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3 g core nw

  1. 1. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 1 3G Core Network Technology Trends
  2. 2. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 2 Story so far MobileMobile InternetInternet
  3. 3. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 3 Growth in Mobile Communication Services 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1,200 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Subscribers(inmillion) Japan (excl. PHS) Asia Pacific (excl. Japan) Latin America Rest of the world North America Western Europe
  4. 4. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 4 The New Telecom World …. Beyond Voice
  5. 5. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 5 Bundling of ServicesBundling of Services TELECOMMUNICATIONSTELECOMMUNICATIONSCOMPUTERCOMPUTER CONVERGENCECONVERGENCE Information ContentInformation Content Information ServersInformation Servers Access NetworksAccess Networks Information AppliancesInformation Appliances COMMERCE & BROADCATERSCOMMERCE & BROADCATERS DELIVERY TO A WIDE RANGE OF DEVICES OVER A COMMON CORE NETWORK
  6. 6. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 6 Converging industries Computers & Datacom Consumer electronics Entertainment & Publishing Business multimedia Information gadgets Telecom Home multimedia Information & work support IP
  7. 7. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 7 CS vs PS Today: you go through a circuit switch to get to a packet switch. Tomorrow: you’ll use a packet switch to emulate to a circuit switch.
  8. 8. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 8 The strategic direction Telecom Datacom M obility 2G mobile voice Wireline telephony Mobile data WAN/LAN data Voice over IP 3G (UMTS) 2G Internet 1G mobile Internet 1G Internet 3G Internet
  9. 9. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 9 Three important steps Voice goes Mobile – Home / Office Zone, GSM on the Net, Number Portability – Separation of private / business usage and roles Mobile Data kick-off – WAP (SMS/USSD), SIM TK,... – GPRS, GSM on the Net, Virtual Office, WebOnAir, ... New Business Concepts – GPRS - always connected, client-server, content v.s. time – UMTS Virtual Home Environment - networks opening up – Bluetooth - bridging technology, e-services – Mobile eCommerce - real time charging/billing, triple-A
  10. 10. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 10 Cerf’s Prediction: By 2010, 100% of all traffic will be packetized! Are we ready?!
  11. 11. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 11 IP on Everything
  12. 12. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 12 It’s All About DATA! • KEY FACTORS: - Data Access - Data Delivery - Data Integration • WIRELESS IS JUST HOW IT GETS THERE • THE FOCUS IS THE END-TO-END SOLUTION Services that offer Value Added Applications and Content are of interest to the user!...
  13. 13. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 13 Vision 2003! IP Virtual Private Network (VPN)IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) PLATFORM FOR A WIDE RANGE OFPLATFORM FOR A WIDE RANGE OF COMMUNICATIONS-BASED SERVICESCOMMUNICATIONS-BASED SERVICES CAPACITYCAPACITY SERVICES SERVICES M O B ILITY M O B ILITY
  14. 14. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 14 The Future The Battle of the access network is over, it is know called: “Harmonized single global standard with several modes” The new cry for revolution is: “All IP-based core networks!!!”
  15. 15. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 15 Internet Protocol (IP) • Routes information packets through islands of networks • Provides addressing information to identify the source and destination
  16. 16. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 16 0 7 15 23 31 Version Type of service Total length Identification Fragment offset IP Datagram IHL D F M F Time to live Protocol Header checksum Source address Destination address Options
  17. 17. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 17 What will IP offer? • The convergence interface for data, voice and multimedia applications as well as fixed and mobile networks • Opportunity for third party developers to add value to a system • Single system architecture for residential, office, fixed, mobile environments
  18. 18. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 18 The Famous Questions • Which one is better, IP or ATM? • Wireless IP or Mobile IP? What about Cellular IP?
