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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK
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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

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Autor: Tim Green

Autor: Tim Green

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  • There are 10 offshore wind farms in operation in the UK - Total of 972MW installed capacity. Further 3.5GW being implemented in 2010/11. The majority of these wind farms are under 10 km to the nearest coast and in water depths of up to 20m.Successful bids for nine new offshore wind farm zone licences within UK waters have been announced early this year. Turbines in the nine zones could generate up to 32 gigawatts of power. The Dogger Bank zone is located off the east coast of Yorkshire between 125 and 195 kilometres offshore. It extends over approximately 8,660 km2. The water depth ranges from 18-63 metres.The Moray Firth Zone - Won by EDP Renovaveis and SeaEnergy Renewables. Potential yield: 1.3 gigawatts The Firth of Forth Zone - Won by SSE Renewables and Fluor. Potential yield: 3.5 gigawatts The Dogger Bank Zone - Won by SSE Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft. Potential yield: 9 gigawatts The Hornsea Zone - Won by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens Project Ventures, and involving Hochtief Construction. Potential yield: 4 gigawatts The Norfolk Bank Zone - Won by Scottish Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft. Potential yield: 7.2 gigawatts The Hastings Zone - Won by E.On Climate and Renewables UK. Potential yield: 0.6 gigawatts The Isle of Wight Zone - Won by Eneco New Energy. Potential yield: 0.9 gigawatts The Bristol Channel Zone - Won by RWE Npower Renewables. Potential yield: 1.5 gigawatts The Irish Sea Zone - Won by Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group. Potential yield: 4.2 gigawatts To date rule of thumb of €500m capex on offshore transmission for every 1000MW of offshore wind capacity (15-20% total capex)
  • The EWEA published ‘Oceans of Opportunity’ in September 2009. This sets out the EWEA’s target of 40GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020 and 150GW by 2030.The key objectives of this report are to develop an offshore grid, which builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 others being considered in the North and Baltic Seas. Some of the main issues to overcome include policy, supply chain and the development of HVDC VSC for multi-terminal operation.Link to document:http://ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/reports/Offshore_Report_2009.pdf
  • 5000 cars/km2Another important point here is that local peaks may occur in the morning, so that a standard, location non-specific, ToU tariff that attempts to minimise evening peak will not be sufficient
  • Transcript

