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Water Safety Management
Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management
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Water Safety Management

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Ergonomic approach to study lifeguards Effectiveness and Vigilance …

Ergonomic approach to study lifeguards Effectiveness and Vigilance
Author: Daniel Hartmann
(03-27)

Published in: Business, Technology
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  • 1. Beach Water Safety Management - Ergonomic approach to study lifeguards Effectiveness &amp; Vigilance <ul><li>Daniel Hartmann 1 &amp; Joachim Meyer 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The Israeli Association for Bathing, Drowning Prevention and lifesaving, Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Department of industrial Engineering, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel. </li></ul>
  • 2. <ul><li>Beaches attract people (leisure, recreation and sport activities) and are business entities for the tourism industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Beaches possess elements of hazard for human beings and for the tourism industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Via scientific ergonomics approach we are studying the beach and surf as the workspace of lifeguards and trying to optimize its functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics (or human factors ) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use and study human capabilities in relationship to their work demands. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific results are to be integrated into a Beach Safety Management (BSM) system (as part of CZM). </li></ul>
  • 3. Ergonomic Beach Water Safety system
  • 4. Environment <ul><li>Beach characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Beach morphodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul><ul><li>Beach sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Wave climate </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Water characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Location &amp; direction </li></ul><ul><li>Sight conditions </li></ul>
  • 5. &nbsp;
  • 6. Hazard Classification of the Mediterranean Shores July Mediterranean summer (bathing) season (June-September) ONSF Classes [ 10 6 m 2 sec -1 ] 1) 0-0.50, 2) 0.51-1.00 , 3) 1.01-3.00, 4) 3.01-5.00, 5) 5.01-7.00, 6) 7.01-9.00, 7) &gt;9.01
  • 7. &nbsp;
  • 8. Beach users <ul><li>Number of beach users </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial &amp; temporal distribution - Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial &amp; temporal distribution - Weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial &amp; temporal distribution - Seasonally </li></ul><ul><li>Special risk groups </li></ul><ul><li>Public education and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Public “surf” knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of youngsters and elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug abuse </li></ul>
  • 9. Lifeguards <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Physical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Mental shape </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Team hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Team social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Number of lifeguards on a post </li></ul><ul><li>Team’s composition of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics of Lifeguard’s station </li></ul><ul><li>Lifeguard&apos;s equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities domain </li></ul><ul><li>Gender interrelationships </li></ul>
  • 10. Some Human Performance <ul><li>Vigilance : a state of readiness to detect stimuli, appreciate context and respond accordingly. Typically achieved at the optimum level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Alertness: the “optimum” state of arousal for executing tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Vigilance decrement: a reduction in the state of vigilance (from optimal). </li></ul><ul><li>Workload: the portion of resources (i.e. maximum performance capacity) expended in the performance of a particular task. </li></ul><ul><li>vigilance tasks requires the detection of infrequent, simple signals over a prolonged period of time without rest. </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring task involves more complex signals and/or more than one source for signals. </li></ul><ul><li>and/or continuous rather than discrete events. </li></ul>
  • 11. Graph of Yerkes-Dodson Law principle Performance as a function of arousal
  • 12. <ul><li>Short define Public Beach Risk (PBR): </li></ul><ul><li>PBR ~ BHR * Beach Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Short: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach Safety Management (BSM) is the successful and safe development of public beach usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It includes scientific information on beach states and hazards, beach safety education and the provision of beach safety resources. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Risk level (1-5) based on beach hazard rating (modal or prevailing) and beach usage (modal or prevailing).
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  • 17. some Visual Activity <ul><li>Visual scanning: Much of the research in visual scanning has adopted a single task experimental paradigm. The characteristics of visual scanning in multi-task situations are largely unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Acuity : Visual acuity is the spatial resolving capacity of the visual system. This may be thought of as the ability of the eye to see fine detail. </li></ul>
  • 18. Visual Activity and Sight conditions <ul><li>Illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light, … to correlate with human brightness perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Luminance is a photometric measure of the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. It describes the amount of light … or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectance is defined as the ratio of incident luminous flux on a sample surface to reflected flux from the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast is the difference in visual properties that makes an object distinguishable from other objects and the background. In visual perception of the real world, contrast is determined by the difference in the color and brightness of the object and other objects within the same field of view. </li></ul>
  • 19. Beach Risk Management Generic Model
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  • 23. 1. Beach Risk Management - starting situation scattered Beach users 2 lifeguards lifeguards glare good sight conditions environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 24. 1. Beach Risk Management - final situation Herding Beach users 2 lifeguards lifeguards glare environment High risk medium risk Low risk
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  • 28. 2. Beach Risk Management - starting point Many &amp; scattered Beach users 3 lifeguards lifeguards medium waves environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 29. 2. Beach Risk Management - final situation Many &amp; scattered herding Beach users 3 lifeguards 5 lifeguards lifeguards Higher waves environment High risk medium risk Low risk
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  • 38. 3. Beach Risk Management - starting situation scattered Beach users 2 lifeguards lifeguards rip current environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 39. 3. Beach Risk Management - final situation scattered herding Beach users 2 lifeguards 4 lifeguards lifeguards rip current bar environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 40. 4. Beach Risk Management - starting point scattered Beach users 4 lifeguards lifeguards High waves environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 41. 4. Beach Risk Management - final situation scattered Forbid swimming Beach users 4 lifeguards lifeguards High waves environment High risk medium risk Low risk
  • 42. Beach Risk Management Model
  • 43. Beach Risk Management Model
  • 44. Beach Risk Management Model
  • 45. [Surf Zone] Risk Landscape
  • 46. [Surf Zone] Risk Landscape
  • 47. [Surf Zone] Risk Landscape
  • 48. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Industrial engineering tools such as Ergonomics are crucial for modern Beach Water Safety Management which plays an important role in modern tourism industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameterization of lifeguard&apos;s, swimmer&apos;s and environmental morphodynamic factors and modelling of the results can illuminate the working-space: the beach, and make the whole work &amp;quot;drowning prevention and lifesaving&amp;quot; more efficient . </li></ul><ul><li>Implying professional Industrial Engineering tools and methodologies can save many lives and be cost effective . </li></ul>
  • 49. HELP Join us

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