Open issues concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment of the adjustment process of the Sardinian municipality Masterpl...
SEA approachSEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP:             - Integration of SEA in the plan...
In the spirit of Directive 2001/42/EC, important conditions for StrategicEnvironmental Assessment (SEA) to be effective ar...
In terms of exportability, the innovation brought about by the Sardinian caseconsists of a methodological approach which i...
Sardinian SEA is particularly significant because the regional administrationissued a Guidelines Manual (“GL” from now on)...
Integration between SEA              and planning process.              Source: GL, page 11Guidelines Manual for SEA of th...
Activities in the scoping phase.          Source: GL, page 12                Guidelines Manual for SEA of the Sardinian Re...
Activities in the elaboration of the environmental report.                       Source: GL, page 13                      ...
•A common practice at regional level is part of a modus operandi by which theevaluation phases are downgraded and consider...
The ultimate goal of the EC Directive is to highlight the need to improve thequality of the planning process, which should...
“These criteria are applied to key development/investment sectors. They areintended to assist Environmental Authorities th...
Based on the analysis of some scoping documents, concerning several case studies,it is possible to summarize the integrati...
Approach #4: sometimes, some scoping documents show awareness of theimportance of contextualization.For example, the munic...
The paradigm of sustainability is applied much more effectively than in thescoping documents. The contextualization of the...
How does the Assemini’s approach work?From the SWOT analysis: Weakness point: “In the area of Assemini there is the Forest...
From the comparison of the Masterplan’s objective defined in the first place reportedabove and the contextualized criterio...
Tentative definition of                      Masterplan’s objectives     Comprehensive SWOTanalysis             through th...
How does the Alghero’s approach work?From the SWOT analysis: Strength point: “In the Alghero’s area there is an importants...
The objective defined originally as “The Alghero’s Masterplan aims to improve andupdate the tourist supply, in terms of re...
It can be said that, a model of public decision-making based on the conceptualand methodological approach set out in SEA, ...
The most valuable aspect of this exportability concerns the fact that the GLapproach could possibly catalyze and implement...
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Pira & Zoppi - input2012

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Cheti Pira and Corrado Zoppi on "Open issues concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment of the adjustment process of the Sardinian municipality Masterplans to the Regional Landscape Plan"

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Pira & Zoppi - input2012

  1. 1. Open issues concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment of the adjustment process of the Sardinian municipality Masterplans to the Regional Landscape PlanCheti Pira, Corrado Zoppi
  2. 2. SEA approachSEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP: - Integration of SEA in the planning process (endoprocedimentality) - Sustainability integration in the planning processConclusion Layout
  3. 3. In the spirit of Directive 2001/42/EC, important conditions for StrategicEnvironmental Assessment (SEA) to be effective are its cooperative andinclusive attitudes and its integration in the planning process (we call it“endoprocedimentality of SEA with respect to plans) . Cooperation should involve institutions, planning authorities and agencies who are involved in environmental assessment procedures. Inclusion implies favoring and catalyzing local communities’ participation, that is participation of the public, in the planning/assessment process. The object of the SEA is not the decision, which is only the expected result, but the process that leads to it (Kørnøv e Thissen, 2000).This presentation discusses some problematic issues in the implementation ofthe SEA in the ongoing experience of the Sardinian municipality Masterplansadjustment process to the Regional Landscape Plan (RLP). SEA approach
  4. 4. In terms of exportability, the innovation brought about by the Sardinian caseconsists of a methodological approach which is in an advanced experimentalstage, since several municipalities and provinces are implementing SEAprocesses with endogenously-identified planning/assessment objectives, andwith decisions on program/plan actions taken with the aim of addressingsuitable ways of reaching such objectives . SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP
  5. 5. Sardinian SEA is particularly significant because the regional administrationissued a Guidelines Manual (“GL” from now on) which not only ensuresformally that an inclusive and incremental SEA process is implemented, but alsodefines rigorously the steps that SEA proceeding authority has to follow .The SEA process, which couples plan definition and establishment, and itsimplementation, is characterized by a set of phases which should beresponsibly and carefully developed in the interest of the process key-actors,who should not reasonably give-up, since, being the process transparent, atbest, such a decision would most likely appear, to the voters of their localcommunities, as a symptom of incapacity and sloth. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP
