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Inria - Activity report 2009


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The 2009 annual report, covering the activity of the whole Institute, is now available in two formats: in the print version and in the on-line version that can be consulted online. It is an …

The 2009 annual report, covering the activity of the whole Institute, is now available in two formats: in the print version and in the on-line version that can be consulted online. It is an opportunity to look back over an eventful year and to share this document which is both important and at the same time enjoyable to read.

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  • 1. Computational sciences at the heart of society AnnuAl report 2009
  • 2. fields of application communication agriculture sciences transport industry healthcare training and education 02 InrIA AnnuAl report 2009
  • 3. INRIA’s scientific energy priorities ModELING Combining mathematics and computer science, modeling serves to mathematically describe meteorological, physical, geological and physiological phenomena in order to understand, analyze and predict them more effectively cryptographic CoMMuNICatING security Beyond infrastructure issues (protocols, distribution, rules), the goal is to make the knowledge and services Internet a reality (smart Internet). INtEraCtING Interaction between the real and the virtual and interchange between man and machine require software control of sight, touch, gesture, natural language and speech. robotics is another promising field with potential applications in many sectors. services ProGraMMING At the very core of computer science, programming attempts to ensure software security and reliability and resolve problems concerning confidentiality, authentification, data protection and traceability, etc. CoMPutatIoNaL sCIENCEs By marrying modeling, simulation, multiscale computing and nanotechnologies, research efforts are aiming to develop models for use in biology, agronomics, ecology and the study of ecosystems and materials. CoMPutatIoNaL ENGINEErING this field involves studying and predicting the behaviour of industrial objects (virtual prototypes) and aims to guarantee the correct functioning of embedded software (validation of autopilot systems on aircraft etc.). CoMPutatIoNaL MEdICINE this field of research seeks to develop models of organs © amy uratsu/the image Bank/getty images for improving the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular or neurological diseases. environment More information on 03
  • 4. InrIA’s scientific priorities ........................................................ 02 Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 InrIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 Interview with the Ceo, Michel Cosnard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 research centres eight centres at the heart of the InrIA system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Influence in the scientific community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Indicators in good shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 software development plots a new course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Familiarising schools with digital sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 research in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 smart research through coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 applied mathematics, computation and simulation Financial crisis: mathematicians to the rescue? ........................... 28 researchers rub shoulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 algorithmics, programming, software and architecture Shabal in the semi-final! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 How long until secure electronic voting becomes a reality? ............. 34 Networks, systems and services, distributed computing energy-saving computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Working today on the supercomputers of tomorrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Perception, Cognition, Interaction An all-terrain crane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 learning to search for images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Computational sciences for biology, medicine and the environment Computer scientists go green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Fighting cancer with modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 A policy of openness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 a strengthened organizational structure to prepare for the future . . . 52 Partnerships in continuous progress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 a breath of fresh air for transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 project-teams active in 2009 Project-teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 organization chart and councils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
  • 5. inRia 3,150 scientists e217 174 million (2009) – 21% of which from its own resources project-teams 8 active in 2009 research centres 4,100 collaborators all over france 97 companies formed since 1984 INRIA is a public research establishment entirely dedicated to information and communication sciences. For more than 40 years, it has supported the economic and social transformations linked with the dissemination of digital technologies. As such, together with its academic and industrial partners, it conducts at the highest international level an increasingly influential activity in fundamental research and technology development. the knowledge produced at InrIA has become essential in medicine, biology and many other sciences. It enriches our everyday lives (communication, safety, Internet usages) and sheds light on the issues of sustainable development and energy conservation. 05
  • 6. inteRview with the ceo, Michel cosnaRd Whether in terms of the environment, education, health, economics or research, INrIa is trying to meet the issues of tomorrow’s society.” Michel Cosnard, general puBlic What contribution is inria making to the digital (Chairman and Ceo technologies now filling our daily lives? since 2006) answers Michel Cosnard. InrIA is involved in many ways in the questions the design of technologies now appearing on the most frequently market. the development of intelligent devices such asked by different as the Smartphone, which can be used not only for calls but also for using online services, is based on groups of society work in telecommunications, human-computer inter- regarding the faces, and software, to which institute researchers challenges facing have contributed. Another example – social net- works, currently very much in vogue, are generating information and communication science a great deal of research into software security and and technology (ICSt). reliability, confidentiality of interchanges, and pri- vacy protection. our teams are also tackling crucial issues affecting all traffic on the Internet. We are also involved in the deliberations surrounding the ethical Wide-ranging questions which may be raised by rapid advances in technology and their widespread adoption. We have recommended the creation of an ethics com- science mittee for our fields, so as to be able to take such concerns into consideration at a very early stage in the research process. open to society young people at large how does icst research contribute to solving society’s big questions? M. C. InrIA is showing an interest now in those ques- tions which are real issues for future generations, such as sustainable development, medicine and personal care services. We have placed these big questions in our strategic plan, and our work in this area has been much strengthened over the last four years. For example, our researchers are modelling plant growth with a view to improving food production, and are 06 InrIA AnnuAl report 2009
  • 7. © istockphoto INrIa intends to consolidate its role in technology transfer for society’s benefit.” © istockphoto doctors building diagnosis support tools for medicine. they medicine increasingly relies on digital are designing energy saving technologies, invent- technologies, what role does the institute ing shared automatic transport methods, and are intend to take in this area? creating services for the elderly and disabled. the omnipresence of ICSt in all areas of economic activity M. C. Computational medicine is a research prior- makes these very lucrative areas for the future. We will ity for the institute, and our efforts in that area are need talented and creative researchers, and I hope growing. our researchers are contributing to that this work, which now finds itself at the core of the highly-accurate modelling and simula- some exciting social and human issues, will be able to tion of those organs (liver, heart or brain) generate still more roles, especially for women, who the workings of which it is possible to study. are still under-represented in our disciplines. our work they are also modeling illnesses, in particular on disseminating science to young people and on cancers, and are developing imaging tools boosting computer education in secondary schools and aids for treatment and surgery, such as is likely to make a contribution to this. cataract operation support tools. InrIA is HIgHlIgHtS 2009 14 JanuaRy 20 febRuaRy 1-5 June 11 June INrIa and oNEra, the Visiting Committee INrIa attended the Birth of a joint the french centre submitted its evaluation Javaone conference supercomputing for aerospace research, report on the institute in san francisco laboratory between INrIa signed a partnership to valérie pécresse, french for the first time. and the national centre for agreement to undertake minister for Research. an opportunity to present supercomputing applications joint projects in the the report follows a visit technologies developed (ncsa) at the university areas of data processing to inRia by this committee by its researchers of illinois in the united states. and systems. of international experts in the services sector. see p. 55. in december 2008. 07
  • 8. inteRview with the ceo, Michel cosnaRd also involved in remote medical care systems allowing only going to expand. We are already participating patients to remain at home, and in the development in the new alliance for health and life sciences; we of new generations of implanted devices, such as are involved in most multi-organization subject-based pacemakers, giving rise to patent applications. Such research programmes at the French national Institute research requires working in close collaboration with for Health and Medical research (InSerM), where bio-medical staff, which is why we are developing InrIA researchers’ talents are recognised. joint platforms and teams. teamwork of this kind is industry can inria’s research help with economic recovery? M. C. For two years, we have been developing our research will be increasingly procedures to increase the impact of our technol- ogy on the economy. to do so, we have given top multi-disciplinary, collaborative priority to strategic partnerships with major com- panies. these partnerships are based on a shared and Europe-oriented.” vision of current economic challenges, and enable our staff’s efforts to be directed at fundamental issues in order to overcome technological hurdles. We have also ensured we have the tools to work to best effect with SMes in our sector, such as the small joint laboratories, I-labs. At the same time we have improved our ability to reach these SMes. the estab- lishment of new research centres in lille, Bordeaux and Saclay has enabled the institute to weave itself into the regional economic fabric, and get involved in the local business community in close conjunction with the competitiveness clusters. the InrIA Industry meetings which took place this year in lille with the retail industry sector are a good illustration of this. Similar initiatives will increase in number in all centres. lastly, 2010 is expected to see the transformation © istockphoto of our InrIA-transfer subsidiary to improve the pen- etrative strength of our start-ups by helping them to create products with wider distribution. HIgHlIgHtS 2009 22 July 14 septeMbeR 6 octobeR 9 noveMbeR Latin america the French National INrIa and the European Centre for during the colibri conference, radioactive Waste Microsoft research and advanced training inRia signed an agreement Management agency research in scientific computation (ceRfacs) with the federal university (andRa) and inRia signed a renewed and inRia announced the creation of Rio Grande do sul in partnership agreement on digital the agreement of a joint laboratory to meet brazil to include its computer simulation in particular. this is a on their joint the challenges of high-performance digital science institute within fundamental area for simulating laboratory in simulation, often the only approach Grid’5000. changes in radioactive waste saclay for 4 years. possible for analyzing complex systems. stored underground. see p. 54. see p. 54. 08 InrIA AnnuAl report 2009
  • 9. gIvIng InnovAtIon a Boost IN EuroPE inRia is a stakeholder in eit ict labs, one of the three Knowledge and innovation communities selected on december 16 by the european institute of innovation and technology (eit) initiated by the european commission. “The objective of EIT ICT Labs is to strengthen the European industry’s position in an economically strategic domain, namely services and applications linked with tomorrow’s information society,” says © istockphoto Jean-Pierre Banâtre, director of european partnerships. “This major initiative, lasting for between 12 and 15 years, draws on the synergy between research, education and innovation to create researchers conditions conducive to the emergence of companies What will computing research capable of taking a place on the global stage.” look like in the future? eic ict labs is deployed across five geographical sites (berlin, eindhoven, helsinki, paris and stockholm) and M. C. the addition of computer science to the pres- has 23 partnerships with ten manufacturers, six research tigious higher education and research establish- organizations and seven universities with a leading ment, the Collège de France, this year, was a major position europe-wide, as well as innovation centres (certain advancement with symbolic resonance. this event competitiveness clusters in france). the sites in Rennes marks the recognition both of computer science as and sophia antipolis are also involved in this initiative. a discipline in its own right, and that of its increas- “We’re hoping for direct effects in the form of business and ingly substantial contribution to other sciences. this job creation. More than this, the research activity of EIT ICT recognition is accompanied by the target of securing Labs will benefit the whole of society by tackling major computer science its rightful place in education. It topical subjects such as health, the city of the future and is currently an option in the science syllabus post- the problems of energy, environment and climate change.” 16 years of age. It is our duty to get involved in the training of mathematics teachers, who will be tasked with teaching this subject. this work has got off to a successful start in Sophia Antipolis. this recognition also backs up the comprehensive, cross-disciplinary approach we have adopted in trend, with our erC prize winners, our cross-border our strategic plan to meet the major challenges teams and, most importantly, (and a source of pride of our time. the cooperative aspect of our work is in this eventful year), with the success of the eIt ICt therefore liable to be consolidated not only within labs project. A fine project to build wholly oriented large-scale projects supported by the institute, but towards europe and social concerns. also under more substantial joint ventures like the new Alliances. the role of researcher will take on a more european dimension, with more integra- tion and coordination. We are definitely part of this 10 noveMbeR 24 noveMbeR 2-4 deceMbeR 10 deceMbeR INrIa and the Collège INrIa signed an INrIa organized, with INrIa and the french institute de France created an agreement with six the french Ministry of higher for agricultural and environmental annual chair in computer african partners establishing education and Research, engineering, ceMaGRef, created science and computational the creation of a joint virtual the university of paris 1 and a joint project team, fluminance. sciences. Gérard berry laboratory called the international the Max-planck institute, it is original in that it combines the is the first holder of this chair. laboratory for Research in the 7th conference on the institute researchers’ skills in image see p. 21. computer science and applied knowledge internet, berlin 7. analyzis and processing with Mathematics (liRiMa). see p. 16. those of ceMaGRef’s researchers see p. 55. in fluid mechanics. 09
  • 10. ReseaRch centRes Eight centres at the heart of the INRIA system the centres, which are firmly established in the local landscape, are a gateway (access, path) for their partners to all of the Institute’s skills. We take sensor for embedded a closer look at the year’s key initiatives. systems. lille GRenoble CoMMErCIaL INdustrIEs a BooM IN EMBEddEd the InrIA-Industry meetings, soFtWarE which took place in lille in June research into embedded software on the topic of commercial is a strong point of the centre industries, were given a warm and the partnerships that we’re reception. the format adopted developing with St Microelectronics was well matched with the and the CeA (French Atomic expectations of manufacturers energy Commission) are at the in the sector, which are taking heart of the regional dynamic a growing interest in r&D on this topic. this is a rich field for issues. We retained a highly research, as well as being crucial for practical approach, manufacturers, as the programming with demonstrations offered of multicore architectures - a major by all InrIA centres. this event component of our research into is a high point of our efforts embedded software - is the key (concerning manufacturers), to their competitive future. this year which aim to build a genuine we launched 10 projects on the community between researchers subject, as well as the integrative demonstration of and manufacturers at both research centre pIlSI together with a virtual store at a regional and national level. our partners. the inria-industry Max dauchet, director of the inria François sillon, director of the inria meetings in lille. lille – nord europe research centre. grenoble – rhône alpes centre. Rennes a WINdoW oN thE BraIN the neurinfo platform, launched with our partners from InSerM (national Institute for Health and Medical research), the university of rennes 1 and the university Hospital Centre, is intended for the study of inflammatory and degenerative brain diseases. It stands out due to its triple use, in research, clinical applications and for industry, for example in the testing of drugs. our researchers add innovative tools to neurinfo for the acquisition and utilisation of images and the management of databases. In the long term, we’re planning to insert the irm, core of the neurinfo platform, financed the platform into european research infrastructures. by a state-region project contract together with Patrick Bouthemy, director of the inria a significant contribution from inria. rennes – Bretagne atlantique research centre. 10 InrIA AnnuAl report 2009
  • 11. laying the first the walls feature stone of the the ideas of the icst campus. paris sub-office. © eurecom sophia antipolis ICst: BENEFICIaL CaMPus the result of extensive work, the launch of the ICSt campus unites local academic players around themes that are key for InrIA (network, health, environment and usage). Its formative role is beneficial for everyone, providing increased visibility, shared involvement in major projects such paRis-RocquencouRt as the oIn (national interest operation) ecovallée and the development of a coherent training INrIa EstaBLIshEs ItsELF offering. the campus will also house one of the sites IN thE hEart oF ParIs of the eIt ICt labs project, bringing together partners With this paris sub-office, present in our department. the centre will be more Gérard Giraudon, director of the inria sophia able to develop scientific antipolis – méditerranée centre. relationships with its paris-based partners. nancy the offices on Avenue GEttING youths d’Italie are home to the joint teams with INtErEstEd IN sCIENCE the pierre et Marie Curie our researchers have made and paris-Diderot major efforts to interest young universities, the École people in science. In partnership normale Supérieure with the Academy of nancy-Metz, de paris and the CnrS they have given 28 conferences in (French national Centre secondary schools and contributed for Scientific research). to the success of the Mathematics this sub-office is also olympiads. In a major first, nearly A Day with a Scientist initiative. a strategic component 80 researchers welcomed one for hosting the paris site or two students to their team for laying the first of the eIt ICt labs project an entire day to introduce them stone of the and the It Innovation to their job. the Science Festival saclay plateau and research Centre for was also a big event. We were construction project. Free Software (Cirill@paris), present there in the lorraine with which the Institute stations and trains with the Sillon is involved. lorrain project, which was © plein sud/m. lecompt antoine Petit, director of the inria selected by the ministry. paris – rocquencourt centre. Karl tombre, director of the inria nancy – grand est centre. boRdeaux MaJor VIsIBILIty IN aEroNautICs aNd sPaCE saclay the le Bourget Show was one of the high points of the year. As part sharING thE aMBItIoNs oF thE saCLay PLatEau of the show, we participated in inviting the Aerospace valley competitiveness this new building, which will bring together cluster, in which we are closely involved and with which we have the lrI and InrIA teams, gives concrete around ten projects addressing modelling, simulation, visualisation and form to the partnership between the digital high-performance computing, which are also specialities of the centre. sciences players of the Saclay plateau. At this event we played a pivotal role It also reflects the commitment of the Institute © région aquitaine/a. gilber between the local and national and its academic partners to building levels by bringing in demonstrations the research excellence park Digiteo, of which from other InrIA centres. they are the co-founders, and their joint Along the same lines, we’re preparing involvement in the campus of the Saclay plateau. InrIA industry meetings that these new districts will be given a european will take place in 2010 in Bordeaux dimension by hosting a portion of the paris-region and then toulouse. site of the eIt ICt labs project. demonstration by the iparla team Claude Kirchner, director of the inria Michel Bidoit, director of the saclay – Île-de-France at the inria-industry meetings. Bordeaux – sud-ouest research centre. research centre (in 2009). 11
  • 12. Influence in the scientific community © Jason Hawkes/Corbis
  • 13. Influence in the scientific community
  • 14. Present everywhere, for everyone Like the networks that link sometimes very distant entities, INRIA forges links with numerous academic and industrial partners in France and abroad. It regularly ventures out to meet young people and its fellow citizens. Its scientific NETWORK results and its technologies enrich Athéna/Odyssée The brain the business and social world. and its billions of connections reconstructed by imaging.
