Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012


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Inria - Strategic plan 2008-2012

  1. 1. INRIA Strategic Plan 2008 2012 -
  2. 2. C ontents 1 1.1 INRIA: A Brief History From Inception to the Late 1990s page 6 1.2 1999-2003: Unprecedented Growth page 8 1.3 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth page 10 2 2.1 ICST Research: Context and Key Issues Societal Issues page 28 2.2 Scientific and Technological Challenges page 31 2.3 The International and National Framework 3 for ICST Research page 33 INRIA: Strategic Priorities and Ambitions 3.1 Modeling, Programming, Communicating and Interacting page 41 3.1.1 Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems page 42 3.1.2 rogramming: security and reliability P of computing systems page 48 3.1.3 Information, Computation and Communication Everywhere page 56 3.1.4 Interaction with Real and Virtual Worlds page 64 3.2 Computational Sciences and Engineering page 71 3.2.2 Computational Sciences page 78 3.2.3 Computational Medicine page 88 3.3 Social Concerns Covered by INRIA Priorities page 93 4 3.4 Emerging Fields page 95 Actions and Strategy for Achieving the Objectives 4.1 INRIA’s Role in France page 98 4.2 Improving the Institute’s Attractiveness page 100 4.3 Research, Development and Transfer page 110 4.4 European and International Relations page 118 4.5 Internal Organization and Operation page 120 Glossary page 124 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  3. 3. INRIA:A Brief HistoryIn this chapter: H1.1 From Inception to the Late 1990s page 61.2 1999-2003: Unprecedented Growth page 81.3 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth page 10
  4. 4. H istory
  5. 5. 1.1 From Inception to the Late 1990s INRIA’s strategy for the coming years draws on its but also a visionary who, as early as the 1950s, history, and in particular the strong growth dynamic understood that the advent of computers would lead to major advances in applied mathematics that developed in the early 2000s. and computer science. Several aspects of the rich heritage left by Jacques-Louis Lions are still 1.1 IRIA, the French institute for computer science in evidence at INRIA today: and automatic control research, was founded in • a research institute combining computer 197 at Rocquencourt, near Versailles, as part of science, automatic control and applied mathe-From Inception to the “Computer Development Plan” designed to improve French computer science research and matics within a single institution, where they interact with each other in depth; the Late 1990s the industry. It was renamed INRIA in 1979 and • a positive vision of industrial relations as a gained the status of EPST* (public scientific and source of promising new research questions; technological establishment) in 1985. • a structure based on teams of 10-20 resear- Most of the foundational work was carried out by chers sharing common goals, called “research Jacques-Louis Lions, who performed research project-teams”, without any intermediate, in applied mathematics at IRIA starting in 197 department-like structure; and became the first chairman of INRIA, from • special attention paid to training, particularly 1979 until 1984. He was not only one of the grea- doctoral training, in close cooperation with test applied mathematicians of the 20th century, universities and engineering schools; • strong involvement in international cooperation. Alain Bensoussan, automatic control specialist, professor at the University of Paris-Dauphine and former colleague of Jacques-Louis Lions, succeeded the latter as chairman of INRIA from 1984 to 199. Bensoussan continued in the same vein as his predecessor, consolidating INRIA’s reputation in Europe and worldwide. The Institute played a pioneering role in introducing the Internet in France and supporting the creation of companies as early as 1984: 25 companies were launched between 1984 and 1994, including Ilog, a world leader in software components for optimization. INRIA became heavily involved in consolidating European Research Area, in particular by creating the ERCIM Consortium in Germany, founded in 1989 with the GMD, and the CWI in the Netherlands. In 1995, INRIA was chosen by MIT and the European Commission to be the European host for the World Wide Web Consortium (WC), the web standards body. During the same period, INRIA developed major partnerships with French research orga- nizations and universities. New research units were created : the first one on the Rennes University campus in 1980, followed by one in 198 in the brand new Sophia-Antipolis techno- logy cluster near Nice and still another in Lorraine in 198 on the Nancy University campus. The fifth research unit, Rhône-Alpes, was opened in Grenoble in 1992, with a branch in Lyon. Jacques-Louis Lions - 1980. * A list of acronyms can be found in the appendix. Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  6. 6. H istory In 1994, INRIA issued its first Strategic Plan, Lorraine and Rhône-Alpes. The Institute’s work which emphasized the role of information and in general suffered from the lack of research communication science and technology (ICST) support staff (engineers, technicians and admi- in disseminating information, as well as the nistrative personnel) needed to support research importance of applications and industrial rela- adequately. The situation was further complicated tions, and introduced the motto reflecting the by the fact that CNRS and university research Institute’s strategic goals: scientific excellence departments had to start signing contracts with and technology transfer. The plan energized the Ministry for their funding around 1995-199. INRIA and its staff to develop activities capi- This new development created tension between talizing on research, as can be seen from the INRIA and these establishments, because it was fact that the Institute’s resources for research difficult to reconcile the Institute’s organization contracts doubled between 1994 and 1999, into small teams with organizations based on whereas the permanent workforce increased departments. by barely 10%. This was also a period of major external change, with the “convergence” of computing, telecommunications and audiovisual technology, the deregulation of telecommunica- tions, and the rapid growth of the Internet and information and communication technology. In keeping with these changes, INRIA significantly redirected its research efforts and began to focus on communications, especially on Internet and web technologies and network modeling. At the same time, the Institute actively continued its work in the field of medical technology, which had been developing gradually since the early 1990s. During the period from 1984-199, several aspects of INRIA’s internal policy were re-emphasized: • the Institute improved the quality and rigor of the research project-team assessment process and encouraged researchers to create new project-teams and take on more leadership roles within them; • it increased its efforts to support the creation of companies; • it promoted openness by strongly encouraging mobility for researchers and engineers and by recruiting more widely from the pool of external candidates; • INRIA expanded its partnerships with French research organizations by developing more projects jointly with other establishments and by launching the highly successful concept of “cooperative research initiatives,” which were open to external teams, to develop new joint efforts and address original research topics. During this period, however, the Institute also encountered some serious problems. These difficulties were linked in part to the unfavorable economic context and the heavy constraints on the State budget, which made it very difficult to expand the two most recent research units in Strategic Plan 2008-2012 7
