners to additional training for PhD students in the form raise the profile of research in their recruitment of corporate internships, computer science procedures. engineering assistant positions, seminars, Over the next few years, INRIA will be expan- participation in summer schools, etc. It will ding its policy of active partnership with provide ongoing training for its permanent doctoral schools. The Institute’s strong desire staff in teaching methods, training through to participate in the crucial development of research and assisting PhD students. national training through research initiatives In terms of quantity, the Institute will seek to for ICST demands that it consolidate its rela-Helping the general maintain growth in the number of PhD students accepted, just as it does for permanent resear- tionships with universities and engineering schools. INRIA will encourage its researcherspublic understand chers and research professors in its research to become more involved in training efforts centers. It will work with partner universities by providing a substantial ongoing trainingand adopt scientific in France and abroad to attract more foreign program in teaching methods and science students into French PhD courses. teaching.and methodological The attractiveness of PhD study in ICST In addition to its commitment to doctoral deserves special attention. INRIA will work training, INRIA will pursue and broaden itsknowledge is a clear with all of its partners (government minis- initiatives for hosting postdoctoral researchersnecessity in a world tries, universities, engineering schools, local government, companies, etc.) to push for in several areas: hosting young researchers for postdoctoral study on one of the Institute’swhere science and needed salary increases for PhD students, project-teams, sending young French PhD and above all for thesis funding. Recently, graduates for postdoctoral study abroad, andtechnology play the Institute was able to institute a program mixed arrangements such as those for ERCIM for funding the PhD students accepted into postdoctoral positions.a major economic its project-teams (subsidized INRIA doctoral Finally, INRIA will continue to host young engi- research contracts, or CORDI-S). This program neering graduates, to whom it offers introduc-and social role. complements the other options for hosting tory-level positions for several years, whichThis issue is researchers, including doctoral allowances. It differs in that its aim is to accept foreign PhD or provide additional technological training in hands-on research, usually followed by recruit-particularly constrained-mobility students who would find ment into the industry. it difficult or impossible to meet the schedulecritical for ICST. and procedures for regular applicants. The 4.3.5 Distributing Scientific CORDI-S program is extremely successful Information and Knowledge and represents an effective contribution to the attractiveness of studying ICST in France. Open Archives It will be expanded and, if possible, comple- Access to scientific information is essential mented through partnerships with companies for researchers and society as a whole. The and local government. publications of researchers in journals and For INRIA to meet its objectives for scientific scientific conference reports announce signi- excellence, both funding and the number of ficant advances in research, and it is on the candidates must increase. Several avenues basis of these publications that contributions will be pursued, such as running awareness are recognized, teams assessed and funded campaigns for young people (secondary and their global reputation established. schools and university undergraduates), The profound changes in access to information promoting jobs in computer science and provided by the Internet have dramatically mathematics research, specific initiatives to changed research practices. The scientific Strategic Plan 2008-2012 115
    • 4. Research, Development and Transfer community has adopted these new tools, Digital technologies have entered all sectors taking full advantage of the acceleration of of activity. There is a substantial risk that exchanges. In fact, these tools have created citizens will feel out of their depth in the a new economic model for scientific publi- demands placed on them to use techno- cations, which is more effective in spreading logy in their daily lives. If they do not clearly scientific knowledge: little by little, costly subs- understand the issues raised by using certain criptions are being replaced by free access sensitive applications, they may fail to use it for all readers with relatively little investment correctly or worse still, lose interest entirely. required from research organizations. The On the other hand, scientists and engineers October 200 Berlin Declaration, which INRIA often see computer science solely as a tool signed, declares: “For the first time ever, the and fail to take into account the basics and Internet now offers the chance to constitute a conceptual and fundamental potentials of the global and interactive representation of human field as a whole. knowledge, including cultural heritage and the This is why research issues and processes guarantee of worldwide access.” must be explained, along with the scientific This movement toward free access has grown autonomy of a field, which is indeed more than rapidly: a publication’s impact in terms of the visible technology it produces. INRIA is citations increases substantially if it is freely already a key player in scientific culture, and accessible on the Web and if its longevity is for three years now it has been developing guaranteed by an open archive available interactive multimedia content and making through one or more institutions. it freely accessible at