    • 1. Professor Tim Green Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low- Carbon Future in the UK
    • 2. UK Energy Future 2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation 2030: Decarbonisation of electricity system .... .... while incorporating heat and transport sectors into electricity system A major change to generation mix and demand growth. • Cessation of (non-abated) coal and gas and existing nuclear • 30% Wind; 30% New Nuclear; 30% New Carbon Capture Coal/Gas Demand growth and wind integration is technically feasible with a traditional network. The problem would be the cost of a “dumb” approach. So, what do we need to be “smart” about?
    • 3. Providing for the New Generation Patterns Energy v. Capacity • Wind farms provide low carbon energy and displace fuel-burn from conventional coal and gas • Most coal and gas stations are not closed because their capacity is needed occasionally to cover peak demand which coincides with times of no wind • Utilisation of generation assets falls Transmission Constraints • Wind is in the north, demand in the south • Constraining-off wind (in north) and constraining- on coal (in south) is very expensive • But, how is new transmission capacity best provided
    • 4. Can we afford “predict and provide”? 55% 2010 Asset Utilisation BaU Smart Smart Grid= paradigm shift in providing flexibility: from redundancy in assets to more intelligent operation through incorporation of demand side and advanced network technologies in support of real time grid management 2020 2030 35% 25%
    • 5. Transmission System Issues Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen Wind farm connection Medium voltage cable Longer cable distance and higher power Greater north-south flows Frequency Control Part-loaded gas and coal stations CO2 emitting stations retired Greater variability introduced by wind Operating Reserve Part-loaded and warmed thermal stations Retired thermal stations Greater variability introduced by wind Security of Generation 20% plant margin Stochastic availability of wind Low utilisation of thermal stations Security of Transmission Redundant lines (N-1 planning etc.) Difficulty building new lines Low value of interrupted wind
    • 6. Distribution System Issues Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen Consumer voltage regulation System planning margins On-load tap-change transformer Distributed/Micro generation cause voltage rise Demand growth through electric vehicles and heat pumps Line loading limit System planning margins (Design for low loss) Distributed generation cause back-feed Demand growth through electric vehicles and heat pumps Fault current limit System planning margins City-centre load growth (short distribution system, high interconnection, distributed generation)
    • 7. Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK 1.25 GW capacity installed 3.2 GW being added in 2010/11 New offshore wind farm zones recently announce total about 32 GW Some new wind farms are 200 km from shore EHV AC cable connection has a difficult/expensive reactive power problem Connection will have to be DC Voltage source DC required to run wind turbines
    • 8. Smarter Transmission Infrastructure Sizewell Pembroke Osbaldwick Rowdown Beddington Chessington West Landulph Abham Exeter Axminster Chickerell Mannington Taunton Alverdiscott Hinkley Point Bridgwater Aberthaw Cowbridge Pyle Margam Swansea North Cardiff East Tremorfa Alpha Steel UskmouthUpper Boat Cilfynydd Imperial Park Rassau Whitson Seabank Iron Acton Walham Melksham Minety Didcot Culham Cowley Bramley Fleet Nursling Fawley Botley Wood Lovedean Bolney Ninfield Dungeness Sellindge Canterbury E de F Kemsley Grain Kingsnorth Rayleigh Main Littlebrook Tilbury Warley Barking W.HamCity Rd Brimsdown Waltham Ealing Mill Hill Willesden Watford St Johns Wimbledon New Hurst Elstree Rye House N.Hyde Sundon Laleham Iver Amersham Main Wymondley Pelham Braintree Burwell Main Bramford Eaton Socon Grendon East Claydon Enderby Walpole Norwich Main Coventry Berkswell Rugeley Cellarhead Ironbridge Bushbury Penn Willenhall Ocker Hill Kitwell Oldbury Bustleholm Nechells Hams Hall Bishops Wood Feckenham Legacy Trawsfynydd Ffestiniog Dinorwig Pentir Wylfa Deeside Capenhurst Frodsham Fiddlers Rainhill Kirkby Lister Drive Birkenhead Washway Farm Penwortham Carrington South Manchester Daines Macclesfield Bredbury Stalybridge Rochdale WhitegateKearsley Elland Stocksbridge West Melton Aldwarke Thurcroft BrinsworthJordanthorpe Chesterfield Sheffield City Neepsend Pitsmoor Templeborough Thorpe Marsh Keadby West Burton Cottam High Marnham Staythorpe Stanah Heysham Padiham Hutton Bradford West Kirkstall Skelton Poppleton Thornton Quernmore Monk Eggborough Ferrybridge Killingholme South Humber Bank Grimsby West Drax Lackenby Greystones Grangetown Saltholme Norton Spennymoor Tod Point Hartlepool Hart Moor Hawthorne Pit Offerton West Boldon South Shields Tynemouth Stella West Harker Eccles Blyth Indian Queens Coryton Ratcliffe Willington Drakelow Shrewsbury Cross Weybridge Cross Wood North Fryston Grange Ferry Winco Bank Norton Lees Creyke Beck Saltend North Saltend South Hackney Baglan Bay Leighton Buzzard Patford Bridge Northfleet East Singlewell Fourstones Humber Refinery Spalding North West Thurrock ISSUE B 12-02-09 41/177619 C Collins Bartholomew Ltd 1999 Dingwall Dounreay Newarthill Cumbernauld Kincardine Wishaw Strathaven Kilmarnock South Ayr Coylton Inveraray HelensburghDunoon Inverkip Devol Moor Hunterston Sloy Fort William Bonnybridge Neilston Ceannacroc Conon Fort Augustus Foyers Inverness Stornoway Elvanfoot Kaimes Glenrothes Westfield Grangemouth Longannet Linmill Bathgate Errochty Power Station Torness Cockenzie Keith Thurso Fasnakyle Beauly Deanie Lairg Shin Nairn Kintore Blackhillock Elgin Keith Peterhead Persley Fraserburgh Invergarry Quoich Culligran Aigas Kilmorack Grudie Bridge Mossford Orrin Luichart Alness