The word "teleology" is
derived from the Greek word
"telos" that means "ends." In
this theory, you would
consider the ends, or the
outcomes of your decision.
Since this theory is
concerned about the
consequences of the
decision, it is also referred to
Teleological theories of Change
According to this theory, human
actions are purposive; goal is
the final cause for guiding
movement of an entity.
Basic Insights of Utilitarianism
The purpose of morality is to make the
world a better place.
Morality is about producing good
consequences, not having good
We should do whatever will bring the
most benefit (i.e., intrinsic value) to all
that we should try to
increase the overall
amount of pleasure
in the world.
John Stuart Mill
pleasure, should be
the standard of
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be
Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are a
different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question."
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (1863)
The Utilitarian Calculus
Math and ethics
finally merge: all
be measured and
Act and Rule Utilitarianism
Looks at the consequences of each
individual act and calculate utility each
time the act is performed.
Looks at the consequences of having
everyone follow a particular rule and
calculates the overall utility of accepting
or rejecting the rule.
4. Moral Luck
5. Who does the calculating?
6. Who is included?
Utilitarianism is most appropriate for
policy decisions, as long as a strong
notion of fundamental human rights
guarantees that it will not violate rights
of small minorities.
*DUTIES OF FIDELITY
*DUTIES OF REPARATION
*DUTIES OF GRATITUDE
*DUTIES OF JUSTICE
*DUTIES OF BENEFICENCE
*DUTIES OF SELF-
Kantian ethics is based upon
teachings ot the german
philosopher Immanurl Kant
According to kant the concept
of motive is the most important
factor in determining what is
Virtue ethics is a frame work
that suggests that societal rules
provide a moral minimum, and
based on that individuals can
translate these societal rules
into personal values and virtues
such as honesty integrity trust
*PEOPLE IN THE PRECONVENTIONAL
*PEOPLE IN THE
*PEOPLE IN THE
WITH EDUCATION, EXPERIENCE
AND EXPOSURE PEOPLE MAY
CHANGE THEIR VALUES AND
ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR OVER TIME
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