www.interstices.info, INRIA is associated with the HAL open archive. a website created on the Institute’s initiative With its partners’ research organizations and and in partnership with the CNRS, universities universities, the Institute is committed to and the ASTI. making HAL the shared platform for recording Over the next few years, it is vital not only to scientific production by its researchers. INRIA ensure high levels of ongoing funding, but encourages its teams to register their work also to reach a wider audience, particularly in the HAL-INRIA open archive, which has a among high school students, with this elec- specific registration and consultation inter- tronic publication on the scientific culture face for ICST. INRIA hopes to register all of of ICST. It is also essential to increase the its publications in HAL rapidly, including any diversity of contributions across Europe, so publication that can be registered. Several that similar research in other countries and initiatives have been set up to this end, such research centers can be combined. as technical developments to make HAL a INRIA has set the following objectives for the practical, efficient tool, institutional visibility duration of the strategic plan: for those registering their work, easy mana- • in 2007, the Interstices website published gement of the bibliographical data of teams five new documents every month. The and researchers and support for registration Institute will encourage more researchers and training. to contribute, and will assist them with the Finally, the Institute will support the editorial process of formatting their contributions. activity of free-access scientific journals in its The site will feature articles accessible to field and will encourage all scientific publica- high school students for use in classes and tions to transition to free access, including practices, and will be promoted to teachers. the proceedings of the main conferences in The aim is to double monthly output over its field. a four-year period with the support of a reinforced editorial committee and tech- Diffusion of Knowledge nical team; Helping the general public understand and • INRIA will be taking its initiatives for scien- adopt scientific and methodological knowledge tific culture online in cooperation with the is a clear necessity in a world where science regional CCSTIs (or similar institutions) and technology play a major economic and and the national education ministry. The social role. Institute wishes to expand its presence This issue is particularly critical for ICST. within secondary schools, and will thus11 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions expand its efforts involving teachers to scientific contributions, technological develo- all research centers. This includes signing pments such as software, technology transfer agreements, sponsoring the mathematics activity, and the contributions of the team to Olympiad, organizing lectures by resear- teaching and training through research. The chers, organizing or sponsoring scientific process considers the objectives proposed by initiatives taken by teachers and distributing each project-team at its inception or renewal teaching resources in schools, such as the for a period of four years. All of INRIA’s work ABCs of computer science; within an area is presented at the seminar for • with its partner universities, INRIA will be evaluation, in particular joint work between supporting the development of subject- project-teams, and topics receiving excessive specific computational universities to or insufficient attention are pointed out. help spread scientific culture and distribute The evaluation report gives the experts’ teaching and pedagogical content; detailed opinion on the general economy of the • the Institute will work to improve understan- topic concerned and their appraisal of each ding of the challenges and potential of ICST of the project-teams. The teams are invited among elected officers and decision-makers to comment on the reviews. These docu- and to strengthen national and local public ments and evaluations by the Centers’ project policies in this area; committees are used by INRIA Evaluation • in Europe, INRIA will encourage the crea- Committee to draft recommendations on tion of a network of websites similar to whether or not each project-team shouldEvaluating Interstices with its partners. By exchanging be extended. Once the scientific committee or listing their text, image, video and inte- gives its opinion, the process ends with ais essential to ractive animation content and translating decision by the INRIA directors to either shut it when necessary, these sites will more down a given project-team or extend it for ascientific life at easily reach the critical mass needed to fixed term.the Institute, which ambitiously cover the field of ICST, while remaining highly responsive to the rapid INRIA’s overall evaluation process for its project-teams is highly dynamic and effec-consistently works progress in knowledge. tive. The Institute will maintain this evaluation process, in addition to the AERES assessmentto maintain the 4.3.6 Evaluating Research process for research teams in their geogra- and Technology Transfer phical context. The latter will provide INRIAquality and the rigor with an evaluation of the regional context of Evaluating project-teams and researchers is each research center.of the assessment essential to scientific life at the Institute, which It is important to stress that alongside tradi-process. consistently works to maintain the quality and the rigor of the assessment process. tional scientific production through publi- cation, which traditionally uses peer review INRIA project-teams are evaluated every four for assessment, this process must examine years. This