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CIB TG66 India Webinar 20120628 Mahua Mukherjee Beyond the building

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CIB TASK GROUP 66 WEB EVENT …

CIB TASK GROUP 66 WEB EVENT
"THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS POLICY IN INDIA AND BEYOND"
THURSDAY 28 JUNE 2012
2 pm – 4 pm Indian Standard Time

AGENDA
- Introduction, by Jean Carassus, CIB TG66 Coordinator, Professor at Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris Institute of Technology, mandated by Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment (France).
- The Implementation of Energy Efficient Buildings’ Policy in India- by Priyanka Kochar, Programme Manager, Sustainable Habitats Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.
- Beyond the Building: Energy Efficient Surrounding is Future of India, by Dr Mahua Mukherjee, Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture & Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
- Conclusion by Peter Wouters, CIB Marketing and Communication Chair, Director at Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI, Belgium),

BACKGROUND FOR THIS EVENT

CIB Task Group 66 is setting up several meetings to capitalize high level information on "THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS POLICIES IN 5 CONTINENTS".
The first event was an International Seminar organized in Brussels. It was dedicated to the European policy (four presentations), the action of three international organizations (UNEP-SBCI, IEA, WBCSD) and the policies of four countries: Brazil, China, South Africa and the USA.
The second event was an Internet Session dedicated to Europe, with five presentations from Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands and Poland.
The third event was an Internet Session dedicated to North America, with five presentations from Canada, Mexico and the USA.
The fourth event was an Internet Session dedicated to South America, with five presentations from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela.

To listen to registered conferences and see presentations from those events, visit
http://cib.sympraxis.eu

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  • 1. Welcome to CIB Task Group 66 Web Event:"The Implementation of Energy Efficient Buildings Policy in India and Beyond" THURSDAY; 28 JUNE 2012 2 pm – 4 pm Indian Standard Time CIB stands for International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction TG 66: Energy and the Built Environment
  • 2. Beyond the building:Energy efficient surroundingis future of IndiaPresenter:Mahua Mukherjee, PhD.IIT Roorkee, India
  • 3. Gayatri Mantra That Saviŧ (Sun God) who is to be followed (adopted), we think-of (meditate-on) His energy (power), may -- - He inspire (guide) our pracho-đayāŧ. minds (intellects).
  • 4. Outline for today’s Discussion• Energy & Emission• Sustainability Dilemma of India• Future Focus: Urban Outdoor Space for Energy Efficiency• Global Scenario & Standards For Urban Outdoors• Green Outdoor Initiatives• Next-Gen Built Environment
  • 5. Energy1. IEA, World Energy Outlook
  • 6. EmissionAverage per capita CO2 emissions (tonnes/annum) of different countries and different Indian income classes; Source: [2] Hiding behind the poor - A report by Greenpeace on Climate injustice, 2007
  • 7. India’s Emission PatternThe CO2 emission embodied in the consumption basketof top 10% of the population in urban India is one-sixthof the per capita emission generated in the US.India’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use were less thanfive percent of the world total in 2007 (IEA 2009) butthis is likely to increase with economic development &population rise.10. CO2 emissions structure of Indian economy, Parikh J et al., Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.02.014
  • 8. INDIA: Growth Pressure• Economy growing at ~8 % pa• Population of 1.22 billion+• Urban Housing deficit of 23 million• 40 million rural Housing units deficit• Increased migration to urban areas• Climate refugees - Climate change induced post disaster reconstruction3. Census Data of India, 2011; Government of India
  • 9. INDIA: Growth Drivers• Fast urbanization• Increased migration• Younger population• Population growth• Increased aspirations
  • 10. Sustainability Dilemma Development or Preservation/ Conservation New development or Maintaining the Existing Adaptation or Mitigation4. Squaring the circle? Some thoughts on the idea of sustainable development, J. Robinson, EcologicalEconomics, 48 (2004), pp- 369– 3845. Social Limits to growth, F. Hirsch, Taylor & Francis, 2005