  • 15. INfluENcE IN ThE scIENTIfIc cOmmuNITy Indicators in good shape INRIA assigns its performance assessment to an internal monitoring unit, which is three years old this year. Its goal is to evaluate the progress of the Institute’s activities by monitoring certain indicators covering its scientific production, its management and its transfer activities. the verdict? A clean bill of health! “The Institute is on “The monitoring unit, created in 2007, is now an evaluate activity.” these indicators, covering fac- essential tool. Research is now thought out in terms tors such as the number of publications, research- the whole achieving of objectives, whether as part of ers, patents, submissions to the HAL-INRIA open the objectives the modernisation of govern- archives and european contracts, are all positive. set under the ment management (organic the institute can be proud of the number of pro- four-year contract law relating to finance laws - posals that have been accepted by european signed with the LOLF) or the four-year contract,” programs (around 25%) – testament to the quality of government, which explains Madeleine Zalkind, in the projects submitted. Activity is also increasing on comes to an end charge of the INRIA activity monitoring unit. “Work the data transfer side. For example: the amount of this year.” on the database, which is a real investigatory software submitted to the Agency for the protection task, serves to calculate the indicators needed to of programs (87 copyrights in 2009) has risen by 14% ERC: A vINtAge yeAR IN 2009 SpEEdIng up ThE dISSEMInATIOn oF scIeNtIFIc ResuLts This year, INRIA researchers have hAl and has strongly urged its once again had their projects praised researchers to submit their articles to by the European Research council. the platform. furthermore, the 7th edition marie-france sagot was named as of the conference on the knowledge the winner of the “senior researchers” Internet was held in December category and received a €2.5 million this year at the sorbonne, together grant for her innovative project with the support of the ministry for in the mathematical, algorithmic Rapidly disseminating the result of higher Education and Research, the and biological study of symbiosis. their research is a priority for scientists. university of Paris 1 and the max-Planck The close relationship between To this end, in 2004, INRIA signed the Institute. “This is recognition of INRIA’s different species could potentially Berlin Declaration, which committed involvement in open access in France lead us to revisit the notions of health, the major signatory organizations to and worldwide,” notes Jean-Jacques our relationship with the environment working towards the direct, open and Millet, representative of scientific and even the concept of space and free communication of all scientific and technical information at the the individual. knowledge (an initiative supported Institute and head of the conference’s francis Bach (see page 43) and by the ANR and the European science organization committee. “The French Pierre-yves Oudeyer were winners foundation). The Institute has since session provided an opportunity to in the “junior researchers” category teamed up with the cNRs (french reflect on the future of HAL and speak and received a five-year grant of National centre for scientific Research) about its transformation into a national €1.5 million. to promote the open archives platform shared-governance platform.” 16 INRIA ANNuAL RepoRt 2009
  • 16. compared to 2008. As for the principal indicator of scientific production from the Inria team-projects (quantity of “internationally recognized scientific 15,000 submissions and 32% of scientific 22 publications” calculated on the same basis for the publications entered into hAl. past ten years), it is constantly increasing and rose from 4,034 in 2008 to 4,351 in 2009. “An analysis of the indicators shows that only the distribution of the Institute’s financing has changed project-teams created compared with the forecasts of the four-year con- in 2009. tract,” says Madeleine Zalkind. “Whereas, initially, an equal contribution was expected from the government, Europe and industrial contracts, the share from the government, via the new A REwARdEd cAReeR National Research Agency (ANR), and Europe increased, while the share from industrial contracts gérard huet received the prestigious award from the European Association for Theoretical computer science decreased.” INRIA has taken note of this develop- (EATcs Award) in Rhodes on July 9 in recognition of ment and is now focusing its attention, particularly an illustrious career in fundamental computing research. within competitiveness clusters, on sMes with a This researcher, a member of the Académie des sciences major potential for innovation. and the Academia Europaea, is notably responsible for a variety of work in the field of formal verification. This work includes the design of the verification assistant coq, currently used to ensure the reliability of programs intended for applications including air transport and financial transactions. COnTRACTuAl INcoMes 2009 (IN %) A best-seLLeR In RObOTICS 6 six INRIA researchers contributed to the Springer Handbook of Robotics, the 2008 best-seller of the scientific publisher 11 springer in the engineering category. This book, which looks back at 50 years of research and the social and ethical 40 implications of this field, received two awards from the Europe Association of American scientific Publishers: the Award ANR and other in Engineering & Technology and the Award for Excellence 43 state funds in Physical sciences & mathematics. Businesses miscellaneous 17
  • 17. INfluENcE IN ThE scIENTIfIc cOmmuNITy Software development plots a new course INRIA is currently turning its attention to the production of completed software programs to improve their impact in scientific and industrial circles. the implementation of a new organizational structure for software development is already bearing fruit and opening up new prospects. stéphane ubeda, director of technology development, tells us more. In-Situ Over the last few years the Institute The Wild platform has been aiming to enhance software is a shared working environment development. what stage are things comprising a at today? 32-screen interactive Stéphane ubeda. three years ago, we began a wall. Using simple revision of our policy in order to improve the matu- gestures, it is possible to move an image, ration stage for software developed by research zoom in on a detail and to encourage its use by a larger number or show documents of researchers and industry players. our labour to all participants. power has grown thanks to the recruitment of engineers, the creation of experimentation and development services (seD) in each research centre and management at a national level. At the same time, we have organized software development actions (ADt). these are initiatives that bring together seD engineers and researchers as part of a technology development program. It’s a large-scale structured approach. this system is now firmly in place and is beginning to bear fruit. As a result, we have around 60 ADts and are beginning the third call for project tenders. gEnOuEST bIoINFoRMAtIcs pLAtFoRM what are the effects of this new The Genouest platform is a resource platform is attached to the symbiose organizational structure? centre for biology laboratories. bioinformatics team, which S. u. thanks to this policy, we have reasserted It is now IsO 9001 certified, IBisA* has a direct link with biologists. the value of the role played by engineers. seDs labelled and a part of the Renabi As a result, Genouest was national network of bioinformatics chosen by INRA to develop the are now seen as dynamic places for the training platforms. It develops tools for bioinformatics section of the pest of young engineers. Around 100 of them have managing large bulk data such genomics program. One already worked in these structures since 2007. the as the Biomaj software, a flagship of its tasks is hosting a specialised R&D culture acquired during their stay at INRIA product developed together with database on aphids, AphidBase, will be an asset in their professional lives and a INRA. It also actively participates which is used as a source benefit for the industry that will employ them later in the implementation of information of baseline information around on. ADts also offer a visibility that encourages systems required due to the larger the world. projects with common interests to come together. volume of data on living species. For example, cardiosense3D (a major initiative Another advantage is that the *National life sciences platforms. on the digital modeling of the heart) now uses 18 INRIA ANNuAL RepoRt 2009
  • 18. Vgate: a full-scale 3D immersion platform at INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes. the sofa platform (created by an ADt dedicated form on the intelligent home “The ideal to medical simulation algorithms). this fosters the is currently in the making. this is to have wider use of software programs. will unite actions relating to a limited home help, the intelligent what prospects lie ahead? office and energy conserva- number of large S. u. today our priority is to combine certain tion. It’s a way of breaking platforms actions in order to reduce the number of opera- work down into its constituent covering growth tions, while at the same time enlarging the base elements but also provides topics that of teams participating in each one. the aim is to an opportunity to encour- are capable increase the effect of the resources and personnel age the emergence of new research topics. of uniting various made available in order to obtain more complete For example, current research combining robot- projects.” software programs and increase the impact of ics and the home is undoubtedly an approach STéphane Ubeda, director results. We will also be uniting development efforts that should be addressed more widely given its of technology development around major challenges facing society. A plat- promising prospects. MulTI-AnTEnnA coMMuNIcAtIoN oN tHe HoRIZoN New radiocommunication standards are banking on multi-antenna transmission, which enhances the performance of mobile phones and laptops. The Radio platform – financed by INsA (National Institute of Applied sciences), the Rhône-Alpes region and INRIA – enables the creation and simulation of devices operating on all sorts of standards (Wi-fi, umTs, lTE) in order to fine-tune their performance and power consumption models and adapt the protocols. using this, it is possible to shorten the design cycle for new-generation devices, which is an advantage for the platform’s industrial partners such as Orange labs. “The platform is also the strong point of a European project on the planning of the future fourth-generation networks that began this year,” says Jean-Marie gorce, leader of the swing team. “Our expertise in modeling is also being put to use as part of a joint laboratory with Alcatel-Lucent.” 19
  • 19. INfluENcE IN ThE scIENTIfIc cOmmuNITy Familiarising schools with digital sciences Aware of the loss of interest among youths in research and mathematics, INRIA is stepping up its efforts in liaison with teachers and academics in order to help primary and secondary school students learn more about Icst. this is paving the way for computing to enter into the school curriculum. “INRIA has a role to play in disseminating digital the sophia Antipolis centre. INRIA is also involved sciences among the general public, as well as in the Digital universities plan in partnership with more specifically among stu- the unisciel and unit university groupings. It runs dents and their teachers, who the Fuscia project, the aim of which is to improve themselves have little training in the accessibility of educational resources in Icst. this discipline,” notes Yannick the virtual reception office, which opened this le Thiec, head of the general year, has enabled 200 students from secondary public communication project. schools and preparatory classes to directly con- INRIA has for years been campaigning for digital tact researchers in order to prepare their personal Since 2008, INRIA has been sciences to be introduced into school syllabuses. supervised work (tpe) and personal supervised a partner of the Ministry consequently, it is delighted at news that these initiative work (tIpe). for National Education in disciplines will be entering secondary schools from the Mathematics Olympiads. 2012 as an optional subject in the final year of gAInIng MORE vISIbIlITY science. the research centres have made a major this support in the teaching of Icst complements contribution to this development by providing the business awareness activity that the Institute training aimed at mathematics teachers, includ- has been carrying out for a number of years, ing the algorithmics course offered this year by notably through collaborations with academies. InRIA fIlMS oN Eight videos explaining digital sciences to the general public have been chosen to be shown on This weekly updated Internet television site was launched at the end of 2009 by the Palais de la Découverte and the cité des sciences. INRIA is a partner of this new media resource dedicated to sciences and technologies and accessible to all users. The Open-Vibe film made in 2009 shows how to directly control a computer using thought. It will be available on 20 INRIA ANNuAL RepoRt 2009
  • 20. Lillosciences in Lille. This event, organized by the INRIA Lille – Nord Europe centre and the University of Lille 1, was one of the seven national winners of the Science Festival 2009 call for project tenders. At all INRIA centres, researchers actively participate in this public event. A MAjoR step FoRWARD FoR COMpuTER SCIEnCE TEAChIng the collège de France and INRIA have created a five-year “computing and Digital sciences” chair. gérard berry, a world-renowned researcher and a member of the Academy of sciences and the Academy of technologies, will be the first holder. We asked this leading computer In 2009, the INRIA Lille – Nord europe centre signed sciences educator two questions. an agreement with the Academy of Lille, bringing whY IS ThE CREATIOn Of ThIS ChAIR A SpECIAl EvEnT? the number of agreements nationwide to six. each The creation of this chair establishes the discipline as an of the eight centres regularly makes arrangements independent science and marks its recognition by the for students to join the teams or researchers to other sciences. This is only right, as with 29% of global R&D, speak at the establishments. this discipline currently offers the biggest growth prospects. In the long term, INRIA is also contributing towards The chair also allows a highly varied audience to be reached the creation of a digital scientific culture fund. thanks to radio and Internet broadcasts. for example, my first since 2004, it has been running a popularisation course was downloaded tens of thousands of times. site called Interstices that now has 246 contributors and is this year offering special entry for second- whY dO YOu plACE A MAJOR EMphASIS On ary school students. It is involved in the publica- ThE nEEd fOR COMpuTER SCIEnCE TO bE TAughT tion of popularisation documents, such as the In SECOndARY SChOOlS? DocSciences issue on digital sciences and life To prepare for the future and develop individuals who are sciences. At each of the centres, events such active participants in the information society, it is essential as the science Festival have finally provided an to teach this discipline very early on in life. computer science’s opportunity for a major initiative to be carried out entry into the collège de france has provided an opportunity aimed at the general public. to make the teaching of the science that underpins digital technologies rather than their usage a priority in primary and secondary schools. “Being visible on the Web is essential for the attractiveness of 75% of mathematics teachers at the 100,000 visitors have attended INRIA events. both a university 10,000 Academy of Nice and a research organization have taken the algorithmics training and, more generally, for offered by the INRIA disseminating a country’s sophia Antipolis centre. students have visited scientific and industrial INRIA this year or attended courses given thinking.” by researchers at Patrick ramBert, head of the Fuscia project educational establishments. 21
  • 21. © Aldo Sperber/Picturetank in action Research
  • 22. Research in action
  • 23. Securing the future with green sciences Mathematics and computer science are today decisive in understanding environmental issues (agronomics, climatology, energy). These disciplines help us to devise and develop essential tools for responding to the major challenges of our time: energy ENVIRONMENT savings, health, finance, industrial design Digiplante and the emergence of a safer, more Modeling the impact of intelligent and more usage-focused Internet climate change generation. on plant growth.
