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Presentation1 Presentation1 Presentation Transcript

  • Ethical theories
  • TELEOLOGICAL
    THEORY
  • The word "teleology" is derived from the Greek word "telos" that means "ends." In this theory, you would consider the ends, or the outcomes of your decision. Since this theory is concerned about the consequences of the decision, it is also referred to as consequentialist
  • Teleological theories of Change
    According to this theory, human actions are purposive; goal is the final cause for guiding movement of an entity.
  • TELEOLOGICAL EXAMPLE
    EMPLOYER&EMPLOYEE
  • UTILITARIANISM
  • Basic Insights of Utilitarianism
    The purpose of morality is to make the world a better place.
    Morality is about producing good consequences, not having good intentions
    We should do whatever will bring the most benefit (i.e., intrinsic value) to all of humanity.
  • Jeremy Bentham1748-1832
    Bentham believed that we should try to increase the overall amount of pleasure in the world.
  • John Stuart Mill1806-1873
    Bentham’s godson
    Believed that happiness, not pleasure, should be the standard of utility.
  • It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question."John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (1863)
  • The Utilitarian Calculus
    Math and ethics finally merge: all consequences must be measured and weighed.
    Units of measurement:
    Hedons: positive
    Dolors: negative
  • Act and Rule Utilitarianism
    Act utilitarianism
    Looks at the consequences of each individual act and calculate utility each time the act is performed.
    Rule utilitarianism
    Looks at the consequences of having everyone follow a particular rule and calculates the overall utility of accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • Criticisms of Utilitarianism
    Responsibility
    Integrity
    Intentions
    Moral Luck
    Who does the calculating?
    Who is included?
  • Concluding Assessment
    Utilitarianism is most appropriate for policy decisions, as long as a strong notion of fundamental human rights guarantees that it will not violate rights of small minorities.
  • DEONTOLOGICAL
    THEORY
  • *DUTIES OF FIDELITY
    *DUTIES OF REPARATION
    *DUTIES OF GRATITUDE
    *DUTIES OF JUSTICE
    *DUTIES OF BENEFICENCE
    *DUTIES OF SELF-IIIMPROVEMENT
    *DUTIES OF ;NONMALEFICENCE
  • KANTIAN ETHICS
  • Kantian ethics is based upon teachings ot the german philosopher Immanurl Kant
    According to kant the concept of motive is the most important factor in determining what is ethical
  • “Sense of duty”
    “This is what I ought to do”
  • Example
  • Motive is the most important factor in kanatian ethics
  • Criticisms
  • Virtue ethics is a frame work that suggests that societal rules provide a moral minimum, and based on that individuals can translate these societal rules into personal values and virtues such as honesty integrity trust and faith
  • KOHLBERG’S MODEL
    *PEOPLE IN THE PRECONVENTIONAL STAGE
    *PEOPLE IN THE CONVENTIONAL STAGE
    *PEOPLE IN THE PRINCIPLE STAGE
  • CONCLUSION
    WITH EDUCATION, EXPERIENCE AND EXPOSURE PEOPLE MAY CHANGE THEIR VALUES AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR OVER TIME