  • 11. Development or Preservation/ Conservation in INDIA •Rural areas •Deteriorated Connect with nature •Suburb areas •Neither urban facilities nor connect with nature •Urban areas •In/efficient Management of resources
  • 12. 2. Benefits of Maintaining the existing through RETROFITTING SOCIAL BENEFITS •Improved health, quality of life and comfort •Improved productivity •Improved social welfare and poverty alleviation ECONOMIC BENEFITS •Saving money •Creating jobs and career opportunities •Boosts local economy •Takes less time than building a new structure, so normal function is suspended for a lesser period of time ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS •Reduction in local/regional air pollution •Non- release of embodied energy already in the building which could have been released if the building was demolished to build a new one 6. Efficiency in cities: a preliminary assessment of Potential ; D. Foy & J. Rogers, Living Cities Report, 2008
  • 13. 3. Adaptation or Mitigation for IndiaAddressing multiple risks due to climate change is a serious publicpolicy and adaptation management challenge for India.On the face of climate change, adaptation and mitigation actionsfor cities in India are critically required where the urbanpopulation is likely to grow by around 500 million over the next 50years.The developed countries can afford to go for expensive adaptiveprogrammes as they continue with their resource intensiveindustrialized economic activities.7. Climate change risk: An adaptation and mitigation agenda for Indian cities; Revi, A., Environment andUrbanization, 20(1): 207-229, 2008.8. Adaptive Planning approach for the Caribbean Islands’ Habitat; M. Mukherjee, International Conference onResponding to Climate Change in the Caribbean , London University, 2011
  • 14. 3. Adaptation or Mitigation for IndiaIndia would preferably opt for a mix of two strategies which thelocal economy and people can sustainably afford.Integrated policies like Coastal Zonal Management and mangroveforest regeneration, sustainable livelihoods through revival ofmarine ecosystems , construction of dykes and dams, solid wasteand water resource management, disaster mitigation andmanagement planning and implementation etc. are well-established mitigation strategies.Urban planning for changed scenario, green technology,sustainable brackets, renewable solar energy generation to satisfyincreasing demand, etc. are few potential adaptation strategies.8. Adaptive Planning approach for the Caribbean Islands’ Habitat; M. Mukherjee, International Conference onResponding to Climate Change in the Caribbean , London University, 2011
  • 15. For Energy Efficiency Future FocusUrban Outdoor Space Urban over Rural Beyond Buildings
  • 16. Rural India
  • 17. India’s Energy Consumption Pattern9. Access of the Poor to Clean Household Fuels in India: Household Energy Use Patterns; Joint United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP)/ World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP)
  • 18. India’s Emission Pattern The urban top 10% accounts for emissions of 3416 kg of CO2 per year The rural bottom 10% class accounts for only 141 kg of CO2 per year.10. CO2 emissions structure of Indian economy, Parikh J et al., Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.02.014
  • 19. Future Focus Building or Surrounding Open Area Foremost among the challenges for Human Habitat is maintaining human wellbeing by provisioning for clean air and healthy living environment11. Urban forests and open green spaces: lessons for Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; V.S. Singh, D. N. Pandey, & P. Chaudhry,RSPCB Occasional Paper No. 1/2010, 2010
  • 20. Inspirational Nature in INDIA
  • 21. Future Focus Building or Surrounding Open Area Possible Way-outTo deal the challenge to maintain humanwellbeing by provisioning for clean air andhealthy living is through conservation andrestoration of urban outdoor green spaces
  • 22. Surrounding Open AreaBeyond the buildings’ envelopes in urban areacan positively contributes to: •physical and psychological health •social cohesion •climate change mitigation •pollution abatement •biodiversity conservation •provisioning of the ecosystem goods and service to urban inhabitants
  • 23. Retrofitting Impact on Urban Outdoor Space Ambient temperature & Humidity Cooling load Recovery from Pollution Albedo Control Water (fresh & waste) Resource Management Solid Waste Management12. The influence of land use on the urban heat island in Singapore; Jusuf, S. K., Habitat International, Elsevier , Vol. 31; 200713. FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem-Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, andEnergy Flux Densities; Baldocchi, D. ; American Meteorological Society , Volume 82, Issue 11;November 200114. A feasibility study for greening the Glasgow school of art’s bourdon building underused rooftop towards theenhancement of urban vegetation in Glasgow; P. Roongta, The seventh International Conference on Urban Climate,, (p. 4).Yokohama, Japan; 2009