  • 24. REsEaRch IN acTION Nano-D Modeling nanoscopic objects using Samson software. Gamma Visualization of different Clime speeds around a Falcon plane. Air quality forecast. Smart research sible that the Institute’s responsiveness could eventually be restricted. It seemed useful and important to implement an organizational through structure that would facilitate the coordi- nation of teams and skills and would be more suited to their geographical dispersion. coordination The aim was also to adapt to developments in the institutional framework of research, which often require collective responses to requests for project tenders by european structures or the National Research Agency. This improved after INRIa was created in 1967, little had changed in the coordination is also one of the objectives of way research was organized. The new organizational the new Alliance of Digital Sciences and Tech- structure introduced in 2009 is expected to enable the Institute nologies (Allistène), bringing together the Con- ference of the Heads of French engineering to respond better in a collective, coordinated and rapid Schools (CDeFI.), the French Atomic energy manner to the increasingly complex and multidisciplined Commission (CeA), the French National Insti- problems facing researchers. tute for Scientific Research (CNRS), the Con- ference of university presidents (Cpu), INRIA and the Institut Telecom. What was the idea the number of project-teams rose from 87 at behind reorganizing the end of 2000 to 169 at the end of 2009, plus How will research be run from now on? research? around 20 teams in the evaluation process. C. P. Five main fields have been defined Claude Puech (Direc- Relations between research teams were around four main activities (modeling, pro- tor of Research Depart- previously established very spontaneously, gramming, communicating and interacting) ment). The main aim was whenever personal relations sprang up or and one application field (life and environ- to achieve improved efficiency, particularly meetings between researchers took place, ment sciences). In each field, a deputy because of the considerable growth in the for example at conferences. The increase scientific director is supported by a com- Institute’s workforce. In the space of 10 years, in the number of teams meant it was pos- mittee of five to seven people with in-depth 26 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 25. 3,150 researchers work within eight centres of the INRIa distributed in all france. SuStAiNAble eNviRoNmeNt: IMpROVINg ThE cOORdINaTION Of REsEaRch EffORTs aNd MakINg ThEM MORE VIsIblE “INRIA has skills in the majority areas for the consistency of work. The first concerns of cross-discipline themes green IT and the development of more resource- in sustainable development,” friendly software, communication protocols, explains isabelle Herlin, who operating systems and compilers. The second core participated in a working group work area is sustainable towns and ambient on the subject. No less than intelligence, including the development of sensor 65 project-teams contribute to this topic, in various networks (for observing and monitoring), software sectors: energy (green computing and ITER (for measuring actions or managing networks) project), transport (road traffic modeling and and tools that facilitate teleworking. The final core control etc.), sustainable towns, health, ecology area, which is cross-departmental, brings together and the environment (plant, ocean and air quality work in information and communication science modeling, etc.). To achieve better coordination and technology (IcsT) that “serves” sustainable of scientific work and an improvement of its impact, development: energy, transport, environment the Research department identified three core and ecology. knowledge of the field and its different to a strategic project that the Institute wants facets. Together, they explore the main chal- to focus on in keeping with its strategic plan lenges, coordinate the scientific community and the milestones identified in this plan. in their field and initiate new collaborations Research at INRIA: 8 research centres between researchers from INRIA’s various (Rocquencourt, Rennes, Sophia Antipolis, centres or between the Institute’s teams and Grenoble, Nancy, Bordeaux, lille and outside parties. Cross-departmental subjects Saclay), 2,800 researchers, 174 INRIA project- such as high-performance computing also teams, 25 teams, 20 Collaborative Research benefit from this improved visibility. Actions, 3 exploratory Actions, 6 large-Scale This new management structure has proved Initiative Actions, and 19 Technology Devel- very useful in working towards the creation opment Actions. of new industrial and academic strategic 1. CDEFI: Conference of Directors of French partnerships. For example, it has enabled us to Engineering Schools. 2. CPU: French Conference of University Presidents. respond to recent demands in the field of sus- tainable development by quickly identifying the skills concerned. It is also more attentive to the emerging subjects raised by researchers with the aim of initiating new scientific fields. ePS: A MICRoBIoloGY pReDICTIoN Tool Are the current tools suitable? The ability to predict the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food enables C. P Yes. exploratory actions foster the emer- . consumer safety to be more effectively guaranteed. The collaborative research gence of new subjects that constitute a action Eps (statistical projected Eco-microbiology), coordinated by Pierre Del departure from the traditional approaches. moral from the alea team, develops sophisticated statistical tools for improving Collaborative research actions encourage the predictions made on the basis of microbiology models. These tools produce synergies between teams and support a reliable estimate of the model’s parameters, while also factoring in the multiple research efforts that require the involvement sources of errors associated with the experimental handling necessary to test of researchers from several disciplines, or the model. after millions of virtual counts and hundreds of hours of computing, even several organizations. large-scale ini- the specific filtering methods can satisfactorily estimate the probability, for tiative actions aim to give a particular scope example, of locating a can of food that carries a health risk before its use-by date. 27
  • 26. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: ApplIeD MATHeMATICS, CoMpuTATIoN AND SIMulATIoN You find a lot of INRIA mathematicians “automation”). Thanks to these cross- and computer code developers discipline skills in computing, optimization, in this field: 35 teams in total, or statistics and control, they are also led around 500 people. These researchers work to collaborate with many other colleagues in close collaboration with their counterparts within INRIA. from other scientific disciplines (physics, In the future, the challenge for these teams biology, materials science, sciences of the will be the growing complexity of the universe), with whom they develop specific problems to address, with an increasing applications. To do so, they write equations, volume of data to handle, models from beRNARD eSPiAu, analyze them and find numerical schemes highly diverse origins needing to be DepuTY SCIeNTIFIC DIReCToR, “FIelD: for conversion into computer programs. combined and ever-more advanced ApplIeD MATHeMATICS, Based on this modeling, they simulate computing resources conducting billions CoMpuTATIoN systems and, for some applications, go of billions of operations per second, ” AND SIMulATIoN” as far as controlling them (in other words, which will need to be adapted to. Financial crisis: head of the Mathfi project-team. “Partner banks are adapting our algorithms to their mathematicians specific needs and take their own decisions about risk hedging.” to the rescue? HeDGiNG RiSkS Interdependence of the markets, lack of regulation and badly hedged risks (in financial mathematics is a real challenge for mathematicians. particular for the well-known subprime The development of increasingly complex products and the mortgages) were the initial cause of the crisis. The global economy is founded on emergence of new markets for derivatives linked with energy, these risk exchange techniques, which commodities, climate and even pollution require specific require increasingly sophisticated software modeling, advanced mathematical analysis and efficient programs. So what can mathematicians do in this computational methods. context? “I think that it is necessary to enhance the research activity, and con- tinue to develop the mathematical tools The financial crisis in 2008 took the entire world to better handle model uncertainty, sud- by surprise and made life rather difficult for den fluctuations and risk control, with con- mAtHFi PRojeCt-teAm mathematicians. “The objective of the soft- stant computational concerns,” responds 7 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS ware Premia that we’re developing is to set Agnès Sulem. 12 pHD STuDeNTS up a technology watch These researchers’ daily activities con- 3 poST pHD for numerical problems sist of analyzing and controlling random toSCA PRojeCt-teAm related to the evaluation processes. They develop sophisticated 10 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS and hedging of financial algorithms to address pricing of finan- 8 pHD STuDeNTS derivative products,” cial derivatives and to evaluate their risk 1 poST pHD explains Agnès Sulem, hedging. 28 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 27. © iStockphoto 250 computers in constant operation, that’s the mathematical power needed to manage the risks taken by a large bank. n = m = 6, 30 iter. 0.3 0.25 0.3 n = m = 6, 30 iter. 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.25 0.15 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.15 0.1 Mathematical models 0.1 0.1 allow users to choose 0 0.05 0 0.05 the hedging of risks associated, for example, −0.1 0 with the fluctuation of oil −0.1 0 −0.05 prices. −0.2 2 −0.1 1.5 −0.05 −0.2 750 800 1 2 t (an) 700 −0.15 650 S 0.5 600 550 −0.2 −0.1 1.5 0 500 800 750 n = m = 6, 30 iter. 1 t (an) 700 −0.15 650 S These algorithms are then implemented 0.5 600 and updated every year on the software Implied volatility 550 −0.2 surface. 0 500 platform premia, a quantitative finance platform launched by INRIA 10 years ago in cooperation with a consortium bring- 0.3 ing together Société Générale, Calyon, Natixis and two Austrian banks (RZB and 0.2 Bank Austria). premia is also available in open-access mode with a two-year delay. A RANDom woRlD “Every year, we discuss the developments What is the relationship between the financial markets, 0.1 to make the following year with the consor- neurosciences, meteorology, protein geometry tium’s members,” adds Agnès Sulem. and developments in a population of bacteria? “They 0 In 2009, Mathfi researchers focused on all involve random phenomena that can be modeled American options, interest rate and credit using the same stochastic models,” answers Denis talay, −0.1 derivative products, risk control with spe- leader of the Tosca project-team, which specializes cial emphasis on stochastic volatility and in the subject. Only the objectives differ. for some of these applications, jumps models. Mathematicians are working thresholds are important: minimum values for limiting financial losses, −0.2 2 electrical potential levels to reach for neuron activity. for others, the aim hard to develop innovative tools for risk is to reduce the dimensions of the modeling of very complex systems 1.5 management. However, it remains to be so that they can then be simulated. Examples of applications include seen whether banks will take less risk with the simulation of protein withdrawals, the evaluation of(an) 1 power t wind financial products. resources in accordance with landscapes and the random development 0.5 60 of a biological population according to its resources and reproduction. 550 500 In the financial field, the Tosca team is working with swiss colleagues 0 (finnrisk network) on conducting a stochastic calculation-based study of the empirical approaches used on trading floors and based on graph analyses and macro-economic considerations. 29
  • 28. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: ApplIeD MATHeMATICS, CoMpuTATIoN AND SIMulATIoN Researchers rub shoulders The multidisciplined team BIPoP is capable of simulating and optimizing anything that slides, rubs or bangs together. This field of application is far more diverse than you might think, involving everything from walking robots that work on electrical systems to circuit breakers and even hair. The researchers are now integrating their solutions into large-scale industrial platforms. Contact, rubbing, sliding and impacts are eled and simulated with “non- regular the common fate of many mechanical models”, the specialty of the Bipop systems. A walking robot produces an project-team. biPoP PRojeCt-teAm impact when it puts its foot down. The 7 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS fact that it remains upright is to do with multiPle APPliCAtioNS 4 eNGINeeRS friction with the ground. Similarly, a circuit “We analyze, control and simulate these 4 pHD STuDeNTS breaker utilizes several parts that come kinds of systems in a reliable and robust 3 poST pHD into friction with each other. The move- m a n n e r, ” e x p l a i n s ment of a head of hair is also a story of bernard brogliato, rubbing, sliding and contact. From robots leader of Bipop, “in to circuit breakers and hairs, all of these some applications mechanical systems have one thing in going as far as produc- common: their behavior can be mod- ing a digital simulation software program. Developments in some areas fuel work in others.” what’s more, the fields of application extend far beyond mere mechanical systems. The sudden variations in current or volt- its strong point is that bipop brings age in electrical systems are entirely together researchers in numerical comparable, in terms of modeling, with analysis, contact mechanics, mechanical shocks. “Our techniques are therefore perfectly suited to the virtual optimization and control.” prototyping of electrical systems,” adds beRNARD bRoGliAto is the leader of the bipop project-team at INRIa Rhône-alpes. Bernard Brogliato. “We submitted a pat- In 2009, four engineers collaborated with bipop, which demonstrates the strong ent on this subject in 2009.” industrial implications of the research topics involving fields from automotives So which electrical systems are these? and space to electromechanical systems and robotics. The problems are treated examples include power converters, from a theoretical and practical viewpoint, with software creations such as siconos, dedicated to irregular dynamic systems, and humans, to simulate the movement systems that govern the durability of of bipeds (humans, robots). our mobile phone batteries, regulating 30 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 29. The operation of a circuit breaker 200 brings a variety of sliding, rubbing and contact areas into play. events (impacts, sliding, etc.) take place during the 50 milliseconds in which a circuit breaker interrupts an electric current. Modeling the movement of a head of hair involves rubbing and sliding motions. their power and saving their energy. Schneider Electric and By optimizing these types of components, EDF are participating in engineers can make a battery last four this project,” explains times longer. They are also capable of vincent Acary, leader designing power converters for elec- of Saladyn. “This also troluminescent diodes (low-energy leD brings us new research bulbs), which require a very high voltage subjects involving new industrial prob- 10 or even 50 times higher than mains lems.” The long-term goal is to integrate voltage. Siconos into Salomé, an open-source platform for integrated design adapted iNDuStRy iN itS SiGHtS to various fields of engineering and To promote the use of these simulations in developed over the last 10 years with industry, the researchers are integrating partners including Dassault Systèmes, their open-source software solution Sico- peugeot and Renault. This really will be nos (a product of the eponymous euro- a step into a wider world. pean project coordinated by INRIA) into a software platform developed since 2009 as part of the National Research Agency project called Saladyn. “Integrating our Impacts and friction on the ground own technologies to help devise complex are taken into account when mechanical systems allows us to come modeling the walking pattern into contact with the industrial world. of the Nao robot. No MoRe GettiNG StuCk as part of the ExoMars project of the European space agency, an autonomous vehicle (a “rover”) is set to explore several miles of the surface of Mars in 2013 to characterize its biological and geological environment. bipop’s researchers are working for one of the project’s subcontractors, Trasys space, which is developing a 3d simulator of the rover. They are integrating their siconos software solution to simulate the vehicle’s movements according to the granular soil on which it will have to travel. The vehicle will send information to the simulator about the Martian soil with which it is in contact. The information will be transmitted to the ground. based on this, the movements will be simulated on Earth in a comparable granular soil before being sent back to the rover so that it can carry them out. The aim is to prevent the accident that befell Nasa’s Martian robot spirit, which became stuck in april 2009 after five years of exploration. © ESA 31
  • 30. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: AlGoRITHMICS, pRoGRAMMING, SoFTwARe AND ARCHITeCTuRe This field is at the core of such as mobile phones and personal programming and computer digital assistants, which have limited systems. Technology developments, computing resources. They are also such as the development of multicore interested in the reliability of web services processors and pervasive computing, and in the security of data exchanges raise new scientific challenges for using cryptography techniques that also experts in algorithms, languages and need to be certified, while at the same software architectures. Their common time addressing privacy issues. goal is to achieve control over the The teams are producing specification, HélèNe kiRCHNeR, reliability and security of programs programming, testing and proof DepuTY SCIeNTIFIC DIReCToR, “FIelD: AlGoRITHMICS, and data exchanges. Researchers environments, program analysis and pRoGRAMMING, SoFTwARe are studying and certifying the reliability verification tools, certified compilers, AND ARCHITeCTuRe” of embedded systems in avionics, as well as cryptography and cryptanalysis automotives and now portable devices methods. ” Shabal in the semi-final! File HASHiNG The Secret team is working on basic primi- tives, in other words the functions that, shabal, the cryptographic algorithm on which the SEcRET combined, form the major cryptographic protocols. Just 10 or so of these primitives project-team is participating, is still in the running in the have been standardized, with the main international competition that will create the next hash types concerning data encryption and sig- algorithm standard, which involves functions that are used nature algorithms. with the latter, it is often judicious, or even essential, to first use a in the signature and authentication of large files. hashing function, in other words a function The event will draw to a close in 2012. that allows very large files (software, long texts) to be reduced to a fingerprint, a small, fixed-size piece (for example 256 bits). This In cryptography, the security of algorithms allows, firstly, the authentication of files by is constantly being questioned, even by analyzing this fingerprint and comparing it those that devise them, and they are with the original and, secondly, the rapid therefore in the best position to identify production of a digital signature for this the flaws of their competitors. The game is fingerprint rather than for the entire file. more akin to table tennis than rugby, the difference being that the robustness of At tHe WoRlD CuP the solutions and the power of the attacks It was in 2004 that standard hash functions, form the rules. As for the end goal, there defined during the 1990s, were taken to is nothing recreational about it: ensuring pieces, in other words their flaws were the confidentiality and integrity of data, detected, one after the other. even if the SeCRet PRojeCt-teAm for example for Internet browsing, online attacks come from the academic world, 5 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS payments, telephone communications, they reflect unacceptable failings. As is cus- 15 pHD STuDeNTS electronic voting and, more recently, per- tomary, an international competition was 1 poST pHD sonal health data. launched to find a solution, a robust suc- 32 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 31. AttACk! Researchers from the secret team have managed to address 5 of 14 the 64 proposals that were initially in the competition to define the future cryptographic hash standard, selecting those that they felt were the most vulnerable. apart from doing updating work on the weaknesses that compromise security, these efforts often utilize new techniques that hashing functions subsequently constitute the design bases for even more robust algorithms. still in the running, The repercussions sometimes go even further. “One of the functions chosen from a we addressed, Lane, is based on a standard encryption algorithm called starting group of 64, AES, which is widely used and was adopted in 2000 following an including shabal. international procedure similar to that currently under way for hashing and previously considered to be robust,” explains Anne Canteaut. however, when used in the context of hash functions, aEs revealed its weaknesses. Other competing functions used aEs and as a result were open to scrutiny. Importantly, this work could, in the future, create new leads for identifying the security flaws of aEs in its primary function, namely data encryption. and so the process continues, opening up more research prospects. cessor, which will be called SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm). The competition was The hash function defines how computing a short kicked off at the end of 2008 by America’s fingerprint of a file; this NIST (National Institute of Standards and fingerprint can then be Technology). INRIA’s team worked on 2 of used for producing a cryptographic signature. the 64 initial proposals (FSB and Shabal). 14 are still in the running, including Shabal. In August 2010, five finalists will remain, with the winner being chosen in 2012. The Shabal algorithm is proposed by a team of 14 researchers from seven academic and industrial research teams, as part of a project financed by the National Research Agency. “Its strengths are its speed (it’s ranked sec- ond, fast on PCs but also on smartcards) and its mode of operation, which was one of the weak points of the previous function,” explains Anne Canteaut, the leader of Secret. Specifically, the mode of operation of a hash function defines how it splits the file into blocks of a fixed size and processes them in suc- cession to calculate the fingerprint. “The crux of the problem is to appropriately iterate one single function on each of the split file blocks,” she continues. “ Shabal’s mode of operation is based on a new construction whose security can be proven.” May the best man win! 33
