Leone - Input2012


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Federica Leone on "Participation between utopia and reality. The case study of Sardinian Regional Landscape Plan"

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Leone - Input2012

  1. 1. Participation between utopia and reality. The case study of Sardinian Regional Landscape Plan Federica Leone11 Doctoral Candidate, University of Cagliari, Italy
  2. 2. Objectives and structure of presentationGoals1. Comprehension of difficulties to translate theoretical participatory approaches into a real planning process.2. Analysis of main factors that influence the success of a participatory process.3. Understanding the gap between an ideal well-participated plan and a real one.Framework1. Methodology.2. Normative and pragmatic paradigms of participation.3. The case study of Sardinian Regional Landscape Plan.4. Analysis of data.5. Conclusions. Page 2Participation between utopia and reality Page 2
  3. 3. MethodologyGeneral Research questionsSelection case study (Sardinian RLP)Collection of relevant data Semi-structured interviews: members of the academic field and officials of the regional government Self-completion questionnaires: officials of local governments, members of environmental organizations and associations, building firms and professionalsAnalysis and interpretation Semi-structured interviews:of data thematic analysis Self-completion questionnaires: statistical analysisFindings /Conclusions Page 3Participation between utopia and reality Page 3
  4. 4. Normative and pragmatic paradigms of participationAntecedentThe coexistence of different interests, needs and expectations has entailed awidespread crisis for regional and urban planning. Participation could representthe response to handle the dicothomy between State and community.Normative approach defines participation as a democratic right. Indeed, itrepresents:1. a priority of public institutions and government at any level;2. a statutory right in the Aarhus Convention;3. a caracteristic of good governance.Pragmatic approach concerns participation as a means to improve thedecision quality. Within a participatory process, different practical issues shouldbe considered:1. in what phase, an inclusive process should begin;2. identification of participants;3. definition of a methodology;4.Pageanalisys of power relationships. 4Participation between utopia and reality Page 4
  5. 5. The case study of Sardinian Regional Landscape Plan Elaboration phase 1. co-planning conferences; 2. participants: local municiapalities, provinces, organizations and associations relating to industry, commerce and craft; 3. a plan proposal exists before; 4. Sardinia Territory Revision phase 1. Operative and informal meetings called “landscape workshop”; 2. participants: coastal local municipalities, provinces and other public authorities; 3. presence of a group of facilitators; 4. Sardinia TerritorySource: www.homeinsardinia.com 5. Sardinia Geoblog Page 5Participation between utopia and reality Page 5
  6. 6. Analysis of data: political and administrative issuesElaboration phase1. Imbalanced power relationships: strong regional government and weak local municipalities;2. regional governments aims at establishing its supremacy over the planning choices;3. local municipalities conceive the participatory process as external and fruitlessRevision phase1. Absence of a real culture about the participatory practices;2. incapacity to implement a theoretical methodology in an efficient way;3. unidirectional dialogue between regional government and local municipalities;4. low level of participation owing to a probable distrust towards regional government. Page 6Participation between utopia and reality Page 6
  7. 7. Analysis of data: management and organizational issuesIdentification of participantsIt has been absolutely inappropriate in both the elaboration and revision phasesfor two reasons:1. exclusion of some important stakeholders;2. officials of local municipalities do not represent the community’s interests and needs in a proper way.Stage of planning processThe participatory process has been conducted when a strong plan proposal hasalready been elaborated exclusion of some important stakeholders;Time questionsIn the elaboration phase the timing has not been sufficient; meanwhile in therevision process, it has been excessive.Financial problemsthe regional government has not spent sufficient financial resources to train upofficials of local municipalities, to conduct informative and awarenesscampaigns about the plan’s principle and about the reasons of some planningchoices in both elaboration and revision phases Page 7Participation between utopia and reality Page 7
  8. 8. Analysis of data: technical issues concerning tools and approachesElaboration phase1. The co-planning conferences have been conducted in very formal way;2. no real methods or techniques of participation have been used;3. Sardinia Territory has been a useful informative tool but it has not guarantee a real participationRevision phase1. The approach has not been really advanced;2. The tool Geoblog has not been a success due to probable distrust towards regional government and lack of time;3. unidirectional dialogue between regional government and local municipalities;4. Sardinia Territory has been a useful informative tool but it has not guarantee a real participation Page 8Participation between utopia and reality Page 8
  9. 9. Conclusions1. Participatory processes have been based on quantitative interests rather than qualitative value2. Strong impact of political issues on planning process in the elaboration phase3. In the revision phase the political influences seem less significant. However, this more attention to participation could be ensued by a specific intent4. In the elaboration and revision phases the communication flow has been one way5. Understanding problems and needs of local community is a complex task. For this reason, it is necessary a cooperation between political, technical and social components. Page 9Participation between utopia and reality Page 9