Brora Cassley Dunbeath Mybster St. Fergus Strichen Macduff Boat of Garten Redmoss Willowdale Clayhills Dyce Craigiebuckler Woodhill Tarland Dalmally Killin Errochty Tealing Glenagnes Dudhope Milton of Craigie Dudhope Lyndhurst Charleston Burghmuir Arbroath Fiddes Bridge of Dun Lunanhead St. Fillans Finlarig Lochay Cashlie Rannoch Tummel Bridge Clunie Taynuilt Nant Cruachan Port Ann Carradale Auchencrosh Lambhill Clydes Mill Glenluce Newton Stewart Maybole Dumfries Ecclefechan Berwick Hawick Galashiels Dunbar Meadowhead Saltcoats Hunterston Farm SP TRANSMISSION LTD. Kilwinning Currie Cupar Leven Redhouse Glenniston SCOTTISH HYDRO-ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION Telford Rd. Gorgie Kilmarnock Town Busby Erskine Strathleven Mossmorran Dunfermline Broxburn Livingston Whitehouse Shrubhill Portobello Devonside StirlingWhistlefield Spango Valley Ardmore Broadford Dunvegan NGC Easterhouse East Kilbride South Gretna Chapelcross THE SHETLAND ISLANDS Tongland Glen Morrison Clachan 400kV Substations 275kV Substations 400kV CIRCUITS 275kV CIRCUITS Major Generating Sites Including Pumped Storage Connected at 400kV Connected at 275kV Hydro Generation TRANSMISSION SYSTEM REINFORCEMENTS Langage BlacklawWhitelee Iverkeithing Marchwood Bicker Fenn Coalburn REINFORCED NETWORK Under Construction or ready to start Construction subject to consents Very strong need case Series Capacitors RedbridgeTottenham Strong need case Future requirement, but no strong need case to commence at present • Build more lines to N-1 security standard • Improve damping and raise stability limit closer to thermal limit • Build offshore HVDC
    • 9. Use of Transmission Capacity • Full thermal capacity is 6.8 GW • Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW • Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW • Stability Limit is 2.2 GW England Scotland Four 1.7 GW lines Wind Farm 1 GW Reserve Gen 1 GW Wind Farm 1 GW Load 40 GW Managed Load 1GW Export 4 GW Import 4 GW Transmission Capacity? Smart releases capacity and avoids reinforcement
    • 10. European Super Grid ‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF Expanded network across Europe would have a variety of advantages: • Increased diversity of wind energy resource leading to regional balancing of energy generation • Increased load diversity (lower peak to average ratio) • Greater energy trading opportunities • Increased security of supply • Reduced dependency on fuel imports • But this is a DC network on an unprecedented scale and complexity Iberia France UK & Ireland Nordic Benelux & Germany Italy & Malta South East Europe Central Europe Poland & Baltic 4GW 21GW 41GW 5GW 10GW 4GW 19GW 10GW 10GW 3GW 2GW 3GW 4GW
    • 11. Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce but .. Two further demand sectors need to be met: heating and vehicles How does this demand affect • Peak demand : average demand ratio • Generation asset utilisation • Loading on final LV distribution
    • 12. Electric Vehicles in Commercial District Significant opportunity to optimise charging as EVs will remain stationary for several hours (e.g. 8h) Significant correlation in arrivals to work i.e. significant peak load imposed by EV charging BaU SMART
    • 13. Generation asset utilisation with Smart demand management 117 GW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Demand(GW) Time Non-optimised EV and HP operation EV charging HP demand Originaldemand 78 GW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Demand(GW) Time Optimised EV and HP operation Value of demand response: almost 40GW less installed generation capacity required GW 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 tion EV charging HP demand Original demand
    • 14. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 1344 2688 4032 5376 6720 8064 Time (h) But is a flat demand profile the best answer? Annual Wind Power Variation Demand will need to respond to generation patterns through price or other signals Demand will also have to respond to local network constraints This may need to be resolved regionally
    • 15. Responding to frequency excursions 49.2 Frequency (Hz) 10s 50. 0 10 mins Frequency control = ? +
    • 16. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Time (min) Loadp.f.(W) Load per fridge (p.f) Demand 60Gw 100% Refigerators, step 1.320GW ramp 0 DDC No DDC ...but the beer is getting warm! fridges are supporting the system Anything to worry about?
    • 17. Thoughts on Demand-Action Research • Utilising demand-side action is key to cost-effective integration of variable low-carbon generation and vehicle & heating demands • Smart-Metering must be seen in this context • Operational tools need to be developed • Decentralised control structures and supporting communications needs to be developed • Distribution management takes on new tasks • Public need to believe this is necessary and in their interest; public acceptance is likely to be the key issue.
    • 18. Active Network Management • Distributed generation actively managed • Tap-changers optimised for local conditions • Post-fault restoration reacts in real-time • Energy storage used to mange congestion • Control is devolved to substation regions • Regional controllers report to control centre • Some “peer-to-peer” functions might be needed
    • 19. From Active to Smart Distribution • “Active” distribution system discussion has been over integrating distributed generation • “Smart” distribution system discussion is around integrating active consumers. • “Smart” distribution may introduce a more complex hierarchy in system control • System balancing (of demand and supply) becomes local so that very large number of consumers can be reached and so that local congestion can be managed
    • 20. Conclusion • We seem to be at the beginning of a fascinating phase of power system evolution

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