  • 32. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: AlGoRITHMICS, pRoGRAMMING, SoFTwARe AND ARCHITeCTuRe How long until secure electronic voting becomes a reality? despite being allowed in france, “voting machines” or “voting computers” are far from winning widespread approval. In the last few years their reliability has been called into question. so how can we find out whether or not they are entirely safe? INRIa researchers are expected to provide a reliable answer to this question within two years. They are developing software to automatically verify whether the protocols used during electronic voting are infallible. In 2007, the Netherlands abandoned elec- the number of voters has in some cases been tronic voting, at a time when 95% of their higher than the number of individuals regis- polling stations had this equipment. The rea- tered. Meanwhile, online electronic voting son given was that the “voting machines” over the Internet, which French expatriates did not meet the criteria for “fair, free and have been able to use since 2003, is even SeCSi PRojeCt-teAm secret scrutiny”. Having been called into more complicated to secure as the data 5 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS question in Ireland and Belgium and being needs to be encrypted to prevent it being 9 pHD STuDeNTS partly responsible for the chaos in the uS intercepted and altered. 2 poST pHD presidential elections of 2004, electronic CASSiS PRojeCt-teAm voting, which experienced some popularity WHAt iS A GooD PRotoCol? 13 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS in the 1990s, is no longer completely trusted. To ensure that electronic voting is reliable 11 pHD STuDeNTS And with good reason. These machines have and controllable, a certain number of 2 poST pHD been shown to cause errors. For example, properties need to be in place, such as SAFety IS DIFFICulT To eNSuRe! The safety of protocols, whether in electronic voting This software has been integrated into the avispa platform, or Internet payments, is increasingly tough to ensure. which was developed by INRIa as part of a European controlling the effectiveness of these protocols using tried project whose work is continuing under the avansstar and tested software methods is ever more complex. “In fact, project. In their current form, these tools are currently whatever the application, the formalization unsuitable for electronic voting. of protocols and the properties that they Other challenges for these teams include certifying are supposed to ensure is fairly similar,” the security interfaces that allow an external module explains véronique Cortier, researcher (such as a Usb stick containing confidential data) from the cassis project-team. This means to communicate risk-free with an unprotected computer, the same type of modeling, data structures or to make it possible for an automatic payment to respect and automatic verification tools. The team has already anonymity using autonomous communicating modules designed software to verify online payment protocols. (at motorway toll gates, for example). 34 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 33. 1.3 million voters, in france, vote using electronic voting machines. anonymity, voting privacy, the possibility for voters to ensure that their vote has in fact been counted, that it has not been used by someone else, etc. However, paperless voting, and the lack of a bal- lot paper, transparent ballot box or voting certificate makes the process opaque. The voting machine is a kind of unknown entity that does not inspire confidence in voters. The situation is even worse with online vot- The Avispa platform allows, for example, the safety of online ing. “Since the beginning of 2008, we have payment protocols to be controlled. been participating in a National Research Agency project called Avoté, the aim of which is to propose tools to verify elec- HoW CAN tHiS be veRiFieD? our software tronic voting protocols, whether the situation is online voting or voting particularly in online vot- machines, the first stage, which is far trickier will eventually ing,” explains Stéphanie than it seems at first, consists of converting allow users to Delaune, a researcher at Secsi. This work, which the security properties into rigorous math- ematical formulas. “Modeling anonymity or find flaws in electronic is being conducted in the respect of voting secrecy is a challenge voting systems. close collaboration with the Cassis project- for a mathematician,” she confirms. At the then, a completely team and the Verimag laboratory (CNRS/ same time, electronic voting protocols need INpG/uJF), is expected to result in solutions to be modeled. lastly, algorithms need to be reliable protocol will that will, firstly, find flaws in electronic voting proposed in order to formally verify that these need to be produced. systems and, secondly, state the guaran- teed properties. protocols correctly match the required prop- erties. “By the end of the project in 2012, we in principle, this is will theoretically have developed algorithms not our objective.” that we will implement in a software program StéPHANie DelAuNe is a scientist at the french for the automatic verification of protocols,” National centre for scientific Research (cNRs), says Stéphanie Delaune. a member of secsi. her project-team addresses These algorithms will be validated on known the verification of security protocols, in applications from banking transactions to ticket machines protocols, taken from available literature and electronic voting. What these operations (manufacturers of voting machines are obvi- have in common, regardless of the context, is ously not prepared to divulge theirs), and that they need to remain reliable, even in a hostile on an online voting protocol developed by environment. specifically, the researchers are © Ville d’Issy-les-Moulineaux verifying the security of cryptographic protocols, the university of louvain and used to elect studying the detection of intrusions into electronic its rector in 2009 (more than 5,000 voters). systems and analyzing computer programs eventually, these algorithms could be inte- in order to detect security flaws or vulnerabilities. grated into the Avispa platform (see insert) and enable manufacturers to control their protocols. under these conditions, electronic Electronic voting voting could one day be used on a large in Issy-les-Moulineaux in 2007. scale in complete confidence. 35
  • 34. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: NeTwoRkS, SYSTeMS AND SeRVICeS, DISTRIBuTeD CoMpuTING The project-teams in this field (the integration into the Internet of miniature of research help to define what will devices such as RFID chips) and “the Internet be the future of the Internet as of Services” (the integration of the Internet’s a communication infrastructure, as well characteristics into the building of software as a computing infrastructure in the broad intended for the deployment of future online sense. Researchers are interested in the services and new distributed applications). development of innovative communication With the Internet becoming a computer protocols as much as in the modeling in and of itself, many research efforts are of existing networks, in order to better currently looking at operating systems tHieRRy PRiol, evaluate their performance and size them and middleware for grids or digital hubs DepuTY SCIeNTIFIC DIReCToR, “FIelD: NeTwoRkS, SYSTeMS according to the needs. They are devising (clouds). Lastly, parallel architecture AND SeRVICeS, DISTRIBuTeD effective algorithms adapted to the variable computing (heterogeneous, multicore, etc.), CoMpuTING” characteristics of the network. Their new which has become a key element, is being challenges include “the Internet of Things” worked on by several teams. ” Energy-saving tated by the number of processors only. So what avenues are there to explore to computers achieve progress? Infrastructures – par- ticularly their cooling systems – hardware components, and, lastly, the software that allows users to act on a broad scale on all The power consumption of large-scale distributed resources (computing, systems (computing, data and communication centres) storage, network). It is has become a major concern since the beginning in this field that laurent lefèvre is working as of the millennium. Their software environments part of the Reso team. can help to make significant savings, which is what His goal is to reduce the the RESo project-team studies. energy consumption of large-scale distrib- uted systems in a manner transparent to users, preserving quality of service. SWitCHiNG oFF AS muCH Although the race for power in computers AS PoSSible is still the general rule, their energy effi- A first approach consists in utilizing these ciency is now also a factor. Since 2007, resources in an optimized fashion – by Virginia Tech, uSA, has been establish- switching them off when they are not being ing an international classification, called used. To do this, a thorough understand- Green 500, of the energy performance of ing of needs and uses is needed. “This is ReSo PRojeCt-teAm the world’s 500 most powerful machines. what we studied in 2008 and 2009 as part 7 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS This study found that the 10 most power- of a collaborative research action called 6 eNGINeeRS ful supercomputers ranked between 6th Green-Net,” says laurent lefèvre, who 10 pHD STuDeNTS and 484th in the Green 500 ranking. This coordinated the action. The researchers 1 poST pHD shows that energy performance is not dic- in his team and the Mescal project-team, 36 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 35. along with the Institute for Computing Research in Toulouse and Virginia Tech, used sensors to analyze the power con- sumption of the 150 machines at the lyon The ShowWatts software framework designed by the Reso team allows controlling the electrical consumption of the computing and communication site of Grid’5000, the French experimental resources of some sites of the Grid’5000 experimental platform. computing grid. “Our wattmeters provide measurements machine by machine, on a per-second scale, which allows us to accurately assess the energy cost of each machine. This is a first and will enable users to better understand the impact of their project. The researchers are now devoting eration in the field of scientific and tech- applications in terms of energy, and to their efforts to deploying this software on nical research) action IC804, which was preserve resources accordingly,” says operational infrastructures in France. launched in 2009 for a four-year period, laurent lefèvre. brings together 15 european countries what remains to be done, in order to switch ADAPtiNG PoWeR to discuss these subjects. In this action, off the site’s 150 computers, is to optimally The second approach that the team is laurent lefèvre is the leader of the working aggregate all resources reservations. beginning to study consists in adapting group dealing with “adaptive actions”. “Based on an analysis of the machines’ the resources’ operating conditions of to usage during the previous days and right user needs. The aim is to reduce, as early up to the last few minutes, we try to focus as possible, the Cpus’ frequency Cpus on significant periods of inactivity (at least and the networks’ speed. This means X2 five minutes),” the researcher explains. improving operating systems, adapting How? By suggesting that users postpone communication protocols, and working their calculation tasks (by up to a maxi- on equipments to ensure that they support mum of 24 hours). According to his esti- bandwidth reduction or network outage. mates, their usage-prediction software These domains of potential progress will between 2000 and 2005, could achieve 30% energy savings in one also be the subject of scientific work at the the power consumption year at the level of the entire Grid’5000 european level. The Cost (european coop- of Us data centres doubled. 37
  • 36. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: NeTwoRkS, SYSTeMS AND SeRVICeS, DISTRIBuTeD CoMpuTING Working today on the supercomputers of tomorrow In the field of supercomputing, computing researchers often work on architectures available on the market and several years behind their design. This gives some idea of the importance of the new joint laboratory with the University of Illinois (Usa), where INRIa is participating in the design of software for future supercomputers. In the space of a few months, a simple involved. “They’re inter- discussion at an international confer- ested in our fundamen- ence led to a scientific collaboration that tal expertise,” sums up promises to be fruitful. It resulted in June Franck Cappello, ini- GRAND-lARGe PRojeCt-teAm by the creation of the INRIA-university tiator and co-director 8 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS of Illinois (one of the top five universities of the laboratory. “For 1 eNGINeeR for Computer Science in the Shanghai INRIA researchers, this presence in the 12 pHD STuDeNTS ranking) joint laboratory on petascale USA opens up an extremely valuable 6 poST pHD Computing. The joint laboratory is dedi- access to the technology explora- PARiS PRojeCt-teAm cated to high-performance computing tions and developments of the next 7 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS in the context of the Blue waters project 10 years.” 4 eNGINeeRS that will be installed at the NCSA in 2011. 11 pHD STuDeNTS eight INRIA project-teams are already A PetAFloP ComPutiNG beASt Blue waters, which is funded by the NSF (National Science Foundation) and designed by IBM, will become the world’s most powerful academic computer. Its architecture will contain more than iNRiA has been one of the pioneers at 200,000 cores in more than 25,000 pro- each major stage of high-performance cessors to sustain 10 15 floating-point oper- computing: parallelism, cluster ations per second on complex parallel applications (or a “sustained” petaflop, computing, grid computing and multicore. in computer scientist jargon). This com- its work is internationally renowned.” puting power will allow users predicting the behavior of complex biological sys- FRANCk CAPPello is initiator and member of the grand-large project-team, based in saclay tems, understanding how the cosmos (Île-de-france). The researchers in this team study the scientific challenges and technological evolved after the Big Bang, designing issues of clusters, grids and supercomputers. They design and test system software and investigate the best programming approaches. In 2000, they developed a software program in fault new materials at the atomic level, etc. tolerance for high-performance computing that became one of the references in this domain. Blue waters will take advantage of a 38 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 37. BluePrint (IBM) is used to develop software intended 10 to 100 million cores of an Exascale computer will be able, for example, to predict weather for the upcoming developments over ten-year periods © NcSA supercomputer and make preparations for climate change. Blue Waters. large fraction of its computing capa- bilities thanks to the speed of memory accesses and network transfers. “We’re collaborating with our US col- leagues on three topics,” says Franck Cappello: “parallel programming, to program efficiently these complex multi processor and multicore machines; digital libraries, to limit access to the memory and compute as quickly as pos- sible; and fault tolerance to reduce the impact of faults and the fault tolerance overhead on applications performance and energy consumption.” These devel- opments, conducted in an open-source software format, will benefit the entire community and will be reused on other © NcSA machines. The forthcoming computer centre of the National centre for Supercomputing exASCAle iN SiGHt Applications. This will play host to Blue Waters in 2011. In the longer term, this work is crucial for the design of the following genera- tion of supercomputers, which will be exaflopic (capable of conducting a billion billion operations per second). CoMpuTING iN tHe ClouDS! “This has led us to participate in the IESP INRIa has extensive experience in grids – distributed, heterogeneous (International Exascale Software Project), and independently administered computing resources that are pooled where I’m one of leaders of the fault tol- in order to conduct large scientific calculations. One drawback is that erance topic,” he says. “This climate of they need to be reserved and the calculations authorized. In 2007, confidence and skill has also brought us “cloud computing” was born, which allows a supplier to lease its infrastructure into contact with the US Department of when partially available so that a user can run an application on it. Energy (DoE) that has already launched The availability of resources is near-instantaneous and several call for proposals on research for the management model is simple (supplier/customer type). “To mutually enrich both architectures, we’re adapting Exascale software.” our open-source operating system XtreemOS, which was In europe, software research is expected developed for grids, to clouds,” explains Christine morin, to benefit from these exchanges. As part leader of the paris project-team. XtreemOs simplifies of the pRACe initiative (partnership for the use, management and programming of grids so that they are perceived Advanced Computing in europe), plans by users as a normal pc. applied to clouds, this enables companies are in place to create three to five super- to globally manage their resources wherever they are, lease them computers capable of more than a peta- to other parties and even cooperate and share data. User applications flops. Some of these machines will have and environments can be automatically deployed, as desired (according an architecture similar to the one of Blue to needs), on the company’s available resources or on clouds. waters and may therefore benefit from current software developments. 39
