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Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
Hanushek international achievement spain
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Hanushek international achievement spain

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Presentación que el profesor E. Hanushek (Universidad de Stanford) realizó el día 6 de mayo de 2013 en el MECD con el título “The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement”.

Presentación que el profesor E. Hanushek (Universidad de Stanford) realizó el día 6 de mayo de 2013 en el MECD con el título “The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement”.

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  • 1. MadridMay 2013The Economics ofInternational Differences inEducational AchievementEric A. HanushekStanford University
  • 2. Overview of Existing Evidence• Rapidly expanding information on determinants- Expansion of data- Expansion of researchers- Expansion with country comparisons• Evidence both within and across countries• Many standard views overturned- Policies in law and practice not supported• New demands for evidence-based policies
  • 3. PISA Mathematics Achievement, 20090100200300400500600ShanghaiSingaporeHongKongKoreaTaiwanFinlandLiechtensteinSwitzerlandJapanCanadaNetherlandsMacaoNewZealandBelgiumAustraliaGermanyEstoniaIcelandDenmarkSloveniaNorwayFranceSlovak_RepublicAustriaPolandSwedenCzech_RepublicUnited_KingdomHungaryLuxembourgUnited_StatesIrelandPortugalSpainItalyLatviaLithuaniaRussian_FedGreeceCroatiaDubai(UAE)IsraelTurkeySerbiaAzerbaijanBulgariaRomaniaUruguayChileThailandMexicoTrinidad_TobagoKazakhstanMontenegroArgentinaJordanBrazilColombiaAlbaniaTunisiaIndonesiaQatarPeruPanamaKyrgyzstan
  • 4. Cognitive Skills and Long RunEconomic Growth
  • 5. Years of Schooling and Economic Growth
  • 6. Importance of StudentAchievement• Economic growth simulations- 25 PISA points (0.47% annual growth)- Iceland, Estonia- Slightly above OECD average- Finland (+1.34% annual growth)- EU2020 (+0.3% annual growth)- <15% level 1 or below by 2020
  • 7. 020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in AchievementPresent Value of Gains to GDPfor Spain
  • 8. 020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in Achievement6.2% 5.0%20.2%Present Value of Gains to GDPfor Spain
  • 9. AustraliaAustraliaBelgiumBelgiumCanadaCanadaFinlandFinlandFranceFranceUKUKGermanyGermanyItalyItalyJapanJapanKoreaKoreaNetherlandsNetherlandsN. ZealandN. ZealandNorwayNorwaySwedenSwedenUSAUSA4604805005205405601975 2000Trends inTest Scores
  • 10. Changes in Growth Ratesvs. Changes in Test Scores
  • 11. Expansion of InternationalStudies• International assessments provide new insights• “What is possible?”
  • 12. 051015201 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Number of tests participated (1964-2007)NumberofcountriesOECDnon-OECDCountry Participation inInternational Testing
  • 13. Determinants of Human Capital:Cross Country ResearchDatasourceDeterminants of Student AchievementAchieve-ment equityTOTALUniqueStudiesfamily backgroundplus school inputsInstitutionswithincountrycross-countrywithincountrycross-countryIEA 15 2 1 2 1 21 20OECD 6 4 3 7 2 22 20Other 2 2 1 5 4Combined 3 3 4 6 16 16TOTAL 24 11 6 14 9 64 60
  • 14. Family Background• All studies find SES important- Few specifics• Limited policy focus• Spain does well- Less family-student achievement correlation
  • 15. Resource Policies• Little evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- Within country – developing
  • 16. Resources and Performance acrossCountries3504004505005500 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000Math performance in PISA 2003Cumulative educational expenditure per studentMexicoBelgiumIcelandFranceSwedenSwitzerlandDenmarkAustriaNorwayUSAItalyPortugalSpainKoreaGermanyIrelandCzech Rep.HungaryPolandSlovak Rep.GreeceFinlandNetherlandsCanadaJapanAustraliaR 2 = 0.01R 2 = 0.15
