Effective Visualization Interfaces for Planning Support Systems: a formative study Kanjanee Budthimedhee, PhD.
Overview Background Research Problem Research Objective Research Design Principles Discussion
Background: Research Problem Planning Support Systems (PSS) Data Model Interface How to create effective visualization interfaces?
Background: Research Objective Literature Cognitive quality of graphic components and tasks, Spatial relationship property between the components, and Human-computer interaction factors Principles for effective visualization interfaces not articulated Objective Derive principles for designing effective visualization interfaces
PSS Interface Effectiveness Making Plan involves Shaping Attention PSS must: Direct interest Counter short term memory limit Maintain attention Leverage influence of representation
Background: Research Method• Formative evaluation • Build various interface prototypes • Assess effectiveness and derive principles• Questions • What components are effective? • What layouts are effective? • How to direct interest & maintain engagement?
Background: Research Design Project PSS: Land-use Evaluation and impact Assessment Model (LEAM) Interface design evolved over three years Evaluators of interface effectiveness LEAM colleagues Planning students Other stakeholders LEAM, a scenario-based PSS simulates regional land-use change as a consequence of policy choices interacting with different economic and demographic futures
Data Nine prototypes Model Design For each, documented Objectives Data Technology Design objectives Data Component Layout Technology Interface components Interface layout Lessons learned Lesson Learned Evaluation Tradeoffs
Principles: Graphic RepresentationGraphic representation Local Global (One variable, Exact information) (Different variables, Relationship comparison)Non- Static -Separated bar -Description -Grouped bar or -Comparisonspatial (One time) or icon [or (summarizing icons -Alternatives Table chart] data) -2attributes: shape -Options -1attribute and texture/color -Relations used: shape or (Add dimension = (Comparing color see more Points and relationship) Patterns) (summarizing data) Dynamic -Line or Bars -Trends -Lines or bars -Comparison (Different -2attributes: (showing -3attributes: shape, -Alternatives time) shape and trends over texture/color, and -Options spatial time) spatial pattern -Relations pattern/location (Comparing Points and Patterns) (showing trends over time)
Principles: Graphic RepresentationGraphic representation Local Global (One variable, Exact (Different variables, Relationship information) comparison)Spatial Static -One-variable -Description -Map using different -Comparison (W/o time) map or One (summarizing texture or color -Alternatives object image data) for different -Options -2attributes: variables -Relations shape and -3attributes: shape, (Comparing location texture/color, and Points and location Patterns) (summarizing data) Dynamic -Summary map, -Aggregation -Multiple maps or -Comparison (W/ time) animated (summarizing Animated maps -Alternatives map or data) -3attributes: shape, -Options multiple (showing color/pattern and -Relations maps trends location (Comparing -3attributes: over time) Points and shape, Patterns) location, and (showing color/pattern trends over time)
Principles: Effective Layout Role of Media Role of Structure Provide information about plan and its consequences Help evaluate alternative land use policies Display must be proximate Display must be comparable
Principles: Layout & Media TechnologyExisting Paper Document Economy Population Housing/Resident Education/Social Service Transportation Environment
Principles: Layout & Media TechnologyExisting Electronic Document Text/Number Map Graph Land-use Change Economy -housing Economy -school -infrastructure Population Population Environment Environment
Principles: LayoutDisplaying Interrelationships between Drivers and Impacts Drivers Impact Trends Social Perception Economic (GDP) Congestion Population City Growth Energy CS Land-use Regulations -residential Economic Cost -commercial Ag. Preservation -industrial Infra costs River Bluff Hidden cost Investments Environment Ring Road Habitat FM New infrastructure Forest lost
Principles: Layout Comparing Alternatives Scenario1 vs 1 vs 2: Impact Scenario2: Grouped bar chartScenario1: driver Difference Map Impact descriptionScenario2: driver Text
Discussion: Wickens on LayoutProximity of: Drivers & Impacts
Discussion: Wickens on LayoutProximity of: Compare Policies
Discussion: Cleveland on LayoutAlign Scale: Comparison
Other principles Provide motivation Maintain engagement Provide functional flexibility Experience / familiarity Interface Complexity Way-finding Clarity & Transparency Innovative surprise Maximum number of animals <100 100-200 200-500 > 500 No Data
Conclusion Bridgethe gap in PSS interface literature Improvement Broader range of users/evaluators More formative study of PSS development Future study Experimental study of each principle Aural media as an enhancement
Discussion: Tufte on Graphic Component Perhaps not Data : Ink Perhaps 1 piece of Data : 1 graphic Attribute
Discussion: Wickens on Graphic Component Proximity Memory limit -7+ chunks 3 attributes in one graphic make up 1 chunk