  • 38. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: peRCepTIoN, CoGNITIoN, INTeRACTIoN The 700 people in this research (searches for images in databases, field, divided into 43 research for semantic content on the Web), teams, are studying communication security (video surveillance), transport with the physical world in all its forms: (intelligent vehicles) and health textual, visual and auditory. These (diagnostics aid). There are three major researchers are looking at perception challenges for the future: combining through the medium of sensors, data automatic learning and semantic and knowledge modeling, and concrete interpretation, taking heterogeneous interaction with the physical world. signals into account (including text, moNique tHoNNAt, The research efforts are being conducted images, sounds, touch, etc.) and, finally, DepuTY SCIeNTIFIC DIReCToR, “FIelD: peRCepTIoN, in close collaboration with manufacturers addressing problems of a very large CoGNITIoN, INTeRACTIoN” and often result in software transfers spatial and temporal dimension (for and start-up formations. They are applied example, heterogeneous sensor networks to such diverse sectors as multimedia operating around the clock). ” An all-terrain crane The rescue crane designed by the coPRIN project-team now been achieved. The device is called the Marionet Crane. The researchers tested is part of a new genre. light, easy to handle, rapid this very large “parallel cable robot” by to deploy, highly adaptable and inexpensive, it is also lifting a truck trailer weighing 750 kg, free- powerful. This is an invaluable tool for rescuers during ing dummies buried underneath a pile of wooden palettes and lifting stretchers up earthquakes, natural disasters and road accidents. to a height of 8 meters. The initial real-scale deployment proved of major interest to fire- men from the Group for Reconnaissance and Intervention in perilous environments (GRIMp) in the Alpes-Maritimes. So how do you get a crane to a disaster site A CAble Robot when the roads are cut off? How do you set unlike traditional manipulator robots, which it up on ground littered with pieces of wall, are based on joints, segments or jacks, this beams and other debris? “We wanted to device uses cables. “It’s ideal for this kind of invent a system adapted to these problems application,” explains Jean-pierre Merlet. in natural disasters or road accidents, a sys- “Cables are flexible. To produce the right tem capable of controlling all movements movement, you wind and unwind them (unlike a normal crane), around six motorized winches installed CoPRiN PRojeCt-teAm which meant six degrees on tripods, which are fixed to any support 6 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS of freedom,” explains around the lifting area.” The object being 2 eNGINeeRS jean-Pierre mer let, moved is attached to the six cables. The 7 pHD STuDeNTS leader of the Coprin entire structure is light: 10 kg per winch, 2 poST pHD project-team. This has 25 kg per tripod and 20 kg for the gen- 40 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 39. An essential stage: determining the relative position of the six winches 750 kg The weight of a trailer lifted by the Marionet crane. based on measurements provided by the laser rangefinder. erator. Around 10 rescuers can carry the Demonstration of lifting a stretcher to a height entire device to the site and deploy it in of 8 meters using 10 minutes. the Marionet crane. But the simplicity ends here. operating this kind of device is an extremely com- plex robotics problem. “It took 20 years to resolve this type of mathematical problem for rigid robots,” says the researcher. “Using cables doubles the size of the problem, as they lengthen under traction, can only pull and not push, and bend between The mobile webcam lets the attachment points!” Specifically, users remotely assess the condition of the the length of the six cables needs to be charly dummy, which is adapted according to the object being meDiCAl moNitoRiNG buried under palettes. moved and the position to achieve, They’ve also gone one step further. To choose through rotation or translation. This means which debris to move, they have equipped that the system’s mechanical balance their robot with a mobile webcam. This also needs to be addressed, regardless of the enables the victim’s health condition to be number of cables stretched. The crane monitored when being moved on a stretcher. is now operational with a working space Small instruments measure the temperature of more than 2,000 m3, with the winches and heart rate of the victim and provide around 20 meters from each other, giving information to medical teams in situ or at the an action height of around 10 meters. The hospital, so that preparations can be made researchers are continually improving the for an emergency operation. Another idea instrumentation in order to control as many to explore is using this same setup to locate movements as possible by putting the most victims using an airship attached to cables cables possible under tension. and equipped with thermal cameras. peRSoNAl ASSISTANCe RobotS for the last three years, coprin a cooking area, dining room constraints,” he says. The person researchers have also been and bedroom. The aim was to insert can be fully assisted or stand looking at assistance for elderly the device, invisibly, in the ceiling up using a support that he persons or those with disabilities of one room so that it could lift or she operates. The researchers and reduced mobility. “We’re a 220 lb person in 80% of this are also creating advanced applying the principles developed space. “This requires sophisticated walking frames with two motorized for our cable rescue robot to mathematical analysis to find wheels and multiple sensors. provide assistance for standing the ideal position for the winches, This will enable them to detect and walking indoors,” explains as they will often only be followed a loss of balance, brake to jean-Pierre merlet. The researchers to the nearest 15 cm because prevent a fall or help the person built a 15 m² apartment, with of unexpected interior layout to stand up. 41
  • 40. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: peRCepTIoN, CoGNITIoN, INTeRACTIoN Learning to search for images Researchers from the LEAR project-team are able to search through the millions of visual items contained in an image database to find an image of an object. They are currently continuing their efforts on ever-larger databases with video content. photo agencies, consumers looking for have developed robust image descrip- a product, police searching for suspects tion techniques that are not sensitive, for and pirate video monitoring are just some example, to image rotation, changes leAR PRojeCt-teAm of the reasons why automatic image and of scale or noise in 4 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS video recognition needs are experiencing the image,” explains 2 eNGINeeRS a boom. The lear team has been address- Cordelia Schmid, head 9 pHD STuDeNTS ing these issues for around ten years. of lear. Since 2007, a 3 poST pHD Recognizing objects in an image requires start-up created by the ability to precisely describe the object the team’s researchers, to be identified so that it can be subse- Milpix, has been marketing the technol- quently searched for in a database. “We ogy, which lets users automatically search for images based on their content – for example, finding all images of the eiffel Tower based on a single shot. SemANtiC SeARCH over the last few years, the researchers have been developing techniques aimed Due to the growing number of at finding images that match an object images and videos, we’re constantly category: for example, all images con- improving our learning techniques taining a car (and not just images con- taining, for instance, a Renault Scenic). to find more effective data representations This is done by learning to automatically and structuring.” identify what determines an object cate- gory. This implies that searching in natural CoRDeliA SCHmiD is the head of the lear project-team, in which INRIa Rhône-alpes languages can be performed, allowing (grenoble) and the Jean kuntzmann laboratory of applied Mathematics and computing the query to be formulated as text – for in grenoble are both involved. Its main areas of activity involve image recognition in large databases, the recognition of certain object categories, video indexing and example, “search for images containing searching for actions in videos, all in the most generic images. a car”. 42 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 41. It takes around one second to find images similar to a given image in a database containing several million entries. © David Bleja/EF-EL/antoinemonat/ Another challenge consists of identify- ing objects or object categories despite vague annotation of the content of images uploaded by the average user or available on various websites. “We’re developing specific learning techniques for this,” explains the head of the lear Sets of possible solutions for team. “This approach also cuts back on predictors. The more angular the data annotation work, meaning that this set is, the more it leads to parsimony. larger databases can be handled.” (see insert on the Willow team below). iDeNtiFyiNG viDeoS More recently, thanks to their proficiency in image recognition techniques, the Grenoble-based researchers have turned their attention to videos, which are gradu- ally taking the focus away from photos. CHANGING THe This time, the aim is to analyze a sequence of images to recognize actions (“person leARNiNG PRoCeSS answering the telephone”), interactions statistical learning allows very large quantities of structured data to be between people and individual/object managed based on a body of examples, in fields from bioinformatics interactions (“person putting down a to speech processing and artificial vision. The generic methods suspect package”). These applications developed over the last ten years or so are behind major advances bring up new challenges and require in the field of automatic image content recognition. more computing power. At present, there This generic approach is nevertheless now reaching are few teams working on this subject in its limits. “To make a real qualitative breakthrough France and world-wide. As with images, and go further, it’s essential to get to grips with the process involves a phase of robust real data,” explains Francis bach, researcher from descriptions of actions and objects, then the Willow team and junior winner of the ERc 2009 implementing increasingly sophisticated for his sierra project. “This means choosing relevant learning techniques aimed at achieving a descriptors for an application and limiting yourself to what’s essential more advanced semantic description. to achieve speed and efficiency. This is the structured parsimonious method.” The researcher will apply this approach to image processing – through learning gleaned from millions of cases – as well as to audio data, for example to achieve separation. 43
  • 42. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: CoMpuTANIoNAl SCIeNCeS FoR BIoloGY, MeDICINe AND THe eNVIRoNMeNT The methodological tools genome, cells and bacteria. They are developed at INRIA in life and also working on more complex systems environmental sciences – for such as the vascular network in order to medical imaging, Earth observation and predict an aneurysmal rupture, understand plant growth – have reached a stage the hormonal system and, in an entirely of maturity that is now resulting in the different field, develop bioreactors used creation of a field of research all its own. to purify water or produce new biofuels. All of the teams are focused on fields of Lastly, they are conducting research into application that structure their scientific medical applications such as oncology GRéGoiRe mAlANDAiN, approach. The common goal is to build and neuroscience. In environmental DepuTY SCIeNTIFIC DIReCToR, “FIelD: CoMpuTANIoNAl explanatory or predictive models. In life sciences, researchers are collaborating SCIeNCeS FoR BIoloGY, sciences, researchers are studying living with meteorology specialists to model MeDICINe AND organisms, from the genome to individuals. phenomena, and geophysicists to analyze ” THe eNVIRoNMeNT” In bioinformatics, they are looking at the and calculate geological data. Computer scientists tissues responsible for go green their growth: meristems,” explains Chr istophe Godin, leader of the Virtual plants team. At Researchers from the VIRTuAL PLANTS project-team are the end of their stalks in modeling plant growth at a cellular scale. The aim meristem areas, plants grow small cellular is to achieve a better understanding of the fundamentals territories containing undifferentiated cells that constantly divide. These create the of this process in order to eventually be able to better plant’s various organs: leaves, stalks, sepals, control the production of plants (leaves, fruit, wood, etc.) petals, stamens and pistils. The organization and their reaction to variations in their environment. of these organs – often in spiral form – is remarkable and has been studied since the 18th century. “By observing at a macro- scopic scale the regularity of the archi- An understanding – right down to the level of tecture of various plants (small herbs and plant genes – of the mechanisms that govern cereals, fruit and forest trees) and analyzing their growth, fructification and development the way in which water, light, temperature is paving the way for a wealth of applications, and pests alter this growth, we’re devising from the development of drought-resistant mathematical models that are as simple plants to the improvement of a given crop and generic as possible,” he says. yield and the maintenance of biodiversity. To comprehend these phenomena at a viRtuAl PlANtS PRojeCt-teAm microscopic level, this time on a funda- 5 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS FiNDiNG out moRe About mental scale, researchers are coordinating 3 eNGINeeRS oRGAN GRoWtH… their efforts on a few “model” plants. The 4 pHD STuDeNTS “We’re working, firstly, on the scale of most studied is Arabidopsis, a weed cho- 3 poST pHD plants and, secondly, on the scale of the sen by biologists around 20 years ago as 44 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 43. 1,000 The thousand cells of the Arabidopsis meristem fit into a few cubic micrometers. Virtual Plants. 3D reconstruction of a floral meristem of Arabidopsis. ENS Lyon, cirad and Asclepios partnerships. the focus of international research efforts. They are studying the way in which genes, as part of a complex dialogue at a cel- lular level, gradually guide the growth of organs. The problem is complex: many genes interact and undergo molecular and cellular changes. They control growth, cellular differentiation and division, the exchange of signals between tissue regions and relationships with the environment. …AND moRe About tHeiR GeNeS The only solution for demonstrating the mechanism is modeling, which is being worked on by several teams around the world, bringing together computer scientists, mathematicians and specialized biologists, as is the case with Virtual plants. “We’re modeling the meristem of Arabi- dopsis at the cellular and genetic scale, in three dimensions, to achieve an increas- ingly detailed understanding of how this growth engine works and to find out how genes interact to control the development of a given organ,” says Christophe Godin. Together with researchers from the École Normale Supérieure de lyon, the INRIA team is building a digital model of virtual meristems. This can be used to reproduce Virtual Plants. Networks that transport the auxin growth hormone in a meristem (in red), the cell populations observed, as well as to seen in confocal microscopy (at the top), digitized and simulated (L and R below). simulate the activation and deactivation ENS Lyon partnership. of genes and the physical and biochemi- cal interactions between cells. organs. Auxin is transported from cell to quently put to use? “Our work is purely cell, in the meristem, via specific proteins to do with understanding. Two strategies iNveNtiNG tHe PHySiCS that create transport circuits capable of could then be devised,” responds the oF tHe bioloGiCAl constantly reconfiguring themselves in researcher: “defining new and more fun- Armed with this model and confocal order to create new organs. using simula- damental target characters for the classic microscopes, the researchers have man- tions, the researchers have managed to varietal selection methods or acting on aged to paint a detailed picture of the successfully replicate the complex distri- the phenotype of a given plant by directly mechanism governing the transport of the bution of these proteins in cells and their mutating the genes involved.” These are plant growth hormone. It has been known reconfiguration dynamic. ethical and political choices that society since the beginning of the last decade “Together, we’re inventing the physics will have to make. that the accumulation of this hormone, of the biological,” sums up Christophe auxin, triggers the development of new Godin. So how will this work be subse- 45
  • 44. REsEaRch IN acTION FIelD: CoMpuTANIoNAl SCIeNCeS FoR BIoloGY, MeDICINe AND THe eNVIRoNMeNT Fighting cancer with modeling The BANG project-team models the proliferation of cells (tumorous or healthy) treated with medicines. as part of projects conducted together with physicians, these researchers are demonstrating that taking individual characteristics into account can help optimize drug tolerance and efficacy of cancer treatments. jean Clairambault, preventing tumorous cells from developing a mathematician and drug resistances. This is a difficult balance physician by training, to achieve. bANG PRojeCt-teAm takes a pragmatic view. 5 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS According to him, it is eFFiCACy AGAiNSt toxiCity 7 pHD STuDeNTS unlikely that cancer drugs Cancer drugs block the cycle of cell divi- 4 poST pHD will one day be able to target only tumorous sion by triggering the production of non- NumeD PRojeCt-teAm cells. The upshot is that currently available viable DNA. This researcher is studying the 5 peRMANeNT MeMBeRS drugs need to be used to their full potential way in which healthy and tumorous cells are 2 eNGINeeRS to achieve maximum destruction of can- affected by these drugs. “In both tumorous 2 pHD STuDeNTS cerous cells, while at the same time limiting tissue and healthy tissue, we are modeling 1 poST pHD their toxic effects on healthy organs and the impact of drugs on their cell targets (such as proteins, which control the cell division cycle). However, we also need to take into account variability among the population in how receptive cells are to drugs (depending on genetic profile, gender, age, lifestyle),” We’re working in close collaboration explains Jean Clairambault. with clinicians. We’re now hoping In connection with several european proj- ects over the last 10 years, he has been to land partnerships with the collaborating with the team led by Francis pharmaceutical industry and biotechnology lévi from INSeRM (French National Institute companies.” for Health and Medical Research – paul Brousse Hospital), who specialize in cancer jeAN ClAiRAmbAult is director of research in the bang team, whose researchers develop chronotherapy. Chronotherapy consists in models in life sciences dedicated to cancer, prions, alzheimer’s disease and bacteria. adapting the administration of treatments These models can also be used to simulate geophysical flows such as those of shallow to each patient according to their circadian waters in rivers. This research is all based on partial derivative equations. Other tools (agent-based stochastic models) are being developed to achieve alternative modeling system – the network of molecular clocks of tissue growth, both normal and cancerous. that regulate, over a 24-hour period, each 46 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRT 2009
  • 45. Medicine1 5FU LV Medicine 2 p = plasma [5-Fu] F = intracellular [FduMp] i j Q = plasma [lV] Blood vessels l = intracellular [MTHF] 1 N = nuclear factor, triggered by 5-Fu P A = activity of ABC transporter, 3 induced by nuclear factor Cell or Q S = free [TS] [not FduMp-bound] group of cells Entry of B = reversible binary [FduMp-TS] complex the medicine T = stable ternary [FduMp-TS-MTHF] complex 2 4 5/6 L Stages 1-9 each are represented A N F by an equation. 7 8 S B 9 Inactivated Exit of T molecular target the medicine ey Rusakov/ © Y.A./Serg Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (Pk-PD) modeling of the action of a combination 5-Fluorouracil (5Fu) + Folinic acid (leucovorin, lv) on the enzyme thymidylate synthase (tS). person’s cell behaviour, metabolism and proliferation. Together with six other teams from France, Italy and Britain as part of the Tempo project, which ended in 2009, they treatment mode, which has already been put to use in around 50 oncology depart- ments around the world. The patient is fitted with a programmable pump that automati- Cancer since 2004, the leading cause of death all origins have demonstrated that taking this biologi- cally delivers the chronotherapy drugs unas- combined in developed cal clock into account can lower the toxicity sisted for up to three weeks. countries. of cancer drugs. NeW tHeRAPeutiC leADS As part of this initiative, two drugs were DeSCRIBING tHe ComPlexity studied in cell cultures and in mice whose sleep-wake rhythm was controlled: Irinote- oF liviNG oRGANiSmS can, a drug commonly prescribed to treat The NuMED project-team also models the growth of cancerous tumors colorectal cancer, and Seliciclib, a cancer based on data from both preclinical (in animals) and clinical studies. The aim drug in development. “We’re analyzing their is to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness of cancer treatments. “We’re action and changes in their toxicity over developing models based on the statistical methods used 24 hours based on our cellular pharmacol- by the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate the effectiveness ogy models, by adapting doses and the of drugs,” explains emmanuel Grenier, leader of Numed. In collaboration with the oncology clinical trials platform infusion profile according to the genetic of the lyon-sud hospital, the team has launched a study of makeup and gender of the animals,” says more than 100 mice to characterize, using models, the complex the researcher. The results show that, strik- progression of the disease – particularly angiogenesis, the phase in which the ingly, the harmfulness of these drugs can tumor creates its own vascularization network. The model will eventually allow vary by as much as three times or more users to predict the effects of antiangiogenic therapies combined with standard depending on when they are administered. chemotherapy. another application studied in Numed is strokes, which are The next challenge is to understand how the caused by the obstruction of cerebral arteries. “We’re building models to better circadian clock influences the proliferation understand and, ultimately, simulate the complex phenomena that interact of healthy and cancerous cells. and result in the death of certain neurons,” concludes the researcher. efforts now need to be made to extend and further optimise this promising outpatient 47
  • 46. © Jean-Luc Bertini/Picturetank A policy of openness
  • 47. A policy of openness
  • 48. Better preparation means better innovation Eager to contribute to French and European economic growth, INRIA is organizing itself to better face the challenges of tomorrow. It is redefining its organizational structure and its tools to gain INTERACTION In-Situ more efficiency. This drive has Users just need one ambition in mind: to foster to approach this mirror the innovation that underpins to establish a economic growth. This is given video contact concrete form in patents, start-ups with friends or family. and industrial collaborations.