  19. 19. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 19 How does IP work? Physical Network Access IP Transport (host-to-host) Application Physical Network Access IP Transport (host-to-host) Application Communication Networks
  20. 20. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 20 Future Challenges for IP “32 bits should be enough address space for Internet” -- Vint Cerf, 1977 • QoS •Addressing • Wireless • Mobility
  21. 21. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 21 Once we have advanced IP, what do we want to do with it? • Establish a flexible service creation environment • Enable quick service/application creation • Ensure independence of access type • Provide open interfaces to ensure a multi-vendor environment • Maintain and enhance Global Roaming
  22. 22. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 22 How do we get there? • Hybrid CS and PS networks will exist in near term • Backward compatibility is critical • Service transparency must exist across domains for common services
  23. 23. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 23 Again ... IT’S ALL ABOUT DATA! WIRELESS IS JUST HOW IT GETS THERE • Broadband Wireless • Cellular mobile • Wireless LAN + IP +
  24. 24. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 24 Clients Multi-Service Next Generation Networks Today Single-service networks LAN(Data)LAN(Data) MobileMobile FixedTelephonyFixedTelephony Broadband Wireless Broadband Wireless Servers Clients IP Backbone Network Access Access Future Multi-service networks Communcationi Control Content Content Access Services
  25. 25. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 25 Evolution HLRHLRPSTN/ ISDN MAP HLR Internet GPRS Node BTSBTS BSC Voice Data A Gb MSCMSC BROADBAND / IP NETWORK Node B Node B RNC Data IWUIWU PSTN/ ISDN LEGACY NETWORKS Voice ALL-IP BASEDALL-IP BASED NETWOKSNETWOKS Today: You go through a CS to get to a PS Tomorrow: You’ll go through a PS to get to a CS 2.5 G2.5 G 3 G3 G
  26. 26. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 26 What is GPRS? • GSM is now in phase 2+, which consists of a large number of projects including improved voice coding and advance data transmission services such as high speed circuit switched data (HSCSD) and the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). • The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new non-voice value added service introduced in order to provide more efficient access to packet data networks from cellular networks. • It supplements today's Circuit Switched Data and Short Message Service in GSM networks.
  27. 27. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 27 What is GPRS? • Theoretical maximum speeds of up to 171.2 kbps • Immediacy (no dial-up connection is necessary) • Enable the Internet applications not available previously on GSM networks • GPRS shares GSM frequency bands with telephone and circuit switched data traffic, and makes use of many properties of the physical layer of the original GSM system such as multiple access scheme (TDMA) frame structure modulation technique and slot structure
  28. 28. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 28 Tendency toward mobile IP IP convergence Telecommunication • Transportation • ISDN - Services • Video calls • Larger bandwith Computer • Internet access • Pictures • Remote LAN • e-mail • voice over IP Media • Music • Video on Demand • Animation • Infotainment • Advertisement Mobility and individual services Mobile IP Why GPRS?
  29. 29. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 29 • GSM packet mode • A new entity called GPRS Support Node (GSNs) is introduced to create end to end packet transfer mode within PLMN. There are two types of GSNs: the Serving GPRS support node (SGSN) the Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) • Designed to minimize hardware modifications on existing network elements : addition of a new hardware component in the BSS, the PCU, which integrates most of the BSS new functions and manages RLC/MAC layers BSC and BTS are impacted as few as possible entirely new core network with many functions The HLR is enhanced with GPRS subscriber data and routing information GPRS: Architecture
  30. 30. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 30 • Provides an access to packet data networks Internet X.25 • This has driven to choices which are not « natural » e.g. ciphering is between MS and SGSN (LLC layer), standard GSM BTS are not capable to handle ciphering with several keys for multiplexed MS on the same physical channel • Two types of services are provided Point to point (PTP) Point to multi-point (PTM) GPRS: Architecture
  31. 31. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 31 • Consists of packet wireless access network and IP-based backbone • Shares mobility databases with circuit voice services and adds new packet switching nodes (SGSN & GGSN) • Will support GPRS, EDGE & WCDMA airlinks • Provides services to different mobile classes ranging from 1-slot to 8-slot capable • Radio resources shared dynamically between speech and data services GPRS: Architecture
  32. 32. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 32 VLR External Data Network GGSNSGSN Signalling User data Gb Gn Gr Abis Gs Gateway Mobility Management Routing Encapsulation Mobility Management Authentication Ciphering Routing Other PLMNs Gp Gi New nodes GSM nodes MSC GGSN BSCBTS HLR Mobile data solution built upon the existing GSM Infrastructure and Mobility Management. The packet oriented transport is obtained through a modified use of GSM RF and the addition of packet switched nodes ( IP routers with addition features like GPRS specific control and SS7 interfaces) in the backbone. GPRS Architecture Um
  33. 33. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 33 GPRS Architecture Gf D Gi Gn Gb Gc CE Gp Gs Signalling and Data Transfer Interface Signalling Interface MSC/VLR TE MT BSS TEPDN R Um Gr A HLR Other PLMN SGSN GGSN Gd SM-SC SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC GGSN EIR SGSN Gn
  34. 34. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 34 GPRS Architecture, The GGSN • The Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) acts as a logical interface to the GPRS network and to external public data networks such as IP and X.25 • GGSN is connected to with SGSNs via an IP GPRS backbone network • Routing. GGSN contains routing information for attached GPRS users. • Mobility Management. GGSN also performs mobility management functions requesting location information from the HLR. • Encapsulation. GGSN performs routing functions to “tunnel” Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
  35. 35. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 35 GPRS Architecture, The SGSN • The SGSN is at the same hierarchical level as the MSC and is responsible for the delivery of packets to the MSs within its service area. • Mobility Management. SGSN Keeps track of the individual MS’s location. • Authentication. SGSN does access control • Ciphering. Performs security functions • Routing. Provides packet routing to and from the SGSN service area for all users in that service area.