assessment is carried out by topics and evaluate a very broad range of activities. and nation-wide in order to provide reviewers Software developments must be taken into with a full view of the Institute’s work in a given account, the impact of technology transfer field. The Institute is particularly attached to initiatives assessed, and training and mana- this aspect of its scientific life. The process gement appraised. Collective responsibilities is very demanding for the project-teams, who and inter-team and interdisciplinary scientific must position themselves in relation to all the leadership tasks must also be evaluated, teams working in the same area, no matter along with experiences in mobility, efforts to what their geographical location. This allows distribute scientific and technological infor- the Institute to maintain an overall vision of its mation to the general public, and all forms work and assignments, and to define overall of risk-taking. strategy and scientific policy. Again, the Institute will study its assessment A dozen academic and industrial reviewers, system in detail to better evaluate techno- many of them from outside of France, make logical development, both in improving the evaluations during a two-day seminar. The assessment of technology transfer and measu- objectives and criteria of assessment include ring its impact. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 117
    • 4.4 European and International Relations 4.4.1 INRIA’s Commitment which the Institute is already working with 4.4 in Europe many European industrial players. The Institute participated in 119 projects for European and Pursuing a strong commitment to building and developing European research is a the th FP, 9 of which were still under way at the end of 2007 and several of which will International major priority for INRIA’s policy. By combi- continue into 2010. The 7th FP, scheduled Relations ning excellence in research and technology transfer, INRIA draws on this commitment to to run until 201, has just been launched. 18 new proposals where chosen from the first consolidate its position in Europe. call for proposals, for a success rate of 2.9% (compared with 17% Europe-wide). The INRIA and Framework Programs Institute will continue to be heavily involved The sixth and seventh framework programs in this program. represent major challenges for INRIA. The INRIA is also pro-actively involved on the Institute aims to use them to consolidate its European Research Council (ERC). It encou- strong position in Europe, relying on its expe- rages its junior researchers to apply as soon rience with previous framework programs. as a competition is announced in their field, This effort will mainly affect the Information and will continue to do so for future calls and Communication Technologies priority, for for proposals, particularly for experienced researchers. Across Europe, a total of 9,17 applications were submitted in all disciplines, including 2 (0.28%) from INRIA. 559 appli- cations were selected for the second stage,  of them (0.54%) from INRIA. In parallel with the FP, some INRIA research centers are developing cross-border exchanges with neighboring institutions. For example, the Lille - Nord Europe Research Center is involved in an initiative under the INTERREG program and is preparing to set up a joint IPT with the CWI in Amsterdam, while the Nancy - Eastern France Research Center is making considerable efforts to strengthen a cross-border partnership between INRIA, the Max Planck Institute, the DFKI, the Fraunhofer Institute, and the Universities of Sarrebrücken, Kaiserslautern, and Luxembourg. Photo à insérer The ERCIM Consortium The ERCIM consortium, which now has 18 members from 18 European countries, is the only organization of its kind in Europe. Over the years, with support from INRIA, ERCIM has become more open to and representative of the scientific and technological commu- nity in the field of ICST, to the point that the European Commission is beginning to rely on it to monitor community research operations and relationships with other regions of the world. The consortium has also improved its international visibility by becoming the Viviane Reding, European Commissioner for Information Society and Media, European host for the WC. For all of these with Michel Cosnard. reasons, and because of its many task forces118 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions and increasingly successful program for cooperation by developing partnerships in postdoctoral grants, ERCIM is a driving force targeted geographic areas. behind INRIA’s European commitment. It The main focus of INRIA’s international stra- must now consolidate its reputation as an tegy is making the Institute more attrac- essential tool for promoting ICST throughout tive and able to recruit and accept foreign Europe. students and researchers. INRIA is a strong proponent of hiring foreign researchers for European Industrial Partnerships permanent positions, extending invitations to INRIA will pursue efforts beyond the scope visiting researchers on sabbatical and hosting of the FP to develop relationships with major postdoctoral researchers and students. There European industrial companies that hold are several tools available in this area, such leading positions worldwide in areas relating as the internship program. to its research priorities. To this end, the Developing partnerships with leading foreign Institute is participating in the Eurêka ITEA university and industrial laboratories is a and ITEA-2 programs for embedded and constant factor in international policy. INRIA distributed software (INRIA project-teams has several flexible options to achieve this, are currently partners for 10 ITEA and ITEA- including the associate teams program, 2 projects). Ministry of Foreign