  • 49. A pOlICy Of OpENNEss A strengthened organizational structure to prepare for the future INRIA has clarified its structuring, implemented new tools and launched major projects in order to ensure the Institute’s proper functioning. This reflects an effort to guarantee quality at the start of a period of growth firmly aligned with modernisation, coordination and openness on a global scale. “We’re developing So how do you manage an institute that has tion system. This allows us to tools specific doubled in size in 10 years? “It’s not possible aggregate data from diverse for things to be done any old how,” says Hervé sources so as to respond to to each domain, Mathieu, Chief Executive for Resources and Ser- specific issues,” sums up Éric while also ensuring vice Administration. “At all levels we want an Gautrin, Director of Informa- that the information organization that remains flexible, based around tion Systems, Infrastructures system remains research teams, but that enhances its effective- and Computer Services. For example, monitoring coherent.” ness and provides a guarantee of dependability a research contract or a partnership involves tak- ÉrIc GAutrIn, for our partners, supervisory ministries and the ing personnel expenses and operating expenses Director of Information Systems, European Commission.” into account. users need to be able to query Infrastructures and Computer Services different “business line” databases, being sure A decompArtmentAlISed that they are sharing the same references. “This InformAtIon SyStem year we implemented a workforce management The development of the information system for tool (GEF) in order to compile a list of all indi- managing and coordinating the Institute is a key viduals involved in INRIA’s activity, even if they project in the modernisation process. “We’re are not paid by the Institute,” says Éric Gautrin. continuing to develop tools specific to each “We also developed the Bastri database, which business line, while at the same time continuing allows project-teams to be monitored. In 2010, to guarantee the consistency of the informa- we also have a few major development projects certIfIcAtIon project opTIMAl CooRDINATIoN FoR THE INSTITuTE looMS lARGE Around 30 projects are being our current management system. commitments and an evaluation of conducted simultaneously in order The objective is to achieve certification the economy of contracts and projects, to successfully complete the Institute’s of the 2010 accounts. “Certification which the information systems’ current major certification project. This involves of the Institute is a regulatory requirement. compartmentalisation does not allow. analysing processes and implementing It is above all a factor in the progress In addition, management on a per- the quality procedures that will allow us of the services and departments and project basis will enormously facilitate to reduce the risks of error. The goal provides a powerful tool for coordinating the justification of the expenses is also to harmonise practices within the the organization,” says luc d’Archimbaud, of European and ANR contracts. Institute, particularly between research Director of Administrative, financial It also provides a basis for improving centres, in order to allow the intersection and Asset Affairs. Cost accounting will the tools that support INRIA’s financial of data and factor cost accounting into enable improved monitoring of legal management. 52 INRIA ANNuAl REpoRT 2009
  • 50. quEsTIONs TO hervÉ mAthIeu, CHIEF ExECuTIvE oFFICER FoR RESouRCES AND SERvICE ADMINISTRATIoN “ouR EFFoRTS wIll oF CouRSE FoRM pART oF A NATIoNAl pRojECT And WIll Adopt A broAdly open StAnce on europe And the World.” 63% of the phD students taken on in 2009 and 60% of the WhAt ASSeSSment cAn be mAde of the lASt feW post phD on INRIA’s payroll yeArS of ActIvIty? are not french nationals. At the end of our four-year contract, we built the structures and instruments that allow us to move assuredly into a future that to a very large extent still hasn’t been built. The departments were redesigned in order to adapt to the Institute’s growth. The creation of a head office administration delegation has strengthened the planned linked with the certification of accounts coordination of departments by delegating and pooling and developments in the human resources infor- their management. The modernisation of our information mation system.” system and our management provides an essential monitoring and decision-making framework so that we A key objectIve: mAkInG can rapidly and effectively respond to new objectives. the InStItute AttrActIve Another current challenge for the Institute is WhAt Are the development proSpectS? to attract quality individuals in a sector where We’re going through a pivotal period. The research competition is fierce and the job market global. landscape is evolving and taking shape around universities. “A good recruitment policy is based on the Within this framework, our role, alongside other partners, upstream assessment of requirements, a good is to actively support the growth of universities. Our efforts offer in order to obtain the best candidates and will of course form part of a national project and will good support during the inte- adopt a broadly open stance on Europe and the world. gration period and beyond,” The initiative has already begun as part of the creation says muriel Sinanidès, Direc- of a European project-team together with the Netherlands tor of Human Resources. “We – and soon others with Italy and Germany – and through have progressed in all of these our involvement in a Europe-wide alliance, EIT ICT labs. aspects.” As far as research One essential aspect is that we will continue to draw on support functions are concerned, a newly intro- a strengthened synergy between research, education, duced “job skills plan” (pEC) allows requirements development and technology transfer. EIT ICT labs reflects to be analysed in detail and a clear vision of this positioning, as it is built around these same themes. recruitment to be achieved. Recruiting scien- tists is a fundamental task. “You have to handle a pool of candidates,” says Muriel Sinanidès, “while maintaining relationships with graduate schools and engineer schools, being present at small teams is very attractive to researchers, job fairs and supporting a network of recruiters as is the Institute’s stability and, for foreigners, “A good recruitment in which researchers are the main participants.” the social and cultural environment of France,” This monitoring process will every year result in stresses Muriel Sinanidès. lastly, the Institute’s policy is the result selected scientists being invited to a conference management school opened this year, offering of assessing aimed at introducing them to the Institute. The training, the sharing of practices, coaching and requirements early first event took place this year and has already collective production. “All of these new tools on, a good offer led to applications. As far as the offer is con- make up a coherent whole to ensure that our and good support.” cerned, although salaries are lower than in the recruitment matches our needs and that the murIel SInAnIdèS, private sector, INRIA has its benefits. “The fact best arrangement is made between the Institute Director of Human Resources that it is organized into creative and responsive and the selected candidate.” 53
  • 51. A pOlICy Of OpENNEss InrIA favours long-term partnerships, subjects of high scientific value and major socioeconomic issues.” malik Ghallab, Chief executive officer for science and technology ciriLL Microsoft © iphotographie consolidating the free software policy An exceptional laboratory Speaking at the open world Forum 2009, Steve Ballmer, the head of Microsoft, Michel Cosnard announced the opening and Michel Cosnard, Chairman of an IT Innovation and Research Centre of INRIA, signed an agreement on for Free Software (CIRIll), a uniting project october 6 in paris to renew the joint led by Roberto Di Cosmo, professor at laboratory between the Institute paris 7 on assignment at INRIA. This project and the computer giant’s research reaffirms the Institute’s commitment to free department for a four-year software and its aim to increase transfers (research, training, industrial transfer) in one period. For the last three years, this in this field. It also signals an intention place in order to give the community laboratory has been directed by to bring together free software players a genuine benchmark centre in the field. jean-jacques levy, leader of the Moscova team at INRIA. Together with around 15 researchers, he has already demonstrated his extremely demanding approach in the fields addressed: formal methods, the automatic verification of programs and the safety of protocols for data exchange over the Internet. Five original software programs are available on the laboratory’s website. cerfacs A french understanding of high-performance computing INRIA and the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation (CERFACS) signed an agreement on November 9 k Pichard to create a joint laboratory. This will bring together both organizations’ complimentary nce/Patric skills in order to ensure the effective operation of new generations of computers. These extremely powerful machines © Météo fra (1015 operations per second from 2011) will provide a response to needs in high-performance simulation, whether in medicine, biology or climatology. 54 INRIA ANNuAl REpoRT 2009
  • 52. LiriMa on the path to a euro-African alliance INRIA signed an agreement on November 24 with six African partners to create a joint laboratory, called the International laboratory for Research in Computing and Applied Mathematics (lIRIMA). This virtual laboratory reflects the maturity of current African research in these fields. with this creation, INRIA’s intention was to give international visibility to this centre of excellence and to lay the first stone of a Euro-African alliance. lIRIMA, which is open to other partners, will be headed by the world-renowned Cameroonian computer scientist, Maurice Tchuenté. © Microsoft/B. Lachaud UrBana chaMPaign A strategic laboratory for supercomputers © Philippe Devernay june 11 saw the creation of supercomputing. Thanks the joint laboratory between to this work on American INRIA and the National supercomputers, our Centre for Supercomputing researchers are gaining Applications (NCSA) a lead by familiarising at the university of Illinois themselves with the in the uS. This laboratory architecture and dimension AN AGREEMENT IS SIGNED, is working on the design of of machines that will be software for the Blue waters arriving in Europe in several An AllIAnce IS born supercomputer, which will years’ time. Integrated The agreement signed with the Conference of university be the most powerful in its into the American and Chairmen (Cpu) on December 17 in the presence class by 2011. The Institute’s French ecosystems, of Valérie pécresse provides recognition of the 30 involvement in this project, the joint laboratory allows or so partnerships formed with french universities which is financed by the INRIA to form part of National Science Foundation Exascale computer projects in the space of two years. “This agreement covers all (NSF), reflects the recognition and favour their transfer possible forms of partnerships with universities. It will of its skills in the field of to Europe. now serve as a benchmark for the renewal of specific agreements,” says jean-pierre verjus, Deputy Managing Director of INRIA. Examples include the Institute’s involvement in the creation of technology “our ambition is to build transfer acceleration companies and consolidate scientific (sATT) and the opening of its research utilisation facilities partnerships with the to universities. The same day saw the creation of the world’s best teams. joint laboratories Digital Alliance, called Allistène and bringing together are an example of this. our actions INRIA, the french National Centre for scientific Research (CNRs), the french Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), also aim to increase the Institute’s the Conference of the Heads of Engineering schools visibility and attractiveness in order (C.D.E.f the Conference of university Chairman (Cpu) .I), to attract the best researchers from and the Institut Telecom. “We have high hopes for countries around the globe. the colibri Allistène,” says Jean-pierre Verjus. “In particular, we are conference, organized as part of planning to pool our research utilisation tools and work the year of france in brazil, illustrates together with the ANR to define research programs t hat match major national aims. The alliance is also set this influence strategy.” to coordinate an ICST ethics committee.” domInIque SotteAu, Director of International Relations 55
  • 53. A pOlICy Of OpENNEss A breath of fresh air for transfer In its efforts to foster new innovation support facilities, INRIA has over the last two years updated its transfer policy and its organizational structure. The same objective has been kept in mind: to optimise the economic impact of the Institute’s research. There is also one ambition: to be a national player in the transfer field in information and communication science and technologies (ICST), in partnership with regional structures. Interview with Bruno Sportisse, Director of Transfer and Innovation. 40 InrIA is active in transfer. What specific we transfer our skills by offering our scientific forms does this take? expertise to companies or by fostering the mobil- bruno Sportisse. There are multiple forms of ity of our phD students, young engineers and transfer: partnership research, skill transfer and researchers. lastly, technology transfer can take new transfer projects were examined in 2009. technology transfer. A number of partnership several forms: business formation, direct transfer projects are being conducted with the R&D to an SME for example, or the distribution of departments of major industrial groups. Today, free software to an industrial community. we our objective is to favour bilateral relationships recently implemented several tools to help us with a limited number of strategic partners. better identify opportunities and support the transfer projects. What does the notion of “strategic partnership” cover? A quESTIoN oF truSt b. S. It’s a lasting large-scale relationship with a manufacturer, involving the joint definition The joint laboratory with Alcatel-lucent dedicated to the communication and then coordination of programs linked with networks of the future is a perfect illustration of the Institute’s stance on industrial issues. These issues allow the Institute’s partnership-based research. Resulting from a shared strategic vision, teams to become involved in significant scientific the partnership was built with long-term goals in mind and has created subjects to which we wouldn’t otherwise have a strong dynamic that this year led to the success of the EIT ICT labs access. with this mindset we have renegoti- project, backed by 23 partners (including Alcatel-lucent and INRIA). ated several of our framework agreements with In another example, INRIA is one of the founding members of the Green major groups. This can result in the creation of Touch consortium launched by Alcatel-lucent, the aim being to divide virtual joint laboratories, such as with Alcatel- the power consumption lucent on the Internet of the future and Microsoft of communication networks by 1,000 within five years. Research in e-sciences. In the case of joint scien- lastly, Alu-Bell labs-INRIA tific actions, INRIA teams work with the industrial joint workshops were partner to prepare research projects on subjects held this year with Bell labs proposed by the manufacturer. A dozen projects in the us on the topic have been initiated like this with EDF R&D in the of network science. field of high-performance simulation for energy These kinds of partnerships applications. others are under way with ST Micro- © Peter allan help to involve a portion electronics in embedded multicore systems; with of INRIA’s research in major Thomson in the multimedia field; with orange in industrial projects. communication networks; and with Bull on the 56 INRIA ANNuAl REpoRT 2009
  • 54. quEsTION TO dAvId monteAu, IN CHARGE oF THE INNovATIoN FoR THE TRANSFER AND INNovATIoN DEpARTMENT, AlSo IN CHARGE oF THE MoNIToRING oF CoMpETITIvE CluSTERS “THE SECToR MANAGERS look To InnovAtIve Smes to fInd the rIGht pArtnerS.” hoW do you ASSISt the conStructIon of A project? The first phase involves identifying the opportunities. This is the role of our five sector managers, who scour their market sector looking for innovative sMEs that could make good partners and, at INRIA, the teams capable of meeting their request. To achieve this they participate in the variety of business networks in existence - competitiveness clusters, the thematic networks of chambers of commerce and professional networks specific to different sectors. The sector managers relay the information to a web of innovative sMEs architecture of future supercomputers. A similar that is built up over the course of meetings. The partnership initiative, conducted with the French National managers at INRIA’s eight centres provide a regional Agency for the Management of Radioactive perspective and their knowledge of the local innovation waste (ANDRA) and oNERA (the French Aero- landscape: business networks, incubator networks, etc. space lab), has paved the way for other types When a transfer project is identified, it is formalised together of applications in sustainable development and with the sector managers and the partnership agents aeronautics. before being submitted to the Committee for the Monitoring of Technology Transfer Actions. This committee questions how have you reorganized the transfer those involved in the projects, advises them and, if need of technologies? be, redirects them as part of a “dynamic monitoring” b. S. our objective is to encourage the emer- approach. During this second phase of project engineering, gence of the largest possible number of transfer a decision is made whether or not to invest INRIA’s own opportunities and to assist them over the long funds, request public financing or apply for the support of term. To support this drive, at the beginning of IT Translation (formerly INRIA-Transfert) for business formation. 2009 we created the Committee for the Moni- toring of Technology Transfer Actions. Its role is to define the most suitable transfer method and assist its implementation. It is comprised of 1,000 around 10 external experts, all spe- cialists in key markets for INRIA, who meet five times a year to give their opinion on the transfer projects. At these meetings the projects can be “We have times less energy consumed by communication networks redirected, requiring a concerted updated our in five years’ time. This is effort to explain the situation to priorities and the objective of the Green those involved with them. Touch consortium, launched In 2009, nearly 40 new projects were organizational by Alcatel-lucent in examined. Half of these involved structure collaboration with INRIA. business formations. in terms Supporting transfers to SMEs is another of transfer of our priorities. In 2009 we launched I-labs, which according to a rationale are joint laboratories between research teams governed by demand.” and SMEs. one of these laboratories was created Bruno SportiSSe, in lille by the company Idées-3com and ••• Director of Technology and Innovation Department 57