  36. 36. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 36 GPRS Protocol Architecture Relay Network Service GTP Application IP / X.25 SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF SNDCP LLC BSSGP L1bis RLC MAC GSM RF BSSGP L1bis Relay L2 L1 IP L2 L1 IP GTP IP / X.25 Um Gb Gn Gi MS BSS SGSN GGSN Network Service UDP / TCP UDP / TCP Relay
  37. 37. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 37 GPRS Protocol Architecture • Above the network layer, widespread standardized protocols may be used. • Between two GSNs: The GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) tunnels packet data units (PDU) through the backbone network by adding routing information; TCP/UDP and IP are used as the GPRS backbone network layer protocols. Ethernet, ISDN or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based protocols may be used below IP; • Between the SGSN and the MS The SNDCP maps network level protocol characteristics onto the underlying logical link control and provides functionalities like multiplexing of network layer messages onto a single virtual logical connection, encryption, segmentation and compression;
  38. 38. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 38 GPRS Protocol Architecture • Between the MS and BSS The DLL is divided into the LLC and the RLC/MAC sublayers. The LLC provides a logical link between the MS and the SGSN. Protocol functionality is based on LAP-D The RLC/MAC provides services for information transfer over the physical layer of the GPRS radio interface. – The RLC is responsible for the transmission of data blocks and the backward error correction – The MAC is derived from a slotted ALOHA protocol. The Physical layer is split up into a PLL and RFL. – The PLL is responsible for FEC, rectangular interleaving, and procedures for detecting physical link congestion – The RFL conforms to the GSM 05 series of recommendations.
  39. 39. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 39 GPRS Protocol Architecture • In the Network The LLC is split between the BSS and the SGSN. The BSS functionality is called LLC relay. Between the BSS and the SGSN, the BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) conveys routing and QoS related information, and operates above frame relay. • Between the MS, BSS and the SGSN, The same protocols are used for data transmission up to the SNDCP protocol. At the network layer, a specific mobility management protocol is required within the MS and SGSN.
  40. 40. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 40 GPRS in the GSM Evolution • GPRS is part of the GSM data services evolution GSM Data HSCSD GPRS EDGE EGPRS WCDMA 1998 1999 2001 WCDMA Phase I Evolution 9.6 kbps 9.6 - 28.8 kbps 9 - 53.6 kbps 384 kbps 144 - 384 kbps 384 - 2048 kbps 2000 Time
  41. 41. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 41 BSC SGSN GGSN GPRS Mobility: Session Setup PSTN/ISDN BTS IP I want to do packet Radio link established Set up a context Tunnel created IP Address exists! HLR MSC GMSC
  42. 42. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 42 GMSC MSC BSC GGSN SGSN GPRS Mobility: Packet Forwarding PSTN/ISDN BTS IP 163.43.42.143 Inbound packet Allocate a few bursts and send it! This tunnel! This radio link! Where is the mobile? ? Where is the mobile? ? HLR
  43. 43. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 43 GMSC MSC BSC GGSN SGSN GPRS Mobility: Cell Reselection PSTN/ISDN BTS IP Tunnel created Radio link established I’m here now OK, new link and tunnel Still same IP address! HLR
  44. 44. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 44 • A GPRS MS can operate in one of three modes of operation. The mode of operation depends on the services that the MS is attached to, i.e., only GPRS or both GPRS and other GSM services, and upon the MS's capabilities to operate GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously; • An MS in class A mode‑ of operation operates GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously; • An MS in class B mode‑ of operation monitors control channels for GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously, but can only operate one set of services at one time; • An MS in class C mode‑ of operation exclusively operates GPRS services; GPRS, Types of Mobile Station
  45. 45. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 45 But in fact … by end 2003 • 1 billion fixed IP nodes; • 1 billion mobile nodes; • 1 billion circuit switched high bandwidth nodes; and: • Millions of Bluetooth machine-to-machine communications; • Millions of xDSL nodes with n>10 users per node.