Affairs programs (Marie The Institute also pays particular attention Curie grants) and programs at other world- to European technological platforms (ETP) in wide institutions (NSF, JSPS, CNPQ, etc.). its field, which are of vital importance. One In addition to these general priorities, INRIAOver the FP, permanent researcher has agreed to serve organizes its international policy by geogra- as the scientific contact for each of these phical area.INRIA will platforms and monitor the ETP’s scientific • The strong partnership with North Americapursue efforts work and projects. The platforms are: Artemis (Embedded Computing Systems), eMobility is vital given the United States’ expertise in the ICST and the life sciences.beyond the scope (the Mobile and Wireless Communications • More cooperative efforts will be deve- Technology Platform), EPoSS (European loped with China, Hong Kong, Taiwan,of the FP to develop Technology Platform on Smart Systems Singapore and India. The aim is to quickly Integration), EUROP (European Robotics and substantially increase the number ofrelationships Platform), ISI (Integral Satcom Initiative), people moving from one continent to the NEM (Networked and Electronic Media), other, particularly young people. The LIAMAwith major European NESSI (Networked European Software laboratory in Beijing is a cornerstone ofindustrial companies. and Services Initiative) and IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative). INRIA belongs to the this objective. • INRIA will continue to support training management organizations of these plat- through research in Africa in general, and forms and helps to develop their strategic North Africa in particular. The objective is research agendas. to encourage exchanges between resear- The Institute is also keen to ensure a positive chers, co-supervision of theses and joint outcome for the AIR&D consortium, formed research projects. The Institute will encou- by Philips, Thomson and Fraunhofer, a major rage Masters Degree programs to be esta- success of its European industry partnership blished in Africa by sending its researchers policy. on local assignments. This policy is part of the existing partnership and aims to limit 4.4.2 Cooperation with brain drain. Asia, North America and • Further efforts will be pursued in South America, particularly Brazil, Chile, Uruguay Southern Countries and Argentina, where there are sizeable INRIA is a world-class institute of excel- skills clusters in computer science and lence in its field. As international competi- applied mathematics. The usual resources tion increases and ICST becomes a leading will be used to establish effective coope- priority in national research policies, it is vital ration (calls for joint projects, internships, that the Institute expands its international associate teams, etc.). Strategic Plan 2008-2012 119
    • 4.4 European and International Relations Programs INRIA will pursue its four main programs for international relations. The associate teams program, which aims to develop close coope- ration with foreign partners, will be expanded, particularly for Asia. The internship program will encourage the involvement of young students in INRIA research teams to build up a pool of potential scientific colleagues and to increase the international visibility of ICST. Two relatively small programs will also be expanded: the sabbatical visit program, which aims to increase mobility of INRIA researchers to foreign academic and indus- trial laboratories, and the explorers program, which encourages junior researchers to enrich their international experience by facilita- ting short stays in the Institute’s partner laboratories. 10th anniversary of LIAMA, Beijing. The Institute intends to maintain the general functional directors form the management 4.5 organization implemented in late 200, as described below, for the 2008-2012 period. This committee. Overall management is provided according to a Internal organization is divided into three distinct mana- gement levels: research project-teams, research matrix that separates the “operational produc- tion structures,” or research centers and their Organization and centers (which combine project-teams with teams and services, from the “functional lines,” Operation research, development and technology transfer support institutions under directors providing which are operated by the administrative divi- sions; each of these two segments is responsible both scientific and managerial leadership) and for part of the Institute’s policy. This leaves the nationally managed administrative services. The research centers and their project-teams with latter includes the senior management (CEO and a great deal of delegated responsibility. Over VPs) and nine functional department: the coming years, INRIA intends to continue • the research department, the technological decentralizing its organization by directly invol- development department, the technology ving directors of Research Centers within the transfer and innovation department, the management committee. One area for impro- European partnership department and the vement will be the matrix pattern of operations, international relations department. These five specifically the mechanisms for coordination, scientific department are supervised by the reporting and management control (in the broad CEO for science and technology; sense) and required internal assessments. This • the human resources department, the admi- matrix-based organization is certainly more nistrative, financial and assets departmentand complex than a straightforward hierarchy of the information systems, infrastructure and responsibilities. Nonetheless, it is necessary computing services department. These three for a research organization that wishes to department, in addition to the