  • 55. A pOlICy Of OpENNEss ••• the Alcove team. Based on this model, meeting was conducted on the basis of this three further I-labs are soon expected to be up new model this year in lille. Five further meetings and running. are expected to follow in 2010. Between these events, the INRIA partner SMEs Club, created does InrIA have a specific policy in the autumn, allows the sector managers to concerning Smes? form long-term relationships with SMEs in their b. S. over the last few years we have been field. This is another opportunity to stimulate the looking to contribute to the competitiveness of emergence of new transfer projects. our companies by fostering relationships with innovative SMEs in our fields of expertise. one Shared structures dedicated to technology of the difficult tasks is to identify these SMEs. transfer are being put in place on large Five sector managers are now tasked with this campuses. What role does InrIA plan to drawing up this map at a national level, each play in this major reorganization? being assigned a market sector, with a strategic b. S. The French research and innovation system vision in mind. They draw particular support from is undergoing far-reaching changes due to the competitiveness clusters, which are exceptional consolidation or emergence of regional struc- environments for ambitiousness and encounters. tures, such as competitiveness clusters and trans- They oversee thematic meetings focusing on fer sharing structures. our experience has taught the needs of the markets, radically refreshing us that transfer is first and foremost a network the formula of INRIA-Industry meetings. At these matter for the stimulation of opportunities, and events, our researchers and the SMEs spun off secondly an expertise matter for the monitoring from the Institute present their technologies to of projects. INRIA showcases this experience and cluster members using demonstrations. A first positions itself as a national player in software transfer, serving the entire research and innova- tion system. The tools that we offer constitute a comprehensive and coherent offering that complement those of the regional structures. “One of our priority objectives This offering includes the management of net- is to strengthen transfers works on the basis of identified sectors, transfer to innovative SMEs, whatever expertise in the software field and support for the transfer method.” created companies. A pRoGRAM for Smes Most of the time, despite the and INRIA researchers by mutual interest that they perceive, forming lasting and personal the managers of innovative relationships with the heads sMEs and researchers, who often of innovative sMEs in their sector. have heavy workloads, simply They provide them with relevant do not have the time to make information about innovations their projects a concrete reality. in ICsT, organize meetings The INRIA partner sMEs Club, with researchers and help created in september 2009, aims them to recruit phD students to make these collaborations or engineers who have spent possible. It is run by five national time at INRIA, passing on four sMes had the opportunity to accompany inria to the sector managers who act knowledge and expertise. They 22nd edition of the international conference on supercomputing. as mediators between sMEs also create transfer opportunities. 58 INRIA ANNuAl REpoRT 2009
  • 56. “We need to move AWAy from the ServIce provISIon rAtIonAle to Adopt A product rAtIonAle. THIS CoNDITIoN wIll Allow THE IMpACT oF ouR TECHNoloGIES To BE INCREASED.” quEsTIONs TO lAurent kott, MANAGING DIRECToR oF INRIA-TRANSFERT rethInkInG the how will It translation remove this obstacle? formAtIon of StArt-up l. k. Whereas INRIA-Transfert assisted SpuN oFF FRoM RESEARCH business founders and provided indirect financial support, the new structure INRIA-Transfert will become will be involved in the formation of the IT Translation, a necessary business – as a co-founder – by providing change brought about by a new human and financial resources. approach to assisting start-ups. Our intention is to help businesses define a product – to increase the technology’s impact – and promote it by providing Why have changes been made to the marketing skills. policy on assisting fledgling companies? laurent kott. We observed that the can you tell us more about the companies spun off from research are not characteristics of this future structure? managing to grow. The transfer is remaining l. k. IT-Translation will initially be a on a small scale, in the form of design firms company supported by CDC Entreprises and research companies under contract. and INRIA but will subsequently welcome Our diagnosis is that, from the start, they other partners. This is because it aims don’t have either sufficient resources or skills to be a transfer tool for the whole of digital to put in place a real industrial project. sciences research. GolAem, A 3D START-up Golaem, created in 2009 from the BuNRAKu team, sells software that simulates human behavior in 3D spaces, intended for town planners and trainers in the industrial environment. The technology was adapted as part of a contract between the start-up and INRIA, facilitated by the new measures of the research tax credit. Golaem was also the first INRIA company assisted by IT Translation. 59
  • 57. Project-teams active in 2009 pRoJect-teAMs ApplIed MAtheMAtIcs, Stochastic Methods and Models COMMANDS (3, 12, 13) control, optimization, Models, Methods and Applications for Nonlinear coMputAtIoN ANd sIMulAtIoN ASPI (3, 40) Applications of interacting particle dynamical systems. systems to statistics. saclay – Île-de-France. Frédéric Bonnans. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. François le Gland. Computanional Models and Simulation CORIDA (3, 16, 32, 33, 43) Robust control of Infinite CQFD (3, 20, 21) Quality control and dynamic reliability. dimensional systems and Applications. CALVI (3, 27, 32) scientific computation Bordeaux – sud-ouest. François dufour. Nancy – Grand est. pt both located in Metz. and visualization. Marius tucsnak. Nancy – Grand est. pt both located in strasbourg. MATHFI (3, 6, 29) Financial mathematics. Éric sonnendrücker. paris – Rocquencourt. pt both located MAXPLUS (3, 13) Max-plus algebras in Marne-la-Vallée. Agnès sulem. and mathematics of decision. CONCHA (3, 39) complex flow simulation codes saclay – Île-de-France. stéphane Gaubert. based on high-order and adaptive methods. SISTHEM (3, 40) statistical Inference for structural Bordeaux – sud-ouest. pt located in pau. health Monitoring. METALAU Methods, algorithms and software Roland Becker. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Michèle Basseville. in automatic control. paris – Rocquencourt. Maurice Goursat. DEFI (3, 13) shape reconstruction and identification. TOSCA (3, 16, 32, 33) to simulate and cAlibrate saclay – Île-de-France. houssem haddar. stochastic models. NECS (3, 15, 23) Networked controlled systems. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. carlos canudas de Wit. GAMMA Automatic mesh generation and Nancy – Grand est. denis talay. and adaptation methods. paris – Rocquencourt. paul-louis George. Optimization, Learning AlGoRIthMIcs, pRoGRAMMING, and Statistical Methods IPSO (3, 7, 40) Invariants preserving solvers. soFtWARe ANd ARchItectuRe Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. philippe chartier. DOLPHIN (3, 25) parallel cooperative multi-criteria optimization. Programs, Verification and Proofs MC2 (3, 20, 21) Modeling, control and computations. lille – Nord europe. el-Ghazali talbi. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. thierry colin. ABSTRACTION (3, 9) Abstract Interpretation MISTIS (3, 15, 23) Modeling and Inference and static Analysis. MICMAC (6) Methods and engineering of complex and structured stochastic systems. paris – Rocquencourt. patrick cousot. of multiscale computing from atom to continuum. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Florence Forbes. paris – Rocquencourt. pt both located ATEAMS (45) Analysis and transformation in Marne-la-Vallée. claude le Bris. REALOPT (3, 11, 20, 21) Reformulations based based on reliable tool compotions. Algorithms for combinatorial optimization. lille – Nord europe. pt both located in Amsterdam. NACHOS (3, 35) Numerical modeling and high Bordeaux – sud-ouest. François Vanderbeck. paul Klint. performance computing for evolution problems in complex domains and heterogeneous media. SELECT (3, 36) Model selection in statistical learning. CARTE (3, 16, 32, 33) theoretical-Adverse sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. stéphane lanteri. saclay – Île-de-France. pascal Massart. computations, and safety. Nancy – Grand est. Jean-Yves Marion. OPALE (3, 35) optimization and control, numerical SEQUEL (3, 4, 25, 26) sequential learning. algorithms and integration of complex multidiscipline lille – Nord europe. philippe preux. CASSIS (3, 16, 32, 33, 42) combination of approaches systems governed by pde. to the security of infinite states systems. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée and TAO (3, 36) Machine learning and optimization. Nancy – Grand est. pt both located in Besançon. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Jean-Antoine désidéri. saclay – Île-de-France. Marc schoenauer. Michaël Rusinowitch. POEMS (3, 12) Wave propagation: mathematical CELTIQUE (3, 7, 40) software certification Modeling, Optimization and Control analysis and simulation. with semantic analysis. of Dynamic Systems paris – Rocquencourt. patrick Joly. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. thomas Jensen. ALIEN (3, 4, 13) Algebra for digital Identification SIMPAF (3, 25) simulations and Modeling and estimation. COMETE (3, 13) concurrency, Mobility for pArticles and Fluids. saclay – Île-de-France et lille – Nord europe. and transactions. lille – Nord europe. thierry Goudon. Michel Fliess. saclay – Île-de-France. catuscia palamidessi. SMASH (3, 44) simulation, modeling and analysis APICS Analysis and problems of Inverse type CONTRAINTES constraint programming. of heterogeneous systems. in control and signal processing. paris – Rocquencourt. François Fages. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. pt both located sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. in Marseille. Richard saurel. laurent Baratchart. GALLIUM programming languages, types, compilation and proofs. TROPICS program transformations BIPOP (3, 15, 23) Modeling, simulation, control and paris – Rocquencourt. Xavier leroy. for scientific computing. optimization of Non-smooth dynamical systems. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. laurent hascoët. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Bernard Brogliato. MARELLE Mathematical, Reasoning and software. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Yves Bertot. 60 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRt 2009
  • 58. the numbers in parentheses correspond to the partners listed on page 64. MOSCOVA Mobility, security, concurrence, VEGAS (3, 16, 32, 33) effective Geometric Algorithms NetWoRKs, sYsteMs verification and analysis. for surfaces and Visibility. paris – Rocquencourt. Jean-Jacques lévy. Nancy – Grand est. sylvain lazard. ANd seRVIces, dIstRIButed coMputING PAREO* (3, 16, 32, 33) Formal islands: foundations Embedded and Real Time Systems and applications. Networks and Telecommunications Nancy – Grand est. pierre-Étienne Moreau. AOSTE (3, 35) Models and methods of analysis and optimization for systems with real-time DIONYSOS (3, 40) dependability, interoperability PARSIFAL (3, 13) proof search and reasoning and embedding constraints. and performance analysis of networks. with logic specifications. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Gerardo Rubino. saclay – Île-de-France. dale Miller. and paris – Rocquencourt. Robert de simone. DISTRIBCOM (3, 7, 18, 40) distributed and PI.R2* (3, 38) design, study and implementation DART (3, 25) contributions of the data parallelism Iterative Algorithms for the Management of languages for proofs and programs. to Real time. and telecommunications systems. paris – Rocquencourt. pierre-louis curien. lille – Nord europe. Jean-luc dekeyser. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Albert Benveniste. PROVAL (3, 13, 36) proofs of programs. ESPRESSO (3, 40) synchronous programming GANG (3, 38) Networks, Graphs and Algorithms. saclay – Île-de-France. christine paulin. for the trusted component-based engineering paris – Rocquencourt. laurent Viennot. of embedded systems and mission-critical systems. SECSI (3, 7) security of information systems. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Jean-pierre talpin. HIPERCOM(3, 13) high performance communication. saclay – Île-de-France. pt both located paris – Rocquencourt and saclay – Île-de-France. in cachan. Jean Goubault-larrecq. POP ART (3, 15, 23, 24) programming languages, philippe Jacquet. operating systems, parallelism, and Aspects TYPICAL (3, 13) types, logic and computing. for Real-time. MADYNES (3, 16, 32, 33) Management of dynamic saclay – Île-de-France. Benjamin Werner. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Alain Girault. networks and services. Nancy – Grand est. olivier Festor. S4 (3, 40) system synthesis and supervision, scenarios. Algorithms, Certification, Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Benoît caillaud. MAESTRO (3, 31) Models for the performance and Cryptography analysis and the control of networks. ALGORITHMS Algorithms. TRIO (3, 16, 32, 33) Real time and interoperability. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. paris – Rocquencourt. philippe Flajolet. Nancy – Grand est. Françoise simonot-lion. pt both located in Montpellier. philippe Nain. ARENAIRE (3, 8) computer arithmetic. VASY (3, 15, 23) system validation, Research MASCOTTE (3, 35) Algorithms, Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. pt both located in lyon. and applications. simulation, combinatorics and optimization Gilles Villard. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. hubert Garavel. for telecommunications. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. CACAO (3, 16, 32, 33) curves, Algebra, computer VERTECS (3, 40) Verification models and techniques Jean-claude Bermond. Arithmetic, and so on. applied to testing and control of reactive systems. Nancy – Grand est. Guillaume hanrot / Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. thierry Jéron. PLANETE protocols and applications pierrick Gaudry. for the Internet. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée Architecture and Compiling CASCADE (3, 9) construction and Analysis and Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Walid dabbous. of systems for confidentiality and Authenticity ALCHEMY (3, 36) Architectures, languages of data and entities. and compilers to harness the end of Moore years. RAP Networks, Algorithms and probabilities. paris – Rocquencourt. david pointcheval. saclay – Île-de-France. olivier temam. paris – Rocquencourt. philippe Robert. GALAAD (3, 35) Geometry, algebra, algorithms. CAIRN (3, 7, 40) energy efficient computing RESO (3, 8, 28) protocols and softwares for very sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Bernard Mourrain. architectures with embedded reconfigurable high-performance network. resources. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. pt located in lyon. GEOMETRICA Geometric computing. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. olivier sentieys. pascale Vicat-Blanc-primet. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée and saclay – Île-de-France. Jean-daniel Boissonnat. COMPSYS (3, 8) compilation and embedded TREC (3, 9) theory of networks and communications. computing systems. paris – Rocquencourt. François Baccelli. SALSA (3, 37) solvers for Algebraic systems Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. pt located in lyon. and Applications. Alain darte. Distributed Systems and Services paris – Rocquencourt. Fabrice Rouillier. ACES (3, 40) Ambient computing SECRET security, cryptology and transmissions. and embedded systems. paris – Rocquencourt. Anne canteaut. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Michel Banâtre. TANC(3, 13) Algorithmic number theory for cryptology. ADAM (3, 25) Adaptive distributed applications saclay – Île-de-France. and middleware. François Morain / daniel Augot. lille – Nord europe. laurence duchien. 61
