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Deruyter - input2012


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Greta Deruyter on "Geographical information systems and spatial data infrastructures can enhance planning. Case of …

Greta Deruyter on "Geographical information systems and spatial data infrastructures can enhance planning. Case of

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  • 1. Geographical information systems and spatial data infrastructures can enhance planning. case of Flanders by Greta Deruyter (University College Ghent) (Ghent University)
  • 2. Issues in planningAvailability of “good” spatial datainfrastructures (SDIs)general ⇒ Europe ⇒ Europeanmember states ⇒ Belgium ⇒ FlandersTools and expertise to analyse, combine andvisualise spatial dataThe use of GIS in planningCase study 2
  • 4. Spatial Data Infrastructure (in general)In essence SDIs allow the sharing of spatial data sources (from ≠ disciplines) saving of resources, time, and energy better governmentSDIs imply implementation of standards support by national policiesInterconnection of sub national and nationalSDIs supranational SDIs 4
  • 5. Spatial Data Infrastructure (in general)Remaining obstacles for efficient use of spatial data Ad hoc production of data (limited problem definition) o Incompatible with other datasets o As a rule not kept up-to-date. o Multiple production of similar data sets o Waste of time and resources. Use of various reference systems o Leads to unintended overlaps or “holes” in the data Lack of adequate meta data o Which geospatial information is available? o How to acquire the data? o How is the data to be used? 5
  • 6. Spatial Data Infrastructure (in Europe)Europe: the INSPIRE Directive INSPIRE = ‘INfrastructure for SPatial InfoRmation in the European Community’ create European SDI Five main principles of INSPIRE o Data acquired and maintained at most suitable level o SD from ≠ sources is to be seamlessly combined o Data must be usable at different scale levels o GI needed for good governance must be readily and transparently available. o Adequate meta data must be available 6
  • 7. Spatial Data Infrastructure (in Europe)INSPIRE timeline o into force on 15 May 2007 o implemented in various stages o full implementation required by 2019 7
  • 8. Spatial Data Infrastructure (national)National SDIs must comply with INSPIREMember states are responsible for Implementation of INSPIRE Directive Creating or adapting own SDIsIntegration of member states’ SDIs EuropeanSDI 8
  • 9. Spatial Data Infrastructure (Belgium) 9
  • 10. Spatial Data Infrastructure (Belgium)Translation of INSPIRE Directive into legislation partially transferred to the RegionalGovernments Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels-Capital RegionCollaborations between regional SDIs andfederal agencies are formalised National Geographic Institute (IGN/NGI) coordinates the reference systems and geographical names General Administration of Patrimonial Documentation (AGDP / AAPD) deals with cadastral parcels 10
  • 11. Spatial Data Infrastructure (Flanders)Time line 1995: framework and partnership “GIS-Flanders” o Goals in the field of geography • Coordinate, control, guide and support initiatives • Improve collaboration between authorities on all levels 2000: framework was further institutionalised by decree 2006: the Agency for Geographic Information in Flanders (AGIV – FGIA) became the successor to GIS-Flanders 2009: ratification of the decree on the Geographical Data Infrastructure Flanders (GDI-decree) o Assigns responsibility to the FGIA for • The coordination and development of the Flemish GDI • The transposition of the European INSPIRE Directive 11
  • 12. Spatial Data Infrastructure (Flanders)GDI-decree: concept of ‘authentic geographical data’ The Flemish Government has certified the topicality, accuracy and exhaustiveness of these data. Decentralised management Multiple access (network access) The interest grouping GIS-Flanders is o transformed into the interest grouping GDI-Flanders o enlarged towards • Flemish inter-communal interest groupings • The local police • Educational institutions • ... o free access to the FGDI 12
  • 14. The use of GIS in planningSoftware used to build, store, manage, integrate,analyse and visualise data with a spatialcomponentVast evolution image classification, visualisation techniques, analysing tools, compatibility between data formatsUse of GIS in planning activities has increasedsignificantly an increased access to datasets software developments the promotion of geospatial technologies through higher education 14