administrative provide true independence for its centers and department are supervised by the CEO for project-teams without becoming a federation administration of resources and services; of independent centers. The administrative • the communications department. divisions play a vital role in ensuring that the The four members of the senior management, Institute’s policy is applied across the board. the eight research center directors and nine They will be asked to refocus on management120 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions and assessment, as well as implementing the while doing everything in its power to meet the decisions, procedures and tools that provide needs of its personnel. For the purposes of this a framework for decentralized management discussion, the INRIA’s human resources include by the research centers themselves under the not only regular staff, researchers, support guidance of center directors. To allow this, staff and personnel on short term contracts in these administrative divisions will be relieved different categories, but also the many external of day-to-day operations by concentrating employees who are not paid by the Institute but administrative and logistical support functions are directly involved in its project-teams, with within the head office administration department the same management needs. established in 2007. The Institute’s strategic approach to human This transition relates to the broad guidelines resources, which requires a considerably more provided in the two preceding sections and the efficient information system (see below), will be responsibilities of the human resources and organized around three major aspects: support functions. The first part of this document • building an employment policy on a pros-The INRIA’s human described the constant effort to improve the pective vision. Because its organization isresources include quality and efficiency of research support and assistance. Aspects of this include pursuing the constantly changing, the Institute must anti- cipate changes in research work in order tonot only regular decentralization policy and applying a quality adapt to future scientific challenges. Extensive procedure wherein all players are responsible efforts must be made to analyze the moststaff, researchers, for management, developing the information dramatic changes in research support (compu- system, implementing more efficient methods ting, development, management, etc.) andsupport staff and and tools for management and management the Institute must anticipate developments control, and sharing a common management in positions and skills (obsolete and emer-personnel on short culture. ging positions, work which can be pooledterm contracts in 4.5.1 Human Resources Policy or outsourced, etc.). This analysis must be extended to include scientific work, such asdifferent categories, enhancing career paths, future prospects for Under its previous strategic plan, the Institute PhD students and graduates and the nume-but also the many committed to modernizing its administrative rous French and foreign staff working with approach, which resulted in significant changes INRIA on a temporary basis each year;external employees in its human resources management policy. • improving collective and individual moni- Personnel management is no longer an essen- toring of careers. Existing structures forwho are not paid tially administrative task focused on applying researchers and individual assessment forby the Institute but rules and regulations, but rather a truly dynamic development function that aims to balance legis- support staff will be used as the basis for developing new training and assistanceare directly involved lative requirements with the Institute’s desire to resources that allow individuals to pursue see its staff and skills progress. This transition their personal preferences while promoting thein its project-teams, was achieved using the possibilities offered by Institute’s ambitions. For researchers, this will the Finance Legislation Framework Law. involve setting guidelines to suggest possiblewith the same More than ever before, mobilizing the human professional career paths, not only in terms of resources necessary for research is a major scientific expertise but also managerial skills.management needs. challenge for the Institute. The risks of scientific For support staff, the annual review process careers being abandoned by young people, that has been used for several years gives a mounting competition between the different detailed description of which skills are being stakeholders in French and foreign research to used; a multi-year master plan for professional attract the best people, and rapid changes in training will facilitate progress by combining technologies, related skills and business have collective needs with personal preferences; made human resources management a key to • professionalizing management practices. future success. The Institute’s managers will continue to Relying on its many assets, INRIA will continue receive support. INRIA has already deve- to consolidate its human resources policy and loped a management handbook; the next systematically review related activities to keep step is to set up a true internal “manage- pace with both internal and external changes, ment school”. In an ever-changing research Strategic Plan 2008-2012 121