  • 24. CO-BENEFITS ofRetrofitted Urban Outdoor Spacesin addition to Energy Efficiency are • URBAN POPULATIONS’ COMFORT • CONNECT WITH NATURE
  • 25. Global Scenario & Standards for Urban outdoor
  • 26. Global scenario -EUGreen space coverage in cities of EU vary markedly:averaging 18.6 %range from 1.9 (Reggio di Calabria, Italy) to 46% (Ferrol, Spain) Availability of urban green spaces per capita varied bytwo orders of magnitude, from 3-4 m2 per person in Cádiz,Fuenlabrada and Almeria (Spain) and Reggio di Calabria(Italy) to> 300 m2 in Liège (Belgium), Oulu (Finland) andValenciennes (France)15. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities; Fuller, R. A. and K. J. Gaston; Biology Letters 5(3): 352-355, 2009
  • 27. Global scenario -USA Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; containing approximately 3.8 billion trees with an average tree canopy cover of 27 percent of urban areas.16. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover ; Nowak, D. J., R. A. Rowntree, E. G. McPherson, S. M. Sisinni, E. R.Kerkmann and J. C. Stevens; Landscape and Urban Planning 36(1): 49-57, 1996.17. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA , Nowak, D. J. and Crane, D. E. ;Environmental Pollution116: 381-389, 2002.
  • 28. Global scenarioCuritiba, Brazil, with a population of 1.7 million, has urbangreen space 51.5m2/person from to 1 m2/person in 1970s.Canberra, the national capital of Australia, at the beginningof the 1900s, was largely treeless. Extensive tree plantingsbegan in 1911 and today, the urban forest on public landscontains 400,000 trees belonging to some 200 species instreets and parklandsJapan’s green space average is 6.1 - 8.5 m2/ person. Thecore of Metropolitan Area of Tokyo has green spaces of lessthan 20%, while surrounding area has 60-80% green spaces. 18. Is the Grass Greener? Learning from International Innovations in Urban Green Space Management; Carmona, M., C. De Magalhaes, R. Blum & J. Hopkins. CABE/ Bartlett School of Planning, London, 2003 19. Canberra’s urban forest: Evolution and planning for future landscapes; Banks, J.G. and Brack C.L.; Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 1: 151-160, 2003
  • 29. Sustainable Standards In 20th century, experts in Germany, Japan and other countries proposed a standard of 40m² urban green space in high density zones & 140 m² suburb forest area per capita for reaching a balance between carbon dioxide and oxygen, to meet the ecological balance of human well-being. Currently, developed countries have tended to adopt a general standard of green space of 20 m² park area per capita.20. Analysis of problems in urban green space system planning in China; Wang, X.-J. ;Journal of Forestry Research20(1): 79-82, 2009
  • 30. Sustainable Standards International minimum standard suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) and adopted by the publications of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a minimum availability of 9 m2 green open space per city dweller (Kuchelmeister 1998) There is yet another yardstick, which refers to London but has relevance to any city. Abercrombie (1943) prepared a plan in 1943-1944 suggesting that 1.62 ha (four acres) open space per 1000 population was a reasonable figure to adopt for London.21. Urban Forestry: Present Situation and Prospects in the Asia and Pacific region, Kuchelmeister, G., FAO Asia-PacificForestry Sector Outlook Study, FAO Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/44, FAO of the United Nations, Rome; 1998
  • 31. Some Important Indian Cities with Per Capita Green Space Population Per Capita in Million Forest and Green Space (Census, tree cover (m²/City Area (Sq Km) 2001) (Sq Km) inhabitant)Gandhinagar 2163.48 0.20 32.56 162.80Chandigarh 114 0.90 49.00 54.45Delhi 1483 13.80 297.00 21.52Bangalore 741 5.60 97.00 17.32Jaipur 200.4 2.32 5.43 2.30 (Source: Census of India, 2001)
  • 32. Urban Outdoor GreenThree main components:1. Patch (urban domestic gardens, public and private parks & gardens, water bodies, urban forest patches)2. Corridor (roadside avenues, walkways and urban greenways etc.), and3. Network structure (linking the patches and the corridors). “Urban trees are considered to be central part of green infrastructure” Source: Google22. Landscape structure indices for assessing urban ecological networks, E.A. Cook, Landscape and Urban Planning;58: 269-280, 200223. Urban open space in the 21st century; C. W. Thompson, Landscape and Urban Planning 60: 59-72, 2002.