  • 17. Resource Policies• Little evidence of successle evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- Within country – developing• Consistent with detailed analysis- class size- school characteristics
  • 18. Resource Policies• Does not say “resources never have effect”• Does not say “resources cannot have effect”No expectation within currentincentive structure
  • 19. Teacher Quality• Teachers most important input• No identifiable characteristics- Master’s degrees- Experience*- Certification- Preparation- Professional development• Observable through both student performanceand supervisor ratings• Cannot regulate and pay on characteristics
  • 20. Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization
  • 21. School Autonomy andAchievement• Local school autonomy in decision-making- Substantial variation in autonomy reforms internationally• Fundamental tension: better local information versus divergentinterests and asymmetric information
  • 22. Effect of Autonomy Reforms on StudentAchievement by Level of Development-60-40-2002040600 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000Effect of autonomy on PISA test scoreGDP per capitaIndonesiaThailandMexicoChileBrazilCanadaGermanyAustraliaItalySpainPortugalArgentinaJapanUnitedStatesSwedenUnitedKingdomNorway
  • 23. Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization• Choice• Direct performance incentives
  • 24. 0.000.250.500.750% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedlow estimate of teacher effectivenessCanadaFinlandAlternative Estimates of Least EffectiveU.S. Teachers on Student Achievement
  • 25. 0.000.250.500.751.000% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedhigh estimate of teacher effectiveness low estimate of teacher effectivenessCanadaFinlandAlternative Estimates of Least EffectiveU.S. Teachers on Student Achievement
  • 26. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking
  • 27. CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIcelandItalyItalyLatviaNetherlandsNetherlandsNew ZealandNew ZealandNorwayNorwayRussian Fed.Russian Fed.Slovak Rep.Slovak Rep.SwedenSwedenTurkeyTurkeyUnited StatesUnited States-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.8PIRLS (Primary school) PISA 2003 (Secondary school)Standard DeviationTracking and Inequality: PIRLS and PISA2003Early trackingNo early tracking3/33/3
  • 28. CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIcelandItalyItalyLatviaNetherlandsNetherlandsNew ZealandNew ZealandNorwayNorwayRussian Fed.Russian Fed.Slovak Rep.Slovak Rep.SwedenSwedenTurkeyTurkeyUnited StatesUnited States-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.8PIRLS (Primary school) PISA 2003 (Secondary school)Standard DeviationTracking and Inequality: PIRLS and PISA20031234123456Early trackingNo early trackingChange:1. Germany 0.712. Greece 0.303. Czech Rep. 0.254. Italy 0.225. Sweden 0.216. Latvia 0.127. Netherlands 0.118. France 0.099. Russian Fed. 0.0810. Hungary 0.0411. Iceland -0.0712. Slovak Rep. -0.0813. Hong Kong -0.1314. Norway -0.1415. United States -0.2716. Canada -0.3217. New Zealand -0.5018. Turkey -0.63
  • 29. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education
  • 30. Male Employment Rate by Age0.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationVocational Countries (11)
  • 31. Male Employment Rate by Age.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationApprenticeship Countries (3)
  • 32. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education• Early childhood programs
  • 33. Conclusions• Performance is very important• Policy choices matter• Improvement is possible
  • 34. 0.0%0.5%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%3.5%4.0%4.5%5.0%LatviaChileBrazilPortugalHongKongGermanyPolandLiechtensteinSloveniaColombiaLithuaniaUnitedKingdomSingaporeSwitzerlandGreeceMexicoIsraelFinlandItalyNewZealandDenmarkKorea,Rep.HungaryIranUnitedStatesTaiwan…BelgiumCanadaCyprusAustraliaJordanRussianFed.IndonesiaAustriaSpainIcelandJapanNetherlandsTunisiaArgentinaAchievement Growth, 1995-2009

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