  • 15. The use of GIS in planningNot used to full potential planning not used for high level tasks e.g. as modelling, spatial analysis used as “map generator” for illustration or inventory purposesMain barriers to the use of GIS in planning In the past o The technical possibilities of software o The cost of generating /obtaining spatial data Today o Training, funding, and data issues 15
  • 17. Case study FlandersCase study: The role of higher education GDI-decree higher educational institutions have free access to the FGDI o Today’s data and funding issues are addressed Higher education o Lower the thresholds for the use of GIS • Use GIS to full potential • By delivering well trained graduates o Today’s issue of training is addressed 17
  • 18. Case study FlandersPlanning context: spatial decision problemsimply a large set of evaluation criteria to be assessed by several stake holders with (often) conflicting interests and preferences with respect to the relative importance of the criteria which form the basis on which different possible alternatives are evaluated 18
  • 19. Case study FlandersExample of a low level assignment given tostudents enrolled in the MSc in Land Surveying(Industrial Engineer in Land Surveying)Assignment context: A project developer is in search of10 suitable parcels for a housing development project inthe community of Laakdal (Flanders) Constraints (criteria): o Stringent constraints (must be fulfilled) • free of constructions • situated in zones allocated for habitation 19
  • 20. Case study Flanderso Less stringent constraints (preferences) • surface area between 750 and 1000 m² • within a maximum distance of 2,0 kilometers to an outdoor recreation area 500 meters to a park or forested area 3,5 kilometers to a motorway • outside a minimum distance of 2,0 kilometers to an industrial zone 150 meters to a river, stream or canal. 20
  • 21. Case study FlandersTo find a solution o Different data sets • provided by the FGIA • data sets (source: FGIA) Large-Scale Reference Database Development plan Streets database Hydrographical atlas o Analysis tools 21
  • 22. Case study FlandersTo find a solution o Different data sets o Analysis tools • GIS software: ArcGis (Esri) • Selection methods Select by location e.g. “are within a distance”, “intersect”, “are completely within” Select by attributes: SQL-statement • Selections can be done Manually or by creating a model All criteria are applied one at a time 22
  • 23. Case study - Intermediate resultsIn red the parcels o free of constructions o situated in zones allocated for habitationData sets (source: FGIA) o Large-Scale Reference Database o Development plan 23
  • 24. Case study - Intermediate resultsIn orange the parcels o free of constructions o in zones allocated for habitation o with a distance to • motorways < 3,5 km • to outdoor recreation areas < 2 km • to parks or forested areas < 500 m • surface area ≥ 750 and ≤ 1000 m²Data sets (source: FGIA) o Large-Scale Reference Database o development plan o streets database 24
  • 25. Case study - Final resultEmpty selection!Changing the preferences is necessary o Manual selection: Change one or more preferences until the goal is reached • Iterative process time consuming o Introducing a model • Model builder tool in ArcGis • The criteria are parameterised highly flexible work flow 25
  • 26. Case study - ModelUsing a model Introduction of selection criteria in the model as variable parameters One or two minutes needed to o change the selection criteria o produce a new alternative. 26
  • 27. Case study - Model: final resultA few test runs (changed parameters) finalresult: exactly 10 parcels • parcels in dark blue 27
  • 28. Case study - Model: final resultChanging criteria demands o Thorough motivation o Assessment of the weight of each criterion in the decision tree o Expertise of the planner 28
  • 29. ConclusionGIS is essential for Building, managing, analysing and visualising spatial dataGIS not always used to their full potential inplanning unavailability of adequate spatial data shortage of well trained GIS experts 29
  • 30. ConclusionINSPIRE: Europe moves in the right direction Positive effects are already visible Case study analysis of spatial data is “easy” o Thorough knowledge of GIS • Task for education o Availability of compatible, area covering, reliable spatial data sets • Covered by INSPIRE 30
  • 31. Thank you for listening. 31