    • 4.5 Internal Organization and Operation environment, managers must have access ments are implemented, in particular linking to training courses right from the outset of invoices with order forms and automating repe- their careers and continuously thereafter to titive tasks. help them understand their environment and The management system developed as of 2007 exercise their responsibilities, provide better will gradually be deployed, providing stakehol- management tools, and spread a common ders and decision-makers with the resources culture that facilitates shared objectives. for true management control. This in turn will Initiatives are also being developed to keep in rein in budgets and streamline support costs, touch with former INRIA staff by setting up and which are currently skyrocketing as INRIA’s maintaining a network both for professional operations expand and diversify. Achieving contacts, particularly with businesses in the this final objective also requires establishing a sector, and job seeking. purchasing policy that can be combined with Finally, since the involvement of more women in analysis of cost factors to develop more efficient ICST – a sector that attracts considerably fewer budgets. To this end, analytical accounting must of them than do other sectors – would enrich be expanded beyond its current use, which its research, INRIA will do more to promote the focuses mainly on accounting for expenditures participation of women among its scientists, on in executing European contracts. its decision-making bodies, and in positions of Management control also entails increased responsibility. professionalism on the part of stakeholders. With all of these initiatives, it is important to A large-scale training plan will be implemented remember that trade union organizations are to instill management culture within the organi- valuable partners in a strategic approach to zation. This will improve understanding of highly human resources management that takes technical tasks, particularly those relating to VAT the needs of all staff into account. Productive and assets. We expect that it will improve overall dialogue between staff and management management quality, which has become even is needed for both individual and collective more essential in light of account certification success. requirements. Another key area for improvement in terms of 4.5.2 Internal Operations simplifying administration is the management mandates applied to joint research organiza- Reliable and Simplified Administrative and tions and more generally with INRIA’s partner Financial Management institutions. Management improvement relies on the finan- cial and accounting modernization protocol An Information System Extended to All signed in 200, which aimed to overhaul and Spheres of Activity simplify the Institute’s administrative, accoun- Running a multi-site and multi-player organiza- ting and financial management. The prospect tion like INRIA smoothly requires an information of certified accounts, as described in the system that is much more efficient and complete financial security law that INRIA must apply than at present, or even fully integrated. Such a starting in 2009, requires overhauling many system favors decentralizing operations to many internal processes, particularly those relating to different responsibility and networking hubs. investment management, separation of fiscal At the end of 2007, the Institute adopted an years, asset assessment, income valuation and “information system orientation plan” to guide debt assessment. the research centers and functional divisions Formalized internal control and auditing, in developing the information system in three for which the Institute has recently developed major directions over the coming years: working methods, will help to improve admi- • developing a service mentality to improve nistrative quality. Updating documentation for efficiency for the various business lines and all procedures and operating modes for the users by developing new networking methods new information system, will provide support and increasing accessibility to internal and for everyone involved. external resources; Processes will be faster and more reliable once • systematizing a global approach to paperless techniques for accounting docu- these services, guaranteeing consistency122 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • A ctions and forward compatibility with two objec- that maintain the delicate balance between tives: achieving openness and interopera- diversity and unity: an electronic publication bility with the information systems of the for sharing news briefs among disciplines; a Institute’s partners information systems, and newsletter from the management committee; supplying the synthesized data necessary for a network of internal websites dedicated to management; the project-teams, research centers, business • broadly applying a quality procedure to lines and functional types of action; and a policy improve the reliability and availability of for welcoming new arrivals that involves the services and help the organization share skills human resources and communications depart- more effectively. ments of each center, taking the form of an One priority will be deploying a high-perfor- annual newcomers’ seminar and welcome pack mance human resources information system available nation-wide. (HRIS). It will be extended functionally and The challenge for the coming years is to modernized in two phases: once the most encourage all staff to internalize the Institute’s urgent, short-term needs are met (2008-2009), constantly changing focus. In this area, internal a more ambitious project will be launched to communications will serve to unify the Institute, fully cover all the necessary functions by the both nationally and within each Center. Existing end of the strategic plan. media are not suitable for this function, since Other strategic areas identified for the Institute’s they provide information rather than motivation.In addition to sharing information system include encouraging “total INRIA’s 40th anniversary offered an opportunity communication” through permanent ultra- to launch a far more unifying