  6. 6. Integration between SEA and planning process. Source: GL, page 11Guidelines Manual for SEA of the Sardinian Region
  7. 7. Activities in the scoping phase. Source: GL, page 12 Guidelines Manual for SEA of the Sardinian Region
  8. 8. Activities in the elaboration of the environmental report. Source: GL, page 13 Guidelines Manual for SEA of the Sardinian Region
  9. 9. •A common practice at regional level is part of a modus operandi by which theevaluation phases are downgraded and considered marginal in the project-building process. In general, the processing of the Masterplan began prior tothe SEA procedure and therefore the opportunity for an improvement whichthe SEA could have offered in setting up the plan was missed, in particular thedefinitions of goals and alternatives.•If, as in the case of Alghero, the SEA starts fifteen years after the beginning ofthe planning process of the Masterplan, it seems obvious that it does not makesense to seek alternatives when choices have already been made; it is also clearthat it is difficult, if not impossible, to widen the spectrum of the plans goals soas to include sustainability issues, in all their nuances.• Were it not possible to fully integrate the SEA within the planning process,this would disregard the Directive and it would especially result in being heavilyhampered in its potential of improvement in the quality of the planningprocess. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Integration of SEA in the planning process (endoprocedimentality)
  10. 10. The ultimate goal of the EC Directive is to highlight the need to improve thequality of the planning process, which should be integrated by benchmarkcriteria, for the definition of the plans’ and programs’ goals, aimed atprotecting the environment and therefore the enactment of good practiceswhich foster sustainable development.In the Sardinian GL, this approach is structured according to the EC Directive ina no longer recent handbook on SEA, which is still a theoretical point ofreference. According to the handbook and the GL, sustainability objectivesshould be integrated into the system of a plan’s objectives based on the tencriteria […] listed below:1. minimize use of non-renewable resources;2. use renewable resources within limits of capacity for regeneration;3. environmentally sound use and management of hazardous/polluting substances and wastes;4. conserve and enhance the status of wildlife, habitats and landscapes;5. maintain and improve the quality of soils and water resource;6. maintain and improve the quality of historic and cultural resources;7. maintain and improve local environmental quality;8. protection of the atmosphere;9. develop environmental awareness, education and training;10. promote public participation in decisions involving sustainable development. Sustainability
  11. 11. “These criteria are applied to key development/investment sectors. They areintended to assist Environmental Authorities think about these issues” (EuropeanCommission, 1998, p. II. 1);“Each region will need to decide what its own key criteria should be” (ibid.).Two steps can be identified in the GL implementation into the adjustmentprocess of the Sardinian towns’ Masterplans to the RLP, with reference tosustainability:1) a poor and ineffective implementation in the scoping phase;2) a forceful and efficacious implementation in the definition and issuing phase of the Environmental Report (ER). SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  12. 12. Based on the analysis of some scoping documents, concerning several case studies,it is possible to summarize the integration of the paradigm of sustainability in theSEA process through four approaches.Approach #1: the sustainability criteria are not taken into accountIt is the most negative approach. It is common in the SEA of the provincial Masterplans.Approach #2: the question of sustainability is taken into account in an abstract and formalwaySome scoping documents state that sustainability is an important issue, but they do notindicate how it should taken into account in the planning process (Assemini, Posada,Monserrato).Approach #3: some scoping documents indicate that sustainability criteria will be taken intoaccount in the production of the Masterplan, but they do not explain how.Moreover, these documents seem to neglect the fact that the ten criteria are only a startingreference point and need to be contextualized(Alghero, Arbus) SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability-The scoping phase
  13. 13. Approach #4: sometimes, some scoping documents show awareness of theimportance of contextualization.For example, the municipality of Villa San Pietro identifies a first set of objectives,divided into general and specific with reference to distinct geographical areas. Thescoping document indicates that these objectives will be checked in terms ofsustainability during the preparation of the ER. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability-The scoping phase