  7. 7. 1.2 1999-200: Unprecedented Growth Bernard Larrouturou, applied mathematician four-year contract, which called for increasing 1.2 and professor at the Ecole Polytechnique, was appointed president of INRIA in 199. From 1997 the number of government-funded positions at INRIA from 7 in 2000 to 1,100 and 80 fixed- 1999-2003: onward, INRIA increased its efforts to advocate the strategic importance of information and term contracts in 200. Receiving such a high priority despite the budget constraints on funding Unprecedented communication science and technology (ICST) for research over the following years meant that Growth in France and throughout Europe. In 1999, the Institute adopted an ambitious new strategic by 200, INRIA had 1,148 state-funded positions: 1,01 permanent positions and 117 fixed term plan, strongly urging that ICST be given a clear contracts. priority in the national research policy. The plan also stated INRIA’s resolve to consolidate its An Institute in the Thick of International leading role within the national program and its Competition ambition to play a more active role in the fierce The Institute considerably stepped up its efforts international competition in ICST, aiming to be to attract more foreign research scientists, recognized within a few years as the European aiming to become far more international in leader and one of the best research centers in scope: one-third of the permanent research its field worldwide. scientists recruited by INRIA between 2001 and 200 were not of French nationality. In addi- A Top Priority for Government Authorities tion, the Institute greatly expanded its visiting 2000 was a pivotal year: the Interministerial researcher policy, reserving approximately Council for the Information Society held on July one-third of all positions created for visiting 10, 2000 and chaired by the prime minister professors and civil servants from French noted that the strategic plan drafted by INRIA government technical bodies. Fixed-term the year before had been a determining factor contracts were also offered to recent enginee- in defining an ambitious national ICST policy, ring graduates to offer them a highly technical and it announced a significant increase in experience as they entered the working world. government research efforts in the field. In cooperation with partner universities and The prime minister agreed to double the engineering schools, INRIA strove to increase Institute’s resources over a ten-year period, the number of PhD students on research and announced the signing of the 2000-200 project-teams. This number rose from 50 to 750 between the first half of 2000 and the first half of 200; one-third of the students were foreigners. There were many indicators that INRIA’s inter- national influence was expanding rapidly: more articles published in international jour- nals with greater impact, over and above the increase in staff; more foreign visitors, especially from Asia and all across Europe; the Institute’s heavy involvement in the fifth European Union Framework Program (FP), where it was much more involved than in the fourth FP; and the increasing renown of the ERCIM consortium, led by INRIA and serving as European host for the WC in 200, on the Institute’s initiative. Many observers began to see the institute as one of the leading European research centers in its field. A strategic assessment committee made up almost exclusively of well-known figures from abroad – the Visiting Committee – met for the first time in 2002 to assess the work Object tracking — MAIA. of the Institute’s management and evaluate8 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  8. 8. H istory INRIA as a whole . Finally, the 200 overhaul of tific golas and the first field of application, the INRIA’s scientific council provided the oppor- Institute considerably expanded its research tunity to give the board a clearly European on telecommunications networks (broadband composition. networks, mobiles, wireless, ad hoc), multimedia data transport and processing, middleware Stronger National Partnerships development for distributed computing and grid and Leadership computing. In addition, the fields of health and In France, INRIA expanded its partnerships biology were far more successful than expected, with higher-education establishments. In 200, making substantial advances in bioinformatics, almost two-thirds of the Institute’s research medical technology and neurosciences. projects were joint projects with such establis- INRIA’s commitment to focus its efforts on hments – roughly twice as many as in 1999. The high-priority subjects also affected its work on development plan approved by the Board of technology transfer. Despite economic diffi- Directors called for opening three new research culties, the telecommunications sector stood units over the long term in the southwest and out as the prime industrial field to which INRIA the north of France and on the Saclay plateau. research contributed, and it developed close On January 1, 2002, the Institute decided to partnerships with leading European and inter- create a virtual sixth research unit called Futurs, national companies, including Alcatel, France based on the Bordeaux, Lille and Saclay sites, Telecom, Hitachi and Philips. The Institute’s to serve as an incubator for the new units and industrial relationships in France, especially with assist in integrating them into the internal struc- SMEs, expanded through its involvement with the ture of INRIA. national research and technological innovation At the same time, the Institute implemented a networks set up by the government. INRIA and itsINRIA’s commitment geographical expansion policy for each of the five subsidiary INRIA-Transfert, founded in 1998 to actto focus its efforts on older research units: in 200, there were around fifteen “off-site” project-teams in Besançon, as incubator and set up the very first funds, reso- lutely pursued their start-up support activities. Thehigh-priority subjects Cachan, Lannion, Marne-la-Vallée, Marseille, number of companies incubated at INRIA topped Metz, Paris and Lyon. 0. Based on its experience with the WC, thealso affected its Institute encouraged the creation of