  • 33. Urban Outdoor is changing!
  • 34. THE SCOPE : Retrofitting Urban Outdoor Space for Energy Efficiency Building Level Neighbourhood Level City Level
  • 35. Urban Outdoor ComponentsVisible•Urban fabric- Vegetations, Buildings’ Surfaces-Green wall/roof•Large transformed surfaces- Parking lot, Road, Pavements, …•Streetscape, Landscaping-swales, park with native plants,Outdoor LightingPerceptible• Policies on resource Management – Water(Fresh, Waste); SolidWaste etc.•Strategies for implementation- incentives, regulations etc.
  • 36. How to Retrofit Surroundings Sustainably? 1. Identifying components for retrofit 2. Introduce measures for the Re/ CONNECT: Urban forestry, Water bodies, Cooler Roof, Greener Vertical surfaces, Green connectors 3. Introducing more & more soft engineering 4. Maintaining the existing development
  • 37. Green roofs Cool roofGreen Walls Traditional Greener roof
  • 38. Greener Parking
  • 39. Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering IIT KANPUR, INDIA
  • 40. Urban forest• the quality of life of city residents• a place of social integration, recreation and relief from hectic life• Economical, ecological and aesthetic benefits – Provide with an additional recreation and wildlife area. – trees and green space provide significant advantages in terms of psychological and physical well-being. – also provide free ecosystem services which are helpful in maintaining ecological integrity of expanding cities like carbon sequestration, watershed management, and biodiversity conservation. 24. Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for social integration? Results of a geographical information system (GIS) approach for urban forestry research; Chiari, C. S., & Seeland, K.; Forest Policy and Economics, 6, 3–13, 2004.
  • 41. Berlin City Eco-friendly measuresAIM: to ensure that a given proportion of a particularsite area is left undeveloped, or covered by vegetation
  • 42. SingaporeAIM: to promote biodiversity conservation, keeping in mind that as a densely populated country with no hinterland, one would have to adopt a pragmatic approach towards conservation and develop unique solutions to challenges
  • 43. Tokyo AIM: to regenerate its abundant greenery andrepresents the basic concept and directions of the green measures
  • 44. New York City Eco-friendly measures AIM: to mitigate the urban heat island effect with theextensive usage of vegetation
  • 45. Initiatives in IndiaGovernment Organisations:•Building byelaws with development controls over openspaces•Investing in experimental studies to mitigate Urban HeatIsland Effects & other environmental impact•Developing knowledge-base on appropriate constructionMaterials
  • 46. Initiatives in IndiaLocal Governments:•In Indore, an initiative to reuse natural channels fordrainage not only brought changes in water loggingscenario, also improved vulnerable slum dwellers’condition.•In Kolkata, East Kolkata waste land is an exemplaryconservation attempt for natural sewage treatment•Cities like Delhi, Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore areimplementing Rainwater harvesting system withincreasing awareness about permeability issue/ surfacetransformation
  • 47. Initiatives in India•Corporate Houses: • SAP Labs- Bangalore, while renovating, commissioned Ornithologists instead of Landscape Architects to get back the birds within the campuses • TCS Bangalore promoted Urban Forestry’ among common citizens in June 2011 • Retrofitting offices in Mumbai & Delhi with prior importance to surroundings
  • 48. Next –Gen Built EnvironmentResource Conservation ApproachTechnical Efficiency Efficient & Rated MEP & IEQ Disaster Resiliency Lean Construction ManagementSustainable range Quality of livingInclusiveness Shift from Gated communityConnect with the nature Scope to experience, appraise and develop bond with nature Provision of natural Habitat within site thru’ regulations