medium, Codeinformation, which high-speed access to resources in all work Source, which has been a resounding success. situations (on INRIA’s sites, on external sites, Similarly, preparing for the Computer Scienceis one main function, when traveling in France or abroad); provi- and Society forum in Lille in late 2007 requiredcommunication ding staff with a set of adaptable and flexible tools to meet requirements for working over a great deal of collective effort and offered an opportunity for stimulating discussion aboutprovides INRIA the network (scientific collaboration, project the Institute’s shared values. These efforts must management, document and data sharing, be pursued.with an identity etc.); supporting the work of researchers by Implementing strategic plan, rolling out the mana- providing access to publications and reports gement procedure, developing a quality proce-to assist change and mechanisms for distribution and moni- dure and supporting development for managers toring, platform operation, application and are all projects which the Institute intends toand coordinate the contract tracking, etc.; extending the func- pursue in the years ahead. Implementingdevelopment of a tional scope of management tools by making them interoperable with external information projects like these inevitably requires change, and the passive resistance to this change thatmanagement culture. systems; developing measurement and mana- often develops can impede their implemen- gement tools; and developing a computer tation and affect the expected performance. security policy (PSSI) that reconciles protec- This is why such sweeping projects must be tion requirements with the need for openness supported by structured communications. The and flexibility. strategic management of the Institute’s human resources must be visible and shared by all. It is Internal Communications essential that this policy be understood as the Communication is a complex and constantly Institute experiences massive growth and sets changing task at INRIA, a growing multi-site up new research centers. Everyone involved establishment involved in many partnerships, must have the tools necessary to understand which encourages high turnover of temporary their professional environment, which provides staff in addition to its vital permanent base of meaning, strengthens ties and develops a feeling core competencies. In addition to sharing infor- of belonging and a collective context for all those mation, which is one main function, communi- involved. Further objectives include developing cation provides INRIA with an identity to assist internal communications at the Institute’s head change and coordinate the development of a office (which are currently far less developed management culture. Over the last few years, than at the research centers) and coordinating the Institute has adopted information channels national and local efforts. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 12
    • CEO A C Chief executive officer CERMICS AERES CADP Computer science and scientific compu-Research and higher education evaluation Construction and Analysis of Distributed ting research and teaching centeragency Processes CHU AESE CAD Teaching hospitalAeronautics, space and embedded Computer Assisted Designsystems (competitiveness cluster) CIRAD AII CAPRI Center for international cooperation inAII Industrial innovation agency Secure networks of sensors (cf. Minalogic) agronomical research for developmentAIR&D Ambient Intelligence Research & CARI CITI Development African conference on research Center for innovations in telecommunica- in computer science tion and service integrationALADDIN Technological development action relating CASP CMAP to the GRID 5000 infrastructure Critical Assessment of techniques Center of applied mathematics for protein Structure PredictionANR CNPQ National research agency Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento CCSTI Científico e Tecnológico (Brazil) Scientific, technical and industrial cultureARC centerCooperative research action CNRS National scientific research center CDRI ARCADIA Officer in charge of the developmentQuadric, algorithm, implementation and of industrial relations CORDI-S application arrangements State-subsidized INRIA doctoral research contract CEA ARTEMIS Atomic energy centerProgram for Embedded Systems R&Din Europe CPER State-region project contract CEA-DSV Atomic energy center - Life sciencesARTEMISIA ARTEMIS Industrial Association division CPU French university chancellors’ conferenceASTI CECILL French association for information French open source software license CPU science and technology [for Ce(A)C(nrs)I(NRIA)L(ogiciel)L(ibre)] Central Processing Unit124 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • GCSAIL lossary AERES > FTTH ERC EComputer Science and Artificial European Research CouncilIntelligence Laboratory (MIT, UnitedStates) ERCIM EADS European Research Consortium for European Aeronautic Defense and Space Informatics and MathematicsCSTB companyFrench building research center ETP ECG European Technology PlatformCWI ElectrocardiogramCentrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica ETSI (Netherlands) EDF European Telecommunications Standards InstituteD Électricité de France EDP EUROFI Partial differential equations Banking and Finance in EuropeDARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects EDT EUROP Agency (United States) European Robotics Platform Experimentation and development F departmentDFKI Deutsche Forschungszentrum für EEG Künstliche Intelligenz (Germany) Electroencephalogram FCE Business competitiveness fund (see DGE)DGA EIFFEL French national armament agency Evolved Internet Future for European FIND Leadership Future Internet Network Design (see NSF)DGE ELM FIRE French business agency Extended length message Future Internet Research and ExperimentationDirDRI ENS French agency for development and École normale supérieure FT industrial relations France Telecom EPoSS European Platform on Smart Systems FT R&D DNA Integration France Telecom Research andDeoxyribonucleic acid Development EPST DTN Public scientific and technological FTTH Delay-Tolerant Networking institution Fiber To The Home Strategic Plan 2008-2012 125