consortiums Clear Scientific Policy with academic and industrial partners to sharework on technology In light of the government’s priorities, the Institute development efforts and increase the chances devoted itself to focusing on the following five of success for several open-source softwaretransfer. high-priority goals : packages arising from INRIA research, such as • mastering the digital infrastructure by being able Scilab and ObjectWeb. to program, compute and communicate over the Internet and heterogeneous networks; Internal Weak Points • designing new applications using the Web and Such rapid growth − approximately 50% over multimedia databases; three years − inevitably came with many internal • knowing how to produce reliable software; changes that were sometimes difficult to • designing and mastering automatic control for control. INRIA was faced with a large number of complex systems; new issues concerning its organization, human • combining simulation and virtual reality; resources policy, managerial practices and admi- It also emphasized two major fields of nistrative management. Human resources policy application: showed the clearest progress, while the greatest • telecommunications and multimedia; difficulties were encountered in administrative • health and biology. and financial management, mainly because This subject-specific focus significantly the support staff was not sufficiently increased influenced the dynamic of INRIA’s scien- in proportion to administrative tasks; manage- tific work. In particular, for the first two scien- ment software tools were inappropriate and the project, launched in 2001, to replace them with an integrated information system was delayed; * The recommendations of the Visiting Committee and lastly, management control procedures were played a major role in drafting the next Strategic Plan. not sufficiently developed. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 9
  9. 9. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth In late 200, Michel Cosnard, a computer As of the end of 200, these objectives collec- 1.3 scientist and professor at the University of Nice -Sophia Antipolis was appointed chairman tively represented over 75% of the efforts of research project-teams, with the last two alone 2004-2007: of the Institute, followed from 2004-200 by Gilles Kahn, a computer scientist and research accounting for over 15%. The trend towards life and health sciences and medical techno-Consolidation and director at INRIA, who was chairman until his logy has been reflected in the research projects New Growth death in early 200. Michel Cosnard took over from Kahn in mid-200. themselves: there are now more than 500 research scientists working in these areas. The 2004-2007 strategic plan, approved by the board of trustees in July 200, confirmed Creating Excellence Clusters the Institute’s resolve to be recognized as INRIA is the only French national research esta- the leading European research center and blishment exclusively dedicated to computer one of the best in the world in the fields of science, automatic control and applied mathe- computer science, automatic control and matics. The quality of its research scientists, applied mathematics. To fulfill this ambition, its involvement in training through research the Institute defined a policy based on clearly and its results in both research and technology stated choices. transfer, along with its definite commitment to building the European Research Area and INRIA’s Seven Scientific and international competition, now make INRIA the Technological Objectives most internationally visible French research ICST innovation is essentially based on body in the field. scientific research, sometimes at the most Working closely with higher education fundamental level. The 2004-2007 strategic organizations, INRIA is continuing to develop plan confirmed this priority, closely tying its research units, which play a leading role together scientific excellence and techno- at the sites where they are located, aiming to logy transfer. INRIA is, however, fully aware establish them as European and international that it cannot cover all the research topics excellence clusters. The number of INRIA in this vast field of science and techno- projects shared with higher education esta- logy, given that the scope of its applications blishments or research organizations rose and depth of interaction with other fields from 80 as of January 1, 2004 to 111 as of is continuously increasing. This demands January 1, 2007. INRIA’s visiting researcher making choices in scientific and techno- policy plays an important role in this respect. logical policy. INRIA has set its priorities In 200 and 2007, over 50 research scientist according to the skills available to it and the positions were reserved for research profes- Institute’s appraisal of scientific, technolo- sors and research scientists on temporary gical, economic and social objectives. assignments from other organizations, in INRIA’s main goal for the period covered particular from other scientific fields, giving by the 2004-2007 strategic plan was to priority to life sciences. For the same period, make major scientific and technolo- approximately 55 research professors were gical breakthroughs in keeping with the sent on assignments elsewhere. following seven objectives: To prepare for the launch of INRIA research • designing and mastering future infrastructures units in Bordeaux, Lille and Saclay on January for networks and communication services; 1, 2008, many of the additional and redeployed • developing information and multimedia resources were allocated to Futurs, with staff processing; increasing from 2 as of January 1, 2004 to • guaranteeing the reliability and security of 12 as of January 1, 2007. intensive software systems; • connecting models and data to simulate Research Organization and master complex systems; During this period, in order to more effecti- • combining simulation, visualization and vely reflect the national ICST research policy, interaction; INRIA underwent a complete re-organization: • modeling living systems; positions were created for a chief officer for • fully integrating ICST into medical technology. science and technology and a chief officer10 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  10. 