  • 49. Next –Gen Built EnvironmentLook Beyond Buildings to sustainablyManage Surroundings using cost-effectiveTechnologies to Protect future of urban Indiaand re-establishing connect with the nature
  • 50. References1. World Energy Outlook 2009, 2010, 2011; International Energy Agency2. Hiding behind the poor; Greenpeace on Climate injustice, 20073. Census Data of India, 2011; Government of India4. Squaring the circle? Some thoughts on the idea of sustainable development, J. Robinson, Ecological Economics, 48 (2004), pp- 369– 3845. Social Limits to growth, F. Hirsch, Taylor & Francis, 20056. Efficiency in cities: a preliminary assessment of Potential ; D. Foy & J. Rogers, Living Cities Report, 20087. Climate change risk: An adaptation and mitigation agenda for Indian cities; Revi, A., Environment and Urbanization, 20(1): 207-229, 2008.8. Adaptive Planning approach for the Caribbean Islands’ Habitat; M. Mukherjee, International Conference on Responding to Climate Change in the Caribbean , London University, 20119. Access of the Poor to Clean Household Fuels in India: Household Energy Use Patterns; Joint United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/ World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP)10. CO2 emissions structure of Indian economy, Parikh J et al., Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.02.01411. Urban forests and open green spaces: lessons for Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; V.S. Singh, D. N. Pandey, & P. Chaudhry, RSPCB Occasional Paper No. 1/2010, 2010
  • 51. References12. The influence of land use on the urban heat island in Singapore; Jusuf, S. K., Habitat International, Elsevier , Vol. 31; 200713. FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem- Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Flux Densities; Baldocchi, D. ; American Meteorological Society , Volume 82, Issue 11;November 200114. A feasibility study for greening the Glasgow school of art’s bourdon building underused rooftop towards the enhancement of urban vegetation in Glasgow; P. Roongta, The seventh International Conference on Urban Climate,, (p. 4). Yokohama, Japan; 200915. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities; Fuller, R. A. and K. J. Gaston; Biology Letters 5(3): 352-355, 200916. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover ; Nowak, D. J., R. A. Rowntree, E. G. McPherson, S. M. Sisinni, E. R. Kerkmann and J. C. Stevens; Landscape and Urban Planning 36(1): 49-57, 1996.17. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA , Nowak, D. J. and Crane, D. E. ;Environmental Pollution 116: 381-389, 200218. Is the Grass Greener? Learning from International Innovations in Urban Green Space Management; Carmona, M., C. De Magalhaes, R. Blum & J. Hopkins. CABE/ Bartlett School of Planning, London, 200319. Canberra’s urban forest: Evolution and planning for future landscapes; Banks, J.G. and Brack C.L.; Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 1: 151-160, 2003
  • 52. References20. Analysis of problems in urban green space system planning in China; Wang, X.-J. ;Journal of Forestry Research 20(1): 79-82, 200921. Urban Forestry: Present Situation and Prospects in the Asia and Pacific region, Kuchelmeister, G., FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study, FAO Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/44, FAO of the United Nations, Rome; 199822. Landscape structure indices for assessing urban ecological networks, E.A. Cook, Landscape and Urban Planning; 58: 269-280, 200223. Urban open space in the 21st century; C. W. Thompson, Landscape and Urban Planning 60: 59-72, 200224. Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for social integration? Results of a geographical information system (GIS) approach for urban forestry research; Chiari, C. S., & Seeland, K.; Forest Policy and Economics, 6, 3–13, 200425. Anurag Kandya* Chaaruchandra Korde, Smita Chugh, Lalit Mohan Bal, Sanjeev Singh and P. Sudhakar
  • 53. Thank you! Email: mahua1965@gmail.com