  14. 14. The paradigm of sustainability is applied much more effectively than in thescoping documents. The contextualization of the ten criteria may take place forexample by the use of the GOPP (Goal Oriented Project Planning) methodology(two ways of applying it: the ER of the Assemini’s and Alghero’s Masterplans). Tentative definition of Definition of the set of Masterplan’s objectives of the SWOT objectives Masterplan as a result of integrating the criteria- analysis derived objectives and the objectives defined in the first place Contextualiz ed sustainability criteria The Assemini’s approach SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  15. 15. How does the Assemini’s approach work?From the SWOT analysis: Weakness point: “In the area of Assemini there is the Forestof Gutturu Mannu, a publicly-owned environmental resource where importantarchaeological, archaeo-industrial, architectural and cultural heritage are located, withparticular reference to the San Leone mining site”. From this point of the SWOTanalysis originates the following Masterplan’s objective: “The Assemini’s Masterplanaims to recognize and protect archaeological, architectural and industrial heritagethrough the conservation of the landscape contexts of the communal area”.From the SWOT analysis: Strength point :“In the area of Assemini there is animportant natural resource, the Santa Gilla Wetland”. From this point of the SWOTanalysis originates the following Masterplan’s contextualized criterion:“Environmental conservation and recovery of the Wetlands of Assemini”, whichcontextualizes the sustainability criterion #5 : “Maintain and improve the quality ofsoils and water resource”. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  16. 16. From the comparison of the Masterplan’s objective defined in the first place reportedabove and the contextualized criterion reported above, originates the followingredefined Masterplan’s objective:“The Assemini’s Masterplan aims to protect the Santa Gilla Wetland as one of themain landscape resources of the communal area”. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  17. 17. Tentative definition of Masterplan’s objectives Comprehensive SWOTanalysis through the integration of definition of the criteria-derived set of the sustainability-oriented objectives and social- and Masterplan’s economic-oriented objectives objectives The Alghero’s approach SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  18. 18. How does the Alghero’s approach work?From the SWOT analysis: Strength point: “In the Alghero’s area there is an importantsystem of hills, where historic settlements took place, which entails a particularimportance in terms of tourism and public services”. From this point of the SWOTanalysis originates the following Masterplan’s objective: “The Alghero’s Masterplanaims to improve and update the tourist supply, in terms of receptive structures”.From the SWOT analysis: Strength point : same as above. From this point of theSWOT analysis originates the following Masterplan’s objective: “The Alghero’sMasterplan aims to protect and make available for tourism the natural protectedareas of the Alghero’s area”, which contextualizes the sustainability criterion #7 :“maintain and improve local environmental quality”. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  19. 19. The objective defined originally as “The Alghero’s Masterplan aims to improve andupdate the tourist supply, in terms of receptive structures”, is redefined as “TheAlghero’s Masterplan aims to promote the local tourism-based development based onthe scientific characterization and qualitative improvement of natural habitats” since,from the comparison of this objective with the objective “The Alghero’s Masterplanaims to protect and make available for tourism the natural protected areas of theAlghero’s area” which contextualizes a sustainability criterion, the original objectiveseems too weak since it does not put in evidence that there is a strong linkagebetween tourism development and the system of the environmental resources of theAlghero’s area. SEA in the Adjustment of the municipality Masterplans to the RLP. Sustainability
  20. 20. It can be said that, a model of public decision-making based on the conceptualand methodological approach set out in SEA, can be inserted into a broadermodel of regional governance oriented towards the paradigm of sustainability.We saw that the implementation of the GL is a learning process, where the localadministration of the cities and towns of Sardinia have initially obtained very poorresults (the vast majority of the scoping documents bears witness), and have fairlyimproved their outcomes when they issued their ER’s.The Sardinian approach to SEA of the city and town Masterplans is easilyexportable to other Italian regional contexts, since the rules concerning theprocess of definition, approval and implementation of the city and townMasterplans are very similar to each other with reference to the other Italianregions, as it is with regard to the regional landscape plans. Conclusion
  21. 21. The most valuable aspect of this exportability concerns the fact that the GLapproach could possibly catalyze and implement community-learning processeswhere regional and local administrations, citizens, private and public bodies,profit and non-profit enterprises, could possibly learn how and why theparadigm of sustainability could improve the quality of the local Masterplansand, ultimately, the quality of life of the local communities. Conclusion

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