10. H istory for resources and administration; the scien- activity and improving the quality of these tific and operational departments were reor- developments have also become crucial ganized; positions were created for deputy priorities to ensure success and continue scientific directors and scientific advisors; the encouraging research scientists to optimize research units were renamed “INRIA Research the most suitable technology transfer mode Centers and research project were renamed from among the broad range of commercial “INRIA Project-Teams” (IPT), most of which software licenses and open source software were shared with other partners; the role of options. Each year, 0 to 70 software packages research center directors was clearly defined; are now registered by the Institute’s teams. and the project committee chairman was Technical units have been created and conso- renamed “scientific officer”. lidated to support, professionalize and sustain Research organization at INRIA continues technology development efforts of IPTs. to be based mainly on IPTs. The visibility Technology start-ups are an excellent way and impact of the work carried out in the of transferring technology, as demonstrated Institute has been increased by promoting the by the creation of 2 start-ups between 200 collective aspect of research and by gathering and 200.Working closely with research scientists into teams with clearly identified goals. This organizational struc- Training and Knowledge Transferhigher education ture allows for a great deal of flexibility and INRIA has come to see its contribution to responsiveness as it ensures that IPTs exist training through research for young PhDorganizations, INRIA only for a limited time and are able to evolve students in computer science and applied and change directions. The number of IPTs mathematics as one of its essential tasks,is continuing to increased from 85 as of January , 200 to 17 carried out in close cooperation with its partner as of January 1, 2007. At that point, average doctoral engineering schools. It continues todevelop its research IPT lifespan was 4. years, and the average be very active in doctoral training, focusingunits, which play age of IPT leaders was 4.4. on the quality of theses prepared within its research project-teams and, more generally,a leading role at Technology Transfer the quality of training received by PhD students One priority for the Institute’s strategy has and their preparation for entering professionalthe sites where been technology transfer. INRIA continues life after their thesis. The number of PhD to invest in human and financial resources students in project-teams rose from 70 asthey are located, to improve quality and efficiency, parti- of January 1, 200 to 1,070 as of January 1, cularly by increasing the number of CDRI 2007. The number of theses defended roseaiming to establish (Development and Industrial Relations) posi- from 150 in 200 to 291 in 200. To facilitatethem as European tions, strengthening the DirDRI, and setting up EDT (Experimentation and development tech- this increase in the number of PhD students while maintaining very high quality in termsand international nical units). This organization combines the of recruitment, INRIA set up a state-funded work of the CDRIs, which work closely with the PhD program to encourage mobility and hostexcellence clusters. teams and partners in each center, with greater foreign PhD students. In 200, 25 subsidized coordination and support responsibilities for (CORDI-S) INRIA doctoral research contracts the DirDRI: leading strategic partnerships, a were made available, generating over 1,500 specialized department for managing intellec- applications. The PhD students recruited were tual property, implementation and promotion all from other doctoral schools, and 85% of of licenses for open source software. The them had a foreign nationality. In 2007, 40 new Institute concentrated on strong partnerships CORDI-S were made available. In addition to with major market leaders, both French and its involvement in doctoral training, INRIA also foreign. These mid- to long-term partnerships extended its program for hosting subsidized have been an essential tool in cooperation with post-doctoral researchers: the number rose large industrial companies seeking to share from 7 in 200 to 80 in 2007. More and more their research and development costs. Such young engineers are acquiring additional major partners have included FT RD, EDF, technological training through research at Alcatel Lucent and Thalès. INRIA, usually followed by recruitment into Professionalizing the software development the industry. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 11
  11. 11. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth European Partnerships laboratory LIAMA, in Beijing, which played The creation of the European partnerships an important part in expanding cooperation department demonstrated that building and with China on ICST, has been bolstered by the developing the European Research Area is possibility of INRIA granting expatriate status a high priority in the Institute’s policy. to some of its research scientists: 4 research Following the fifth FP, where the Institute directors are in charge of joint teams along participated in 110 projects, the sixth FP with the Institute for Automatic Control at the was a challenge for INRIA and confirmed its Chinese Science Academy and the University place as European leader for ICST research, of Tsinghua respectively. The LIAMA is part particularly in the field of software develo- of an ambitious open-source software deve- pment. As part of this program, INRIA has lopment project by the Scilab consortium set participated in 119 European projects, inclu- up by INRIA. The Institute has also continued ding 21 excellence networks, 2 integrated to develop cooperation programs with Hong projects and 45 research projects, in liaison Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, with industrial partners, and has been respon- notably with major industrial companies such sible for the scientific coordination of 15 of as Hitachi. A student exchange program has these projects. also been developed with India. The number With the Institute’s support, the ERCIM of Asian trainees in the INRIA International consortium (European Research Consortium Internships program rose from 2 in 2004 on Informatics and Mathematics, which now to 54 in 2007. brings together 18 national bodies) has INRIA’s relationships with the United States gradually become more representative of and Canada have of course been very the scientific and technological community in dynamic, with active cooperation involving the field of ICST. Its international visibility was over one hundred universities and companies. consolidated when INRIA entrusted it with the The United States’ undisputed leadership in responsibility of European host of WC. the field of ICST has made it vitally impor- The Institute has continued its efforts to tant to hold ongoing dialogue with the NSF develop relationships with major European and also to establish relations with the NIH industrial players: examples include taking in the fields of modeling living systems and part in the Eurêka program, particularly as medical technology. part of the ITEA program, and setting up the Partnerships with southern countries have AIRD laboratory jointly with Philips, Thomson also been strengthened. In particular, INRIA and the Fraunhofer Institute. has maintained its support for Africa with In all major countries, the importance of regions the biannual CARI symposium and the scien- in international cooperation has increased, tific interest group SARIMA. and INRIA research centers have become The partner team program, in