  • 59. Project-teams active in 2009 ADEPT (3, 40) Algorithms for dynamic MESCAL (3, 15, 23) Middleware efficiently scalable. ARTIS (3, 15, 23) Acquisition, representation dependable systems. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Bruno Gaujal. and transformations for image synthesis. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Michel hurfin. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Nicolas holzschuch. MOAIS (3, 15, 23, 24) prograMming and scheduling ARLES software architectures design for Applications in Interactive simulation. AVIZ Analysis and Visualization. and distributed systems. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Jean-louis Roch. saclay – Île-de-France. Jean-daniel Fekete. paris – Rocquencourt. Valérie Issarny. PARIS (3, 7, 18, 40) programming distributed parallel BUNRAKU (3, 7, 18, 40) perception, decision and ASAP (3, 18, 40) As scalable As possible: foundations systems for large scale numerical simulation. action of real and virtual humans in virtual of large scale dynamic distributed systems. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. thierry priol / environments and impact on real environments. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique christine Morin. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. stéphane donikian / et saclay – Île-de-France. Anne-Marie Kermarrec. Georges dumont. RUNTIME (3, 11, 20) efficient runtime systems ASCOLA (3, 5) Aspect and composition languages. for parallel architectures. EVASION (3, 15, 23) Virtual environments for Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. pt located Bordeaux – sud-ouest. Raymond Namyst. animation and image synthesis of natural objects. in Nantes. Mario sudholt. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Marie-paule cani. ECOO (3, 16, 32, 33) environment for cooperation. peRceptIoN, coGNItIoN, IN-SITU (3, 36) situated interaction. Nancy – Grand est. claude Godart. saclay – Île-de-France. Wendy Mackay. INteRActIoN OASIS (3, 35) Active objects, semantics, Internet IPARLA (3, 11, 20) Visualization and manipulation and security. Vision, Perception and Multimedia of complex data on wireless mobile devices. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. denis caromel. Understanding Bordeaux – sud-ouest. pascal Guitton. PHOENIX (3, 11, 20) programming language ARIANA (3, 35) Inverse problems in earth monitoring. REVES Rendering and virtual environments technology For communication services. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Josiane Zerubia. with sound. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. charles consel. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. George drettakis. IMEDIA Image and multimedia indexing, POPS (3, 25) system and Networking for portable browsing and retrieval. Knowledge and Data Representation objects proved to be safe. paris – Rocquencourt. Nozha Boujemaa. and Management lille – Nord europe. david simplot-Ryl. LEAR (3, 15, 23) learning and recognition in vision. ATLAS (3, 34) complex data management REGAL (3, 37) large-scale distributed systems Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. cordelia schmid. in distributed systems. and Applications. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique and sophia paris – Rocquencourt. pierre sens. MAGRIT (3, 16, 32, 33) Visual Augmentation Antipolis – Méditerranée. pt both located in Nantes of complex environments. and Montpellier. patrick Valduriez. RMOD (3, 25) Analyses and languages constructs Nancy – Grand est. Marie-odile Berger. for object-oriented application evolution. AXIS usage-centered design, analysis lille – Nord europe. stéphane ducasse. PERCEPTION (3, 15, 23) Interpretation and modeling and improvement of information systems. of images and videos. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée SARDES (3, 15, 23, 24) system architecture Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Radu horaud. and paris – Rocquencourt. Brigitte trousse. for reflective distributed computing environments. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Jean-Bernard stefani. PRIMA (3, 15, 23, 24) perception, recognition DAHU (3, 7) Verification in databases. and integration for observation of activity. saclay – Île-de-France. pt both located TRISKELL (3, 40) Reliable and efficient component Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. James crowley. in cachan. luc ségoufin. based software engineering. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. PULSAR perception understanding learning DREAM (3, 18, 40) diagnosing, Recommending Jean-Marc Jézéquel. systems for Activity Recognition. Actions and Modeling. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Monique thonnat. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Marie-odile cordier. Distributed and High Performance TEMICS (3, 40) digital image processing, modeling EDELWEISS exchanges, documents, extraction, Computing and communication. languages, Web, ergonomics, Interactions, ALGORILLE (3, 16, 32, 33) Algorithms for the Grid. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. christine Guillemot. semantics, servers. Nancy – Grand est. Jens Gustedt. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. olivier corby. TEXMEX (3, 18, 40) Multimedia content-based CEPAGE (3, 11, 20, 21) Algorithmics for indexing. EXMO (3, 15, 23, 24) computer mediated exchange computationally intensive applications Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. patrick Gros. of structured knowledge. over wide scale distributed platforms. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Jérôme euzenat. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. olivier Beaumont. WILLOW (3, 6, 9) Models of visual object recognition and scene understanding. GEMO (3, 36) Integration of data and knowledge GRAAL (3, 8, 28) Algorithms and scheduling paris – Rocquencourt. Jean ponce. distributed over the web. for distributed heterogeneous platforms. saclay – Île-de-France. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. pt located in lyon. serge Abiteboul / Ioana Manolescu. Interaction and Visualization Frédéric Vivien. ALCOVE (3, 25) collaborative interactive GRAVITE (3, 11, 20, 21) Graph Visualization GRAND-LARGE (3, 36) Global parallel virtual environment. and Interactive exploration. and distributed computing. lille – Nord europe. christophe chaillou. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. Guy Mélançon. saclay – Île-de-France. Franck cappello. ALICE (3, 16, 32, 33) Geometry and lighting. Nancy – Grand est. Bruno lévy. 62 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRt 2009
  • 60. MAIA (3, 16, 32, 33) Autonomous intelligent machine. coMputAtIoNAl scIeNces REO (3, 37) Numerical simulation of biological flows. Nancy – Grand est. François charpillet. paris – Rocquencourt. Jean-Frédéric Gerbeau. FoR BIoloGY, MedIcINe MOSTRARE (3, 25, 26) Modeling tree structures, ANd the eNVIRoNMeNt SISYPHE signals and systems Machine learning, and Information extraction. in physiology & engineering. lille – Nord europe. Rémi Gilleron. paris – Rocquencourt. Michel sorine. Observation and Modeling for Environmental Sciences ORPAILLEUR (3, 16, 32, 33) Knowledge VIRTUAL PLANTS (2, 17) Modeling plant representation, reasonning. CLIME (6) coupling environmental data morphogenesis at different scales, from genes Nancy – Grand est. Amedeo Napoli. and simulation models for software integration. to phenotype. paris – Rocquencourt. pt both colocated sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. SMIS (3, 41) secured and Mobile Information in Marne-la-Vallée. Isabelle herlin. pt located in Montpellier. christophe Godin. systems. paris – Rocquencourt. philippe pucheral. ESTIME parameter estimation and modeling Computational Biology in heterogeneous media. and Bioinformatics WAM (3, 15, 23, 24) Web, adaptation and multimedia. paris – Rocquencourt. Jérôme Jaffré. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Vincent Quint. ABS Algorithms, biology, structure. FLUMINANCE (1) Fluid flow analysis, description sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Frédéric cazals. and control from image sequences. Robotics Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Étienne Mémin. IBIS (3, 23) Modeling, simulation, measurement, AROBAS Advanced robotics and control of bacterial regulatory networks. and autonomous systems. MAGIQUE-3D (3, 39) Advanced 3d numerical Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. hidde de Jong. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. patrick Rives. modeling in geophysics. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. pt located in pau. MAGNOME (3, 20) Models and algorithms COPRIN (6) constraints solving, optimization hélène Barucq. for the genome. and robust interval analysis. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. david sherman. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. MOISE (3, 15, 23) Modeling, observations, Jean-pierre Merlet. identification for environmental sciences. SEQUOIA (3, 25, 26) Algorithms for large-scale Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. Éric Blayo. sequence analysis for molecular biology. E-MOTION (3, 15, 23, 24) Geometry and probability lille – Nord europe. hélène touzet. for motion and action. SAGE (3, 40) simulations and algorithms on Grids Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. christian laugier. for environment. SYMBIOSE (3, 40) Biological systems and models, Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Jocelyne erhel. bioinformatics and sequences. IMARA Informatics, mathematics Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Jacques Nicolas. and automation for La Route Automatisée. Observation, Modeling and Control paris – Rocquencourt. Michel parent. for Life Sciences Computational Medicine and Neurosciences LAGADIC (3, 40) Visual servoing in robotics, ANUBIS (3, 20, 21) tools of automatic control computer vision, and augmented reality. for scientific computing, models and methods ASCLEPIOS Analysis and simulation Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. in biomathematics. of biomedical images. François chaumette. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. Jacques henry. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Nicholas Ayache. BANG (9) Nonlinear analysis for biology CORTEX (3, 16, 32, 33) Neuromimetic intelligence. Audio, Speech, and Language and geophysical flows. Nancy – Grand est. Frédéric Alexandre. Processing paris – Rocquencourt. Benoît perthame. ALPAGE (38) large-scale deep linguistic processing. DEMAR(3, 30, 31) Artificial movement and gait paris – Rocquencourt. laurence danlos. COMORE (3, 37) Modeling and control restoration. of renewable resources. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. CALLIGRAMME (3, 16, 32, 33) linear logic, sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. Jean-luc Gouzé. pt located in Montpellier. david Guiraud. proof networks and categorial grammars. Nancy – Grand est. philippe de Groote. DIGIPLANTE (2, 14) Modeling plants growth NEUROMATHCOMP (3, 9, 35) Mathematical and plants architecture. and computation neuroscience. METISS (3, 40) speech and sound data modeling saclay – Île-de-France. philippe de Reffye. paris – Rocquencourt and sophia and processing. Antipolis – Méditerranée. olivier Faugeras. Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. Frédéric Bimbot. MACS Modeling, analysis and control in computational structural dynamics. ODYSSEE (3, 9) computer and biological vision. PAROLE (3, 16, 32, 33) Analysis, perception paris – Rocquencourt. dominique chapelle. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée and recognition of speech. and paris – Rocquencourt. Rachid deriche. Nancy – Grand est. Yves laprie. MASAIE* (3, 43) control theory, modeling and simulations appled to immunology PARIETAL Modeling brain structure, function SIGNES (3, 11, 20, 22) linguistic signs, grammar and and epidemiology. and variability based on high-field MRI data. meaning: computational logic for natural language. Nancy – Grand est. pt located in Metz. saclay – Île-de-France. Bertrand thirion. Bordeaux – sud-ouest. christian Retoré. Gautier sallet. VISAGES (3, 19, 40) Vision, action and information TALARIS (3, 16, 32, 33) Natural language processing: MERE (10, 17) Water resource modeling. management system in health. representation, inference and semantics. sophia Antipolis – Méditerranée. pt located Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique. christian Barillot. Nancy – Grand est. patrick Blackburn. in Montpellier. claude lobry / Alain Rapaport. * partner’s agreement pending. NUMED (3, 8, 28) Numerical medicine. Grenoble – Rhône-Alpes. pt located in lyon. emmanuel Grenier. 63
  • 61. Project-teams active in 2009 INRIA’s pARtNeRshIps 1. cemagref 15. Institut national 25. university of sciences 38. university polytechnique of Grenoble and technologies of lille denis-diderot (paris 7) 2. cirad (lille 1) 16. Institut national 39. university of pau and 3. cNRs polytechnique 26. university of pays de l’Adour of lorraine charles-de-Gaulle (lille 3) 4. École centrale of lille 40. university Rennes 1 17. Inra 27. university louis-pasteur 5. École des mines of Nantes (strasbourg 1) 41. university of Versailles 18. Institut national saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines 6. École nationale des sciences appliquées 28. university des ponts et chaussées of Rennes claude-Bernard 42. university (lyon 1) of Franche-comté 7. École normale 19. Inserm supérieure of cachan 29. university 43. university of Metz 20. university Bordeaux 1 of Marne-la-Vallée 8. École normale 44. university of provence supérieure of lyon 21. university 30. university Montpellier 1 Victor-segalen (Bordeaux 2) 45. centrum voor Wiskunde 9. École normale 31. university of sciences and en Informatica supérieure of paris 22. university techniques of languedoc (the Netherlands) Michel-de-Montaigne (Montpellier 2) 10. École nationale (Bordeaux 3) supérieure agronomique 32. university henri-poincaré of Montpellier 23. university (Nancy 1) Joseph-Fourier (Grenoble 1) 11. enseirb 33. university Nancy 2 24. university 12. ensta pierre-Mendès-France 34. university of Nantes (Grenoble 2) 13. École polytechnique 35. university of Nice – sophia Antipolis 14. École centrale of paris 36. university paris-sud (paris 11) 37. university pierre- et-Marie-curie (paris 6) 64 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRt 2009
  • 62. organization chart and councils MICHEL JEAN-PIERRE MALIK GHALLAB HERVé MATHIEU COSNARD VERJUS chief executive chief executive GeNeRAl MANAGeMeNt chaiman deputy Managing officer for science officer for Resources and ceo director and technology and service Administration CLAUDE KIRCHNER FRANçOIS SILLION MAX DAUCHET KARL TOMBRE ANTOINE PETIT PATRICK BOUTHEMY MICHEL BIDOIT INRIA Bordeaux – INRIA Grenoble INRIA lille – Nord INRIA Nancy – INRIA paris – INRIA Rennes – INRIA saclay – sud-ouest – Rhône-Alpes europe Grand est Rocquencourt Bretagne Atlantique Île-de-France Research centre Research centre Research centre Research centre Research centre Research centre Research centre GéRARD GIRAUDON LAURENT STENCEL CLAUDE PUECH BERNARD ESPIAU HéLèNE KIRCHNER GRéGOIRE THIERRY PRIOL INRIA sophia communication Research deputy scientific deputy scientific MALANDAIN deputy scientific Antipolis – department department director director deputy scientific director Méditerranée director Research centre MONIQUE THONNAT STéPHANE UBEDA BRUNO SPORTISSE JEAN-PIERRE DOMINIQUE MURIEL SINANIDèS LUC deputy scientific technological technology transfer BANâTRE SOTTEAU human Resources D’ARCHIMBAUD director development and Innovation european International department Administration, department department partnership Relations Finance and department department Resource department éRIC GAUTRIN RENAUD DE CHRISTIAN MARTIN WIRSING GéRARD BERRY Information system, VERNEJOUL SERRADJI chairman of the chairman Infrastructure and hQ Administration head Accountant scientific Board of the evaluation computer service delegation committee department 65
  • 63. organization chart and councils BoARd oF dIRectoRs PRESIDENT REPRESENTING APPOINTED MEMBERS ELECTED MEMBERS Michel Cosnard, THE GOVERNMENT Representative of scientific Hubert Bouchet, General chairman and ceo of INRIA élisabeth Barsacq, deputy secretary of the union and etA personnel director of the politics of Mobility of executives and engineers, Christine Eisenbeis and Attractiveness, MAee Fo – Vice-president of the MEMBER BY RIGHT Fabrice Fenouil Marc Belloeil, in charge French National commission for computing & Freedom (cNIl) Bernard Lang Alain Fuchs, of department “specialized Managing director of cNRs organisms”, dGRI – MesR Claire Dupas, head of “non Gérard Paget Alain Dohet, Manager thematic programs”, ANR of the technical expertise centre Joëlle Gauthier, Vice-president CONSULTATIVE MEMBERS for systems of system, dGA of Alcatel lucent France Christian Serradji, Cécile Dubarry, chief Louis Marrocco, director INRIA head Accountant of Information technology of communication Media, Patrick Roger, and communication, Grenoble town council Financial controller dGcIs-Ministry of the economy, Christiane Schwartz Industry and employment Jean-Pierre Verjus, Jean Therme, director deputy General director Benoît Formery, deputy director of technology Research of the electronics and software, Martin Wirsing, chairman at the ceA Grenoble of the scientific Board Ministry of the economy, Industry and employment Dominique Vernay, technical director, thales Stanislas Godefroy, Budget directorate, Ministry of the economy, Industry and employment éric Grégoire, scientific consultant by training, dGesIp – MesR Writing, coordination, illustrations, follow-up: communication department. editors: technoscope (i. Bellin, F Breton). translation: technicis. cover credit: julie . guiches/Picturetank. photos credits: p. 6, 21, 57, 65 – s. ephraim p. 29 – Kaksonen p. 10, 11, 17, 19, 26, 33, 35, 37, 65 – r. lamoureux p. 28 – c. lebedinsky p. 9, 16, 19, 21, 26, 28, 44, 53, 55, 59, 65 – j.-m. ramès p. 16, 21 – c. tourniaire p. 19, 41, 53, 55, 57 – j. Wallace p. 10, 16, 26,27, 30, 32, 40, 46, 51, 65 – P Wieber p. 31 – INRIA-lRI: .-B. c. appert p. 18. Graphic designs and production: IssN: 1263-2961. 66 INRIA ANNuAl RepoRt 2009
  • 64. scIeNtIFIc BoARd eVAluAtIoN coMMIttee PRESIDENT Chahab Nastar, scientific CHAIRMAN ELECTED MEMBERS director sAp Businessobjects Martin Wirsing, professor, Gérard Berry, Research director, INRIA Researchers Institute of computer science, Olivier Pironneau, professor, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman ludwig-Maximilians-university, university pierre et Marie curie DEPUTY CHAIRMAN Philippe Chartier Munich David Sadek, delegate director for Research, France telecom Guillaume Hanrot, professor, eNs, lyon Véronique Cortier APPOINTED MEMBERS Julien Diaz APPOINTED MEMBERS NON INRIA Mathieu Giraud Jean-François Abramatic, IBM ELECTED MEMBERS Elsa Angelini, telecom paris Nicolas Holzschuch Yolande Berbers, professor, Representative of scientific Katholic university of leuven and etA personnel Jean-Yves Berthou, edF Juliette Leblond (Kul) Anne Doucet, lIp6 Wendy Mackay Paul-Louis George Jacques Blanc-Talon, Laurent Julliard, Minalogic Stephan Merz Christine Leininger Responsible for the domain André Seznec Laurent Massoulié, thomson Pierre Saramito “engineering of the Information”, MRIs dGA Benjamin Werner Manuel Samuelides, onera Nicolas Sendrier Anja Feldmann, professor, tu Isabelle Terrasse, eAds Monique Teillaud Muenchen, Institüt für Informatik Gaston Gonnet, professor, APPOINTED MEMBERS INRIA etA eth, Zurich Thomas Jensen Patricia Bournai Patrick Johnson, director Philippe Nain Christophe Demarey of Research and development, dassault systèmes Christine Paulin Florian Dufour Jean-François Lavignon, Sylvain Petitjean Maxence Guesdon strategy director, Jean Roman technology software, Bull David Symplot-Ryl Alain Viari The Annual Report (French or English version) can be found at the following URL addresses: Scientific activity reports (in English) www.inria/rapportannuel/ from the research teams can be found at the URL: www.inria/rapportannuel/ran.en.html 67