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Roberta Floris on "Spatial Strategies in land use planning and housing location in the Netherlands"

Roberta Floris on "Spatial Strategies in land use planning and housing location in the Netherlands"

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  • 1. SESSION ON “LANDSCAPE, RURAL AND URBAN PLANNING” Spatial Strategies in land use planning and housing location in the Netherlands Roberta Floris 1
  • 2. The Netherlands, with 16,5 million of population, is the largest of the smaller 16,countries of the European Union. Ethnic minorities accounted for two thirds of this Union. growth.population growth.The heart of the relatively stable Dutch urban system is the Randstad Holland”The predominantly rural character of the Green Heartland is unique to theRandstand, structure.Randstand, enclosed as it is within the strongly urbanized ring shape structure. 2
  • 3. IntroductionState of artMain issues in decision makingResults and problemsConclusion (recommendations) 3
  • 4. National Spatial Strategy - urban networks - urban concentration areas (isolates the country from its international context). context)The Randstad conurbationconstitutes the core of theNetherlands. 6,5 million people liveand work there.Economic Perspective-‘northern wing’ (including ‘northernmetropolitan regions of Amsterdamand Utrecht)--‘southern wing’ (including -metropolitan regions of Rotterdamand The Hague) Source: MVROM 2004 http://english.verkeerenwaterstaat.nl/english/ 4
  • 5. Introduction Key data - 1960: 1st National Policy Document of Spatial Planning Land Use Policy based on 5 basic principles: (Needham, 2007).•Concentration of urbanization; Concentration•Spatial cohesion; Spatial•Spatial differentiation; Spatial differentiation;•Spatial hierarchy; Spatial hierarchy;•Spatial justice, in terms of facilities. Spatial justice,Those principles represented the expression of high ambition of achieve socialgoals in Land Use Planning, and have been followed for at least 40 years Planning, 5
  • 6. State of art1945:1945: the Netherlands had to deal with a serious housing shortage high level of government intervention in homebuilding programs broadly acceptable. acceptableDriving force need to build cheaply and quicklyThe sector’s share grew from 12% in 1945 to 41% in 1975 and to 44% of the total 12% 41% 44%stock by the early 1990s. 1990s1950,60,70: housing was a top priority in Dutch politics. 950,60,70: politics.The housing stock grew from 2.1 million in 1947 to 4.8 million during 1980, a growth 1980, period.of 130 %, much more than the 45 % growth of the population in the same period.In the two decades after 1980, 2 million houses were added to the housing stock. At 1980, stock.the turn of the century almost one third of the then 6.6 million houses were built after1980.1980. 6
  • 7. State of art1980: 1st National Policy focus on economic issues:- jobs and incomes,;- education,;- crime and safety matters laterImbalances housing marketNew driving force Renewed interest from public, politics and scienceWhy?1. population growth was small now, but the number of households is growingrather fast, and also the average ‘space consumption’ per household continues itsgrowth.growth.2. Conviction that much of the low quality multi-family and multi-storey houses multi- multi-built in the 1960s and 70s have to be replaced by better dwellings. 1960s 70s dwellings.3. possibilities to build on urban ‘fill-in locations” ‘fill-ConsequenceIt is unavoidable to build again a considerable number of new houses, ongreenfield sites, which would possibly cause an overspill of urban areas in thecountryside.countryside. 7
  • 8. State of art1990:1990: the subsidies on housing construction were abandoned, and housing corporations were liberalised. Commercial developers and housing liberalised. corporations had the responsibility for the realization of housing supply and the provision of associated local public goods, Construction in the owner-occupier sector in the 1990s was not significantly higher. owner- 1990s higher. Driving force Preservation of landscape heritage and open space GovernmentinterestThe Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, while continuing toformulate ambitious goals with respect to housing production, becomes responsibleonly for the realization of the environmental goals..3rd National Policy DocumentNational policy in the Third National Policy Document on Spatial Planning 1973-1983 1973- dispersed.was for a ‘bundled’ and not dispersed.Moreover, people and jobs should be actively moved out the Randstad to small townswhich would be greatly expanded 8
  • 9. State of artFourth National Policy Document Spatial Quality Aims - mono- to avoid mono-functional areas, in order - to create more lively spaces which should also be safer - to reduce mobility - to use the land more intensively Principles: - land use policy should be made at the Regional scale - spatial cohesion between the various activities in the region - relationship between living and working, between living and shopping, between living and education. The quality of housing and of shared spaces is improving 9