which an involved in the international relations of the INRIA research project is linked to a team regions in which they are located. Partnership of researchers in a foreign institution, has agreements have been signed with institutions continued its successful expansion. The located in Sarrebrücken and Kaiserslautern number of partner teams rose from 2 in (several universities, the Max Planck Institute 2004 to 54 in 2007. and DFKI), and these are promising examples Finally, the Institute’s scientific staff has conti- of this policy. nued to broaden its international horizons, with the proportion of foreign research scien- International Relations tists, post-doctoral researchers and engineers In a context where ICST is prioritized in on INRIA’s staff exceeding 15% in 200. national research policies everywhere, INRIA has continued to expand its international Research Support and Management cooperation, targeting most of its efforts at Structures a few major partnerships in certain geogra- In addition to the criteria of excellence The Control Action Table, a 6 DoF interface phical areas. and relevancy for research and technology for virtual reality — IPARLA. Asia has been the top geographical prio- transfer, the Institute’s work is also assessed rity outside Europe. The Franco-Chinese in terms of how efficiently it is run.12 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  12. 12. H istory Increased quality and efficiency of research significantly increased. Internal and external support and assistance was a priority during staff mobility was particularly encouraged. this period: Widespread open mobility campaigns for • an improved information system, geared all government positions provided for many to the planned changes for budgetary and support jobs to be opened for temporary accounting management for EPSTs, was assignments. Lastly, a system was imple- developed, deployed and gradually rolled mented to maintain an ongoing relationship to all different levels of work within the with former INRIA personnel. Institute; • the policy of decentralization was continued, and a “quality procedure” was developed to manage stakeholder accountability; some administrative and financial responsibilities were decentralized by making research unit directors responsible for giving orders; a new computerized library management system was acquired and deployed in all research centers, providing access to a shared catalogue for the various document collections; • a Hal-INRIA open archive server was imple- mented, providing research scientists with direct access to scientific literature; • enhanced management and management control methods and tools were implementedICST is prioritized under the modernization and simplification protocol signed with the public accountsin national research office; a “partnership control” was developed with the accounting department; a mana-policies everywhere. gement culture was encouraged within the Institute through a sustained training effort; flexibility and anticipation were improved, in particular for purchasing. The Institute defined and implemented an ambitious policy on IT and communications equipment to the best international stan- dards, with very high performance networks, computing and visualization resources and grids allowing for far-reaching experiments to be run and technological developments implemented. Developing a dynamic human resources policy has been a main prio- rity. Heavy involvement by INRIA staff has helped the Institute’s extensive recruitment campaigns to achieve success, and scores of INRIA staff who had been working under precarious employment conditions for several years gained more stable footing thanks to the publication of new regulations and the high level of commitment by the Institute’s direc- tors. INRIA designed and drafted a manager’s guide for use in supervision and management training. Ongoing staff training efforts were Strategic Plan 2008-2012 1
  13. 13. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA Today: As in other major scientific fields, ICST separated into different organizations, both research includes producing and organi- in France and abroad. INRIA’s potential for Burgeoning zing knowledge as well as extracting and scientific and technological contribution perfecting general and in-depth ideas that would be much more restricted and narrow if Scientific Fields are then analyzed, developed and applied. it were simply a computer science research These ideas aim to solve many new and institute, since the interactions between sometimes unexpected problems, whose computer science and applied mathematics emergence often results from extremely are constantly growing; furthermore, they are rapid technological progress, particularly the essential in order to meet new challenges exponential increase in the power of micro- in the ICST sector and its interactions with processors, the communications capacity of other fields. Consequently, INRIA’s direc- fiber optics, memory density and magnetic tors are constantly seeking to ensure that disk capacity, as well as the considerable research is conducted and assessed within impact of widespread web implementa- the Institute in a way that breaks down the tion. The miniaturization of sensors and borders between disciplines and overcomes the increasing quantities of available data the separation inherent to organizational have also led to new scientific develop- structures. In this context, interactions ments creating new algorithms which aim between mathematics, physics, chemistry to analyze these data and regulate, control and mechanics were explored right from and simulate increasingly complex systems. the very start of the IRIA and have recently Lastly, interaction with other sciences is been taken in new directions, as demons- a vital component of computer science, trated by the contributions made in recent automatic control and applied mathematics. years in algorithmic and stochastic geometry This works both ways: the other sciences and computational chemistry. During the reveal new problems for information proces- last decade, interaction between INRIA sing and modeling and, conversely, the and the environmental sciences has been existence of new design and simulation increasing in many directions as well, parti- tools can change the issues at stake and cularly with the life sciences: some examples even certain paradigms in these sciences, include bioinformatics, molecular biology, sometimes profoundly. In this sector more neurobiology, biomechanics, modeling of than many others, the positive feedback organs and physiological functions, plant loop linking basic research and applica- growth modeling and simulation, medical tion is at its best. Research, even in its robotics and renewable resource modeling. purest form, can be used to develop new INRIA believes that the interaction between products at an exceptionally rapid rate, as ICST, the life sciences and applications for the horizons opened up by new technologies medical technologies and