  46. 46. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 46 ISP Intranet Internet Packet Data Network with various radio technologies GGSN PSTN SGSN- GSM W-ATM SGSN- W-ATM URAN SGSN- UMTS PSTN GW IP - backbone Modular, main parts are independent of radio access SGSN- D-AMPS GGSN- corporate IS-136 BSS
  47. 47. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 47 Network Evolution time plan (also as 3GPP,ETSI,etc evolve..finally) GPRS Best effort packet data EDGE No voice Best effort packet data EDGE UMTS Real time spectrum efficient multimedia 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GPRS with IPv4 Best effort packet data GSM voice EDGE Best effort v4 packet data GSM voice UMTS with IPv4+v6 Best effort packet data Circuit switched voice EDGE UMTS Real time IPv6 voice and data Phase1 Phase2
  48. 48. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 48 Common architecture 2003 3G Network based on the same Server/Gateway architecture for wireline & for wireless Backbone MGW MGW Wireless Wireline Media Gateway
  49. 49. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 49 GMSC MSC UTRAN BSC GGSN SGSN UMTS network overview PSTN/ISDN UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network RNC: Radio Network Controller Node B CS core network UTRAN transport: ATM New tricks: Soft Handover using IP IP Packet core network HLR
  50. 50. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 50 Multiple Levels of Mobility • Access level classical cellular • Network level Mobile IP • Application level H.323 mobility and WAP gateways
  51. 51. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 51 Mobility Concepts for Users • The user does not care about it! They just want to have access at anytime, to anything and anywhere; • True mobility (always the best access) Depends on subscription, coverage and terminal capacity; • The way to get there Hidden and seamless across different access technologies
  52. 52. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 52 UMTS Basic Configuration BSS BSC RNS RNC CN Node B Node B A IuPS Iur Iubis USIM ME MS Cu Uu MSC SGSN Gs GGSNGMSC Gn HLR Gr Gc C D E AuC H EIR F Gf GiPSTN IuCSGb VLR B Gp VLR G BTSBTS Um RNC Abis SIM SIM-ME i/f or MSC B PSTNPSTN cell • The basic configuration is a PLMN supporting GPRS and the interconnection to the PSTN/ISDN and PDN; • Interface Iu, Iur and Iubis are defined in the UMTS 24.4xx series; • Interfaces B, C, D, E, F and G need the support of the support of the Mobile application Part of the signaling system No 7 to exchange the data necessary to provide the mobile service.
  53. 53. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 53 Working Assumptions The phase 1 UMTS/Release ‘99 standards should provide the capability to support: • a core network based on an evolved 2G MSC and an evolved SGSN; • an optionally evolved Gs interface; • mobile IPv4 with Foreign Agent care-of address to end users over the UMTS/GPRS network, where the Foreign-Agent is located in the GGSN; • UMTS/IMT2000 phase 1 (release 99) network architecture and standards shall the operator to choose between Integrated and Separated core network for transmission (including L2); • the UMTS standard shall allow for both separated and combined MSC/VLR and SGSN configurations; • separate the L3 control signaling from the L2 transport (do not optimize L3 for one L2 technology); • future evolution may lead to the migration of some services from CS-domain to the PS- domain without changes to the associated higher-layer protocols of functions.
  54. 54. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 54 Iu Interface Iu-PS AAL5 ATM UDP/IP GTP User plane AAL5 ATM UDP/IP GTP User plane • UTRAN shall support two logically separate signaling flows via Iu to combined or separate network nodes of different types (MSC and SGSN); • the protocol architecture for the User Plane of the Iu interface towards the IP domain shall be based on the same principles as for the (evolved) Gn interface; • One or several AAL5/ATM Permanent VCs may be used as the common L2 resources between the UTRAN and the ‘IP domain’ of the CN. Protocol architecture for the Iu user plane toward the IP domain
  55. 55. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 55 Charging Functionality Charging functionality is located at the 3G-SGSN, on the other hand only RNC can identify the actual packet volume successfully transferred to a UE. In order for 3G- SGSN to provide the volume based charging for IP domain, the system shall support the following procedure over Iu interface: • RNC indicates the volume of all not transferred downlink data (discarded or forwarded to 2G-SGSN) to the 3G-SGSN so that the 3G-SGSN can correct its counter. Partially transferred packets are handled as not transferred; • RNC delivers to the 3G-SGSN the discarded of forwarded volume accumulated over an implementation dependent time and not per discarded or forwarded packet; • the 3G-SGSN can ask RNC to provide the volume of buffered downlink data to correct its counter at any time the 3G-SGSN wants.