  • 10. Main issues in decision makingFourth National Policy Document Spatial QualityTransport system plays an important role within this context.Cooperation between Municipalities in order to realize land use policy at the Regionallevel is still problematicPolicy of urban nodes. nodes.Policy of the ‘compact town’This policy follows three steps for development location: location:- take into account how many houses are present within the area; area;- make a draft of the possible number of houses which can be built in that area; area;- the remainder can be located as near as possible to existing towns and cities. cities.Location needs to be connected to high quality public transport, and needs to be nearto employment and recreational areasA strong policy for protecting the open space in the countryside 10
  • 11. Main issues in decision making5th National Policy Document 2000-2020 2000- three different areas • Red contours were to be drawn around existing‘RED CONTOURS’ settlements and new building must remain within those contours. contours.‘GREEN CONTOURS’ • Green contours were to be drawn around rural areas which were to be strictly protected and where no‘BALANCED AREAS’ place). development took place (or had taken place). • Balanced areas, where small developments were to be areas, countryside. permitted if they improved the countryside.Current National Planning Policy is contained in the National Spatial Strategy. Strategy.- specifies six concentration areas, delineated around existing settlements, inwhich most of the new housing should be built. built.- gives to the Municipalities and provinces the possibility to work out in detail,where the development should take place, even if all municipalities should still beable to build enough houses for their own ‘natural growth’. growth’. 11
  • 12. Results and problems1) Huge development in a rational way, healthy lay out, with green areas, cycle tracks, recreation spaces, careful urban design. design.2) New developments could be felt as boring and monotonous, despite of housing quality, which was usually appreciable with a satisfactory residential environment. environment.3) Municipalities desire to prepare Land use plans including new housing areas that village. are expansion areas for each single town or village. Moreover smaller Municipalities do not sustain the National Policy of addressing development in cities. existing towns and cities. de-concentration’.4) Policy of ‘bundled de-concentration’. Recently, housing is being built areas. concentrated in and around existing urban areas. Outside the concentration areas the housing stock grew less than inside. The distinction between town and inside. countryside is still clear. However, this location is not the same everywhere. In clear. everywhere. fact there is one aspect of Dutch planning of which all non-Dutch planners have non- considered: considered: the ‘Green Heart’. Now this area is becoming red. Heart’. red. 12
  • 13. Main issues in decision making 13
  • 14. Conclusion1) At the urban side of the housing spectrum the possibilities of building houses on‘fill-‘fill-in locations’ to produce more ‘compact cities’ are running out. The majority of out.the production of new houses is now situated at such distances of the old cities thatone can wonder if they really can be considered as a part of these cities. cities.2) With reference to community planning, it could be dangerous the competivenessbetween National and Provincial planners. A break up of the strategic planning planners.community could be a serious issue3) The decline of housing policy can be a problem. In the past, strategic planning problem.has been the prologue of housing grants. Now the favourite subject is housing for grants.home-home-owners, and is more difficult to regulate. This required more efforts to create regulate.connection with housing policy. policy. 14
  • 15. Recommendations- A new comprehensive approach could make Strategic Planning more relevantthan it is, accompanied by negotiation and impact assessments. assessments.- Potential partnership could be not only related to public agencies, but alsoprivate developers, who need to be associated with green issues. issues.- A social learning process: shared knowledge about crucial relationships is more process:important to develop a final vision or plan. (sharing “underground” knowledge plan.and discussing assumptions)- A different way of using transport models, more as communicative instead ofpredictive devices, in turn recognizing their limitations and subjectivity- The identification and understanding of personal life styles is important as abasis for the prediction of residential location choices 15