the environment call research areas into question, often at will play a crucial and far-reaching role in the most basic level. In every field, behind science over the next few decades, just as the brilliant success of technology and the the profound interaction and mutual enri- developments facilitating the creation of chment of mathematics and physics have innovative new companies, there is pure played a major role in the scientific progress research - leading to new theories, new of recent centuries. Lastly, cross-functional models and new software tools and giving issues relating to security, developing an various scientific fields a new lease on life. information-based society, education and At this point it is important to emphasize sustainable development will all benefit the relationship with other sciences, which from the progress of ICST research. play a major role in INRIA’s scientific policy. Before concluding this brief overview, one First of all, it is a great advantage for one last key point should be mentioned. INRIA single institute to be able to gather together believes that its research is subject to a parti- specialists from many disciplines − computer cular type of “tension”: ferocious competition science, automatic control, signal processing over research applications combined with the and scientific computation − which are often rapid progress of technology make ICST a14 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  14. 14. H istory field of research where time is of the essence. research, which is the key to its ability to While it finds this tension very stimulating deepen its understanding of its scientific and productive, INRIA also believes that fields and anticipate developments and despite the constantly increasing demand technological innovations in these fields for work on short-term issues, the Institute over the medium to long term. must continue to focus its energy on pureVisualization of geological surfaces in a virtual reality interface — ALICE. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 15
  15. 15. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA’s 150 research project-teams are involved in five major research topics, and Major Fields 16 more specific sub-topics. This distribution helps to identify INRIA’s strengthsof Research at INRIA according to these five major topics and, above all, organizes the Institute’s assess- ment process. Teams from any center working on the same sub-topic (on average a dozen teams) are simultaneously assessed by one panel of international experts (for more details on the assessment process, see paragraph 4.3.6). A brief description of each of these five major issues and a list of the sixteen sub-topics, with the corresponding number of INRIA project-teams (IPT in December 2007) is given below. 1 Communicating systems The Communicating systems field focuses on issues often raised in designing and implemen- Com-A 12 IPT ting the computer tools required for current and future information systems. These consist Distributed systems of computer systems where multiple processing units are spread out across communication and shared architectures networks, with particularly high standards of reliability, availability and performance, such as real time operation. This is primarily a question of architecture and systems: tools for designing Com-B 10 IPT specialized processors and compiling and optimizing source code, especially for embedded Networks and systems. Distribution and mobility of computational processing, real time operation and inte- telecommunications roperability call for synchronous programming, reactive programming and communicating processes. Meanwhile, network dimensioning and metrology require probabilistic modeling, Com-C 10 IPT simulation and graph theory. The design and study of protocols suitable for broadband and Embedded systems for the characteristics of the new ubiquitous networks (wireless, mobile, heterogeneous, etc.) and mobility is a very active field. Com-D 3 IPT Architecture and compilation 2 Cognitive systems The Cognitive systems field focuses on man-machine interaction. Cognitive psychology Cog-A 7 IPT Statistical modeling and ergonomics help make computer systems more user-friendly. Using and manipulating and learning multimedia databases involves data searches, interoperability between databases and natural language interfaces, as well as indexing, knowledge representation, statistical modeling, Cog-B 8 IPT learning and reasoning. Many new applications are placing more and more emphasis on Images and video: perception, images. Image analysis covers such varied fields as satellite images, new medical imaging indexing and communication methods, indexing of video documents and managing robotic systems. Computer-generated images enable enhanced and virtual reality, and when used with simulation, become man- Cog-C 9 IPT machine interaction resources that are particularly suited to fields such as design, surgery Multimedia data: interpretation and scientific calculation. Network development brings with it a new set of considerations and man-machine interaction for the transmission and encoding of multimedia documents. Cog-D 7 IPT Computer-generated images and virtual reality1 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  16. 16. H istory3 Symbolic systems The field of Symbolic systems focuses on designing and experimenting new programmingSym-A 12 IPTs tools in order to master the increasing complexity of software applications, improve theirSoftware security and reliability reliability and guarantee secure implementations. This requires high-level languages thatSym-B 10 IPTs feature generic concepts such as objects and constraints, and composition principles suchAlgebraic and geometric as component programming and aspect programming. Research in this field also exami-structures, algorithms nes compilation and automatic and interactive tools for testing programs and program properties, including checking computer arithmetic. New applications call upon moreSym-C 10 IPTs complex algorithms for cryptography, algorithmic geometry, robotics and bioinformatics.Content and language Designing and analyzing these algorithms use algebraic and geometric structures as well asorganization new mathematical methods and symbolic computing. Research into content and language organization is also being carried out. 4 Numerical systems The field of Numerical systems looks into new methods for modeling, simulation, optimi-Num-A 7 IPTs zation, large-scale problem solving in engineering, economics, medicine, biology and theAutomatic controland complex systems environment, and more generally stochastic or large-scale inverse problems. The theory of complex systems and their control, signal processing and data analysis applies here toNum-B 11 IPTs robotics, industrial systems management, road and air transport, non-destructive controlGrid and high-performance and telecommunications, as well as to biology and environmental issues. Simulating complexcomputing phenomena in