  56. 56. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 56 Iu Control Plane RANAP MTP-3b CTP (module SCCP/MTP3 users) SAAL-NNI IP SCCP RANAP protocol stack option • for transport of RANAP messages over Iu an SCCP protocol shall be used for both packet and circuit switched domains; • in the circuit switched domain SCCP messages shall be transported on a broadband SS7 stack comprising MTP3b on top of SAAL-NNI; • in the packet switched domain the UMTS standard shall allow operators to chose one out of two standardized protocol suites for transport of SCCP messages: broadband SS7 stack comprising MTP3b on top of SAAL-NNI; IETF CTP protocol suite for MTP3b users with adaptation to SCCP, fully compatible with IP.
  57. 57. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 57 Iu User Plane RLC MAC L1 GTP-U BSSGP ATM L2 L1 UDP/IP L2 L1 UDP/IP Uu Iu Gn Gi UE RNS 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN GTP-UGTP-U UDP/IP RLC L1 AAL5 ATM UDP/IP GTP-U MAC AAL5 • the standard shall support that the user data flows transported over the Iu reference point to/from the ‘IP domain’ shall be multiplexed on top of common L2 resources; • if the Iu data transport bases on ATM PVCs then the Iu IP layer provides the Iu network layer services; • a tunneling protocol is used on top of the common L2, this tunneling protocol corresponds to an evolution of the user plane part of the GTP protocol used in GPRS put on top of UDP/IP; • the user data plane in the UMTS network is made up of two tunnels: a first IP/UDP/GTP tunnel between RNC and 3G SGSN on Iu; a second IP/UDP/GTP tunnel between GGSN and 3G SGSN on Gn.
  58. 58. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 58 Data Retrieve Between GPRS and UMTS GGSN 2G- SGSN SRNC U E RLCLLC 3G- SGSN Data retrieve via 3G- SGSN via two GTP pipes Data Retrieve In the user plane GPRS/UMTS Handover Signalling RANAP GTP-c • since some parameters transported by GTP-c are CN related only, it is necessary to terminate GTP-c signaling exchanged with the 2G-SGSN in the 3G-SGSN and to use RANAP signaling on Iu between 3G-SGSN and SRNC; • as charging of the retrieved data is to be carried out at 3G-SGSN, data exchanged between SRNC and 2G-SGSN are handled by the 3G-SGSN to ensure that: 3G-SGSN can increment charging counters for user data sent from 2G-SGSN to SRNC; 3G-SGSN can decrement charging counters for user data sent from SRNC to 2G-SGSN avoiding that such data are charged twice.
  59. 59. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 59 GTP-u AAL5 IP UDP ATM GTP-u L2 IP UDP L1 SRNC 3G-SGSN 2G-SGSN GTP-u L2 IP UDP L1 GTP-u AAL5 IP UDP ATM Iu Gn User Plane Protocol Stack for Data Retrieve Between GPRS and UMTS
  60. 60. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 60 SRNC GGSN SRNC UE RLCRLC 3G-SGSN 3G-SGSN data retrieve via 3G-SGSN User data stream RNSAP Signalling SRNS Relocation Signalling GTP-c RANAPRANAP User Data Retrieve in UMTS • there are two kind of signaling: core network: corresponds to signaling exchanged on Gn between 3G-SGSNs during the first phase of resources for the SRNC relocation; access network: corresponds to signaling for RLC protocol between SRNC and UE. This can be done over Iur when the source SRNC actually hands-over the role of SRNC; • the user plane for data retrieve between two RNCs is based on GTP-u/UDP/IP, the GTP connections are terminated in the source SRNC and the target SRNC.
  61. 61. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 61 User Plane Protocol Stack for Data Retrieve in UMTS GnIu Iu GTP-u AAL5 IP UDP ATM L2 IP L1 GTP-u AAL5 IP UDP ATM Source SRNC 3G-SGSN 3G-SGSN Target SRNC L2 IP L1 AAL5 IP ATM AAL5 IP ATM
  62. 62. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 62 Two Iu signalling connections (“two RANAP instances”) UTRAN 3G SGSN HLR 3G MSC/VLR UE CS service domain Two CN service domains One RRC connection UTRAN with distribution functionality PS service domain Common subscription data base CS state PS state PS stateCS state CS location PS location Separate Core Network Architecture for UMTS
  63. 63. © Copyright 2000 Wireless facilities, Inc. Page 63 Integrated Core Network Architecture for UMTS Two Iu signalling connections “two RANAP instances” UTRAN HLR UMSC UE CS service domain Two CN service domains One RRC connection UTRAN with distribution functionality PS service domain Common subscription data base CS state PS state PS stateCS state CS location PS location

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