    • INRA G I National institute for agricultural research INRIA GENI ICST National institute for research in computerGlobal Environment for Networking Information and communication science science and automatic controlInnovations (see NSF) and technology INSA IECN National institute of applied scienceGET Institut Elie Cartan (in Nancy)Telecommunications schools group INSERM National institute for health and medical IEEE GIS research Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsScientific interest group Engineers INTERREG GMD Acronym for a European program on IETF cooperation between border regionsGesellschaft für Mathematik und Internet Engineering Task ForceDatenverarbeitung (Germany) IPv6 IFN Internet Protocol vGMO National forestry inventoryGenetically modified organism IPT IFREMER INRIA project-teamGNP French institute of research for the exploi-Gross national product tation of the sea IRIA Research institute for computer science IMB and automatic controlGPU Bordeaux mathematics instituteGraphics Processing Unit IRISA H Research institute for computer science IMI and random systems Innovative Medicines InitiativeHAL IRSN INA Hyper Article Online Institute for radiological protection and National audiovisual institute nuclear safetyHQE INPG ISI High energy quality National polytechnic institute in Grenoble Integral Satcom InitiativeHRIS INPL ISO Human resources information system National polytechnic institute in Lorraine International Standards Organization12 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • GITA lossary LIFL GENI > NEMS LSV Engineers, technicians and administrative Lille pure computer science laboratory Specification and verification laboratorystaffITEA Information Technology for European LIG Grenoble computer science laboratory MAdvancement MEMS LINA Microelectromechanical systems Nantes Atlantique computer scienceITER laboratoryInternational Thermonuclear ExperimentalReactor MERCATOR Mercator Ocean public interest groupJ LIP Parallel computer science laboratory MIGP Pau geosciences imaging and modelingJAD LIP6 University of Paris  computer science laboratoryJean-Alexandre Dieudonné laboratory laboratory MINALOGIC JCP Java Community Process LIRMM Micro-nano technologies and embedded Montpellier computer science, robotics software intelligence (competitiveness and microelectronics laboratory cluster)JSPS Japan Society for the Promotionof Science LIX MIT L École Polytechnique computer science Massachusetts Institute of Technology laboratory (United States) LJK MOST LABRI Jean Kuntzmann laboratoryBordeaux laboratory for computer science Ministry of Science and Technologyresearch (China) LMA Pau applied mathematics laboratoryLAGIS MPG Automatic control, computer engineering Max Planck Gesellschaft (Germany)and signal processing laboratory N LMD Dynamic meteorology laboratoryLIAMA Franco-Chinese laboratory for computerscience, automatic control and applied LORIA Lorraine laboratory for computer science NEM mathematics and applications research Networked and Electronic MediaLIENS École normale supérieure computer LRI NEMS science laboratory (see ENS) Computer science research laboratory Nano Electro Mechanical Computers Strategic Plan 2008-2012 127
    • NESSI O RNetworked European Software andServices Initiative ODL R&D NICTA Research and development Software development operationNational Information and CommunicationTechnologies Australia OLSR RATP The Paris transport authority Optimized Link State Routing protocolNIH Nuclear magnetic resonance RFID OMG Radio-frequency identification OBJECT Management GroupNIST National Institute of Standards and RIIT Technology (United States) ONERA Cross border tourist route networks (see National office for aerospace studies and INTERREG) researchNITRD PNetworking and Information Technology RTRA Thematic advanced research networkResearch and Development Program S(United States) P2P NMR Peer to peerNuclear magnetic resonance SARIMA Support for computer science and mathe- PACA matics research in AfricaNOEMS Provence - Alpes - Côte d’Azur regionNano Opto Electro Mechanical Systems SCS PCRD Secure communication systems (competi- Research and development framework tiveness cluster)NS3 programNational Security Swath Ship (DCNSgroup) SICONOS PFE European Modeling, Simulation and Control of Non-smooth Dynamical Experimental platformsNSF Systems projectNational Science Foundation (UnitedStates) PRES SIS Research and higher education cluster Spontaneous information systemNWO Nederlanse Organisatie voor PSSI SME Wetenshappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands) Information systems security policy Small and medium-sized companies128 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
    • GSNCF lossary NESSI > W3CFrench national railwaysSOCs Systems-On-ChipsSTM abbreviation for STMicroelectronicsTTDITechnological development actionUUCSDUniversity of California, San Diego (UnitedStates)UDLR Unidirectional Link Routing protocolUNSA University of Nice - Sophia AntipolisUSTL Lille university of science and technologyVVAT Value added taxWW3C World Wide Web Consortium Strategic Plan 2008-2012 129
    • Document published by the General Management of INRIALayout:Photo credits: © INRIA / J. Wallace, C. Lebedinsky, J.M.Ramès, A.S. Douard - © CNES / Distribution Spot Image / 1998- © Airbus S.A.S. / 2008 - © Frédéric Cirou - © DigitalVisionISBN 2-7261-1296 8January 2008