the engineering sciences (fluid and structural mechanics, semi-conductors and electrical engineering, meteorology, new materials), financial models and models of livingNum-C 8 IPTs organisms involves a search for mathematical models, often requiring interaction betweenDeterministic and stochastic different scales and different physical phenomena, and the development of accurate and high-models: identification performance computational methods for large-scale computational simulations. In additionand optimization to grid computing, large-scale computational applications require parallel or distributed programming, program transformation and distributed application management.Num-D 14 IPTsSimulation and numericalanalysis for physical models5 Biological systems The field of Biological systems focuses on modeling and simulation for biology and medi-Bio-A 12 IPTs cine: analysis and simulation of medical images and biological phenomena, understandingModeling and simulation biological vision, bioinformatics, medical robotics and artificial movement. Current subjectsfor biology and medicine of study include modeling plant growth, as well as modeling and controlling renewable resources. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 17
  17. 17. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth INRIA The eight INRIA research centers in existence as of January 1, 2008 are briefly described in the boxes on the following three pages. Their scientific orientation in terms of thisResearch Centers strategic plan is described in chapter 4 (cf. 4.2). x u a st e e d u or O B d u IA S R IN I NRIA Bordeaux – Sud Ouest Research Center, along with Lille and Saclay, is one of the three centers that were incubated in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. Its 13 research teams (7 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the Bordeaux and Pau universities and with the CNRS, or more specifically with their laboratories: the LABRI, IMB, LMA and MIGP. These dynamic partnerships, in addition to staff transferred from other INRIA sites and a recruitment policy for research scientists and top-level research support staff, meant that the research center had a workforce of 273 by the beginning of 2008, 111 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 27 research scientists and 21 government-employed support staff.18 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  18. 18. H istory s le e b lp no -A e e r n G ô h IA R R INI NRIA Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes Research Center was founded in 1992; it has a workforce of 500, 260 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 75 research scientists and 66 support staff. The center’s main site is at Montbonnot, near Grenoble. Almost one quarter of the workforce is in Lyon, at the ENS sites inGerland and on the Doua university campus. At the end of 2007, the center, which has eight research support departments,had 26 research teams (23 IPTs). Most of these are shared with the CNRS and/or local universities; they were formed withthe help of close partnerships with the universities of Grenoble and Lyon (Joseph Fourier University, National PolytechnicInstitute of Grenoble, Claude Bernard University), the Lyon École Normale Supérieure and the Lyon INSA, in addition to theCNRS, and more specifically their laboratories including the LIG, LJK, LIP and CITI.In the area of technology transfer, the center has focused on start-ups, creating 14 companies since 1999, 3 of which wereincubated, and on partnerships with major local players such as ST Microelectronics, France Telecom and Xerox. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 19
  19. 19. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth e u le p ro E Lil rd o IA N R IN I NRIA Lille - Nord Europe Research Center, along with Bordeaux and Saclay, is one of the three centers that were “incu- bated” in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. It now has a workforce of 200, 80 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 18 research scien- tists and 15 support staff. The Center’s 10 research teams were formed with the help of partnerships with Lille University of science and technology (Lille 1), Charles de Gaulle University (Lille 3), Lille Ecole Centrale and the CRNS. There are seven joint IPTs with the LIFL, two with the LAGIS and one with the Paul Painlevé laboratory (UMR 8524 CNRS and USTL mathematics laboratory). In spring 2007, the center moved into a 4,000-m2 building located in the Haute Borne science park, on the edge of the USTL and Lille École Centrale campus, which was purchased with the help of local government and European funding.20 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  20. 20. H istory y st c E n d a n N ra IA G R INI NRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center was founded in 1986; it has a workforce of 480, 210 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 63 research scientists and 65 support staff. Its 22 research teams (21 IPTs) were formed with the help of partnerships with Henri Poincaré University in Nancy, theuniversities of Metz, Nancy 2 and Strasbourg, the INP in Nancy and the CNRS, and specifically with their laboratories, LORIA(Lorraine laboratory for computer science and application research) and IECN (Institut Elie Cartan). INRIA is also present atthe Metz, Besançon and Strasbourg sites through dual-location project teams in cooperation with Nancy.INRIA Nancy – Grand Est Research Center is developing international projects and special cross-border cooperation withthe Saar region. In the area of technology transfer, it has set up 9 companies since 2000, and circulates forty or so softwarepackages. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 21
  21. 21. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth rt n s u e ri o u a c q P c o IA R R IN F ounded in 1967 at the same time as the Institute, INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt now has a workforce of 600, 370 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 128 research scientists and 130 support staff. It has 9 departments and 35 research teams (31 IPTs), 17 of which are joint teams with Pierre et Marie Curie University (Paris 6), Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Marne-la-Vallée University and Versailles - Saint-Quentin University, the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, the Paris École Normale Supérieure, the National Higher School of Advanced Techniques and the CNRS. Its highly effective teams have enabled the Center to set up 25 companies and circulate 50 high-quality software packages, half of which are open source.22 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  22. 22. H istory e u tiq tla s n A e e n n n g e ta R re IA B R INI NRIA Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique research center was founded in 1979 when IRIA became INRIA. In Rennes and Lannion, it is a partner of the CNRS, the University of Rennes 1 and the Rennes INSA, together with the IRISA, UMR 6074 and Cachan ENS (Brittany branch). There are two joint project-teams in Nantes cooperating with LINA (part of theUniversity of Nantes, the Nantes École des Mines and the CNRS).The research center has a workforce of 580, including 67 INRIA research scientists, 82 research scientist professors, 15CRNS research scientists, 80 INRIA support staff, 21 technical and administrative support staff from other establishments,approximately 180 PhD students and 25 post-doctoral researchers. There are 7 research support departments and 26 jointproject-teams cooperating with one or several of the partners mentioned above.A large part of the research work is conducted in the framework of bilateral partnerships (international academic partners,applications partners, major industrial groups, SMEs, state bodies) or multilateral programs (national research agency,competitiveness clusters, European programs with participation in over 40 projects in the 6th framework program). Morespecifically, the center is very involved in the Images Networks competitiveness cluster. The creation of innovating compa-nies and the application of software and patents complement the technology transfer field. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 2
  23. 23. 1. 2004-2007: Consolidation and New Growth n y e ra la c -F c e Sa -d IA Île R IN T he Saclay - Île-de-France Research Center, along with Lille and Bordeaux, is one of the three centers incubated in the INRIA Futurs research unit between January 2002 and December 2007. It was established as a center in its own right on January 1, 2008. INRIA Saclay - Île-de-France Research Center has a workforce of 350, 180 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 50 research scientists and 38 support staff. Its 21 research teams (15 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the University of Paris-Sud, the École Polytechnique, the Cachan École Normale Supérieure, the CNRS, and more specifically with their laboratories: the LRI, the LIX, the LSV, the CMAP and the University of Paris-Sud’s mathematics department.24 Strategic Plan 2008-2012
  24. 24. H istory lis o tip e n é A a ia rr ph n ite o d S é IA M R INI NRIA Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranée Research Center was founded in 1983; it has a workforce of 460, 340 of whom are paid by INRIA, including 119 research scientists and 80 support staff. Half of its 30 research teams (28 IPTs) were formed through close partnerships with the Universities of Nice-Sophia Antipolisand Montpellier, with CNRS, the INRA and the CIRAD, and in particular with the I3S, JAD and LIRMM laboratories.The center works in close collaboration with companies located in its geographical area and elsewhere, and its teams areworking on over 40 European-level projects. It is involved with the work of eight competitiveness clusters and is a foun-ding member of the world SCS cluster (Secure Communications Solutions). It plays a key role in the Sophia Antipolis tech-nology cluster by actively participating in associations such as Telecom Valley and through the Center’s 15 spin-offs. It isalso involved in development for the Montpellier cluster, particularly through its contributions to the Montpellier AgriculturalResearch and Sustainable Development foundation. Lastly, the center is home to the ERCIM office and the W3C Europeandevelopment team. Strategic Plan 2008-2012 25
  25. 25. ICST Research:Context and KeyIssuesIn this chapter:2.1 Societal Issues page 282.2 Scientific and Technological Challenges page 312.3 The International and National Framework for ICST Research page 33 2.3.1 International Context page 33 2.3.2 European Context page 33 2.3.3 French Context page 34
  26. 26. Context
  27. 27. 2.1 Societal Issues Information science and technology are present and protecting the earth’s environment. This 2.1 in virtually all business sectors. They play an essential role in accelerating scientific and challenge takes the form of seeking sustainable development, improving health, addressing Societal Issues technological progress and increasing produc- tivity and growth. The new infrastructures and the aging that results, and providing universal access to knowledge. resources for communication, interaction and In addressing environmental issues, combi- production have vastly altered the economy, ning modeling and simulation with the poten- in the broad sense of all exchanges between tial for observation and detection enables the people and within an entire society. complex, natural phenomena at play to be ICST is radically changing the methods and examined with ever-greater precision. These resources used by scientists and engineers to methods can provide tools for forecasting, observe, draw conclusions from vast quanti- forming strategies, prevention and adapta- ties of data, represent and abstract, model, tion, scenario analysis and risk assessment visualize, design and make decisions. This of a given environmental policy or of a lack of technology is at the heart of computational action. They supply essential tools to examine sciences and computational engineering. vital risks linked to the build-up of greenhouse INRIA has made its strategic choices so as to gases and major climatic and oceanic changes. meet the challenges posed by society and by the The possibilities for demonstrative display economic issues that ICST helps to solve. of forecasts can be used to influence public The greatest challenge in social terms is to opinion in favor of prevention, a long-term improve living conditions for all of mankind, approach that requires resources and a strong narrowing the gap between North and South commitment by politicians and society. In the field of sustainable development, long- term solutions must be found for the needs of mankind – some 9.5 billion people by the middle of the century. Meeting food requirements will demand that soil erosion, impoverishment and pollution through overexploitation and overuse of fertilizers and pesticides be brought under control. Agricultural production requirements can be met without impeding sustainable deve- lopment if the needs of both plants and their environment are taken into account. Modeling and computing techniques can make a signi- ficant contribution to solving these and other related problems, such as the issue of fishing resources. These techniques, in addition to design, opti- mization and automatic control, may also help to meet energy requirements. Support for designing HEQ buildings and intelligent management using different energy sources, in particular renewable sources, could be provided online by means of control/command systems implemented for a house, building or town. Active control can be found everywhere where energy needs to be saved, particularly in various modes of transport, where electric actuators are being increasingly used. Finally, ICST may also help in managing new energy sources: biofuels, solar, geothermal, wind, and the future ITER project generators. Health is an area where ICST has made a28 Strategic Plan 2008-2012