Women, markets and intra-household dynamics
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Women, markets and intra-household dynamics

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Presentation by Jemimah Njuki to the Intra-household and Agricultural productivity Convening, Washington DC, 25 September 2009

Presentation by Jemimah Njuki to the Intra-household and Agricultural productivity Convening, Washington DC, 25 September 2009

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Women, markets and intra-household dynamics Women, markets and intra-household dynamics Presentation Transcript

  • Women, Markets and Intra-household Dynamics Jemimah Njuki International Livestock Research Institute Presented at the Intra-household and Agricultural productivity Convening Washington DC 25 September 2009
  • Introduction…..
    • Women are significantly excluded from markets and opportunities for them to move from subsistence to market oriented agriculture are much lower
      • Women farmers face some disadvantages such as low mobility, less access to credit and inputs, less access to market information and less access to other productive resources
      • Women often hold distinct and obligations with specific roles even in marketing which may affect their ability to participate in more export oriented and regional markets
      • There is evidence that women tend to lose income and control as a product moves from the farm to the market
    • There is evidence that income under the control of women is more likely to be used to improve family welfare (family food consumption, education, child nutrition etc)—Quisumbing et al, 1995, FAO, 2006)
  • The Key Question
    • So then, how do we increase women’s access to markets while ensuring their control of income in an increasingly commercializing sector?
    • Product
    • Market location
    • Approach
    • Incentives
  • The research framework?
    • Linking smallholder farmers to markets with non traditional cash crops leads to more income under the control of women compared to traditional cash crops, however with increasing commercialization, income share by women from these non traditional crops is going down
    • Integrating gender in approaches for linking smallholder farmers to markets improves women’s control of income and household decision making
    • Domestic markets, that are closer, have low entry requirements are more beneficial to women
    The Hypothesis Household decision Making and control of income by women Improved Household Welfare / Food Security and Nutrition Increased commercialization of agriculture especially food crops ? Approaches for linking farmers to markets
  • Research Approach
    • Three-pronged approach
    • Action research & implementation at specific pilot learning sites in Uganda and Malawi
    • Longitudinal income tracking studies in the pilot learning sites
    • Comparative studies of different approaches for linking farmers to markets in sites where other partners are working (World Vision, Concern, NARO, CEDO) Variety of approaches used for linking farmers to markets
        • Contract farming and out-grower schemes that aim at linking small holder farmers with large scale producers on contractual basis
        • Co-operative movements especially for traditional cash crops
        • Participatory approaches that build capacity of farmer organizations to link to markets
  • The Product : Comparing income share to women across traditional and non traditional cash crops
    • Despite the decline in women’s income share with soya-beans and beans, women have a higher income share in these crops compared to traditional cash crops such as tobacco and cotton
  • The Product: Beans as a woman’s crop??
    • As the bean enterprise becomes more profitable, the percentage share managed and spent by women decreases
    • An almost similar rate of decline in income than the rate of increase in real income going to women is evident
    • Similar trends observed for other non-traditional crops like soya beans
    • Higher income share during winter season when sales are low
    • As income from soya bean increases during the summer season, percentage share of income goes down
    Percentage share of income from sale of beans in Malawi
  • The Market Location: Factors influencing income share by women *** , **, * Significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively Variables Standardized coefficient t-values Approach used to link to markets 1=Participatory approaches integrating gender, 0=Other (contract farming, out grower…) 0.277 2.298** Sex of head of household -0.038 -0.331 Do women hold committee/group position in the group 0.020 0.178 Beans ranked as the main source of income -0.194 -1.567* Beans sold to local vendors or from home 0.273 2.309** Farmers have access to market information 0.273 2.396** Education of the head of household -0.20 -1.834*
  • The Approach: Factors influencing income share by women
    • Gender integration = through community training on gender, men and women’s selection of priority enterprises, provision of inputs to women’s groups
    • While the approach used influenced income share from beans and soybeans, it did not influence women’s share of income from tobacco
    *** , **, * Significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively Variables Standardized coefficient t-values Approach used to link to markets 1=Participatory approaches integrating gender, 0=Other (contract farming, out grower…) 0.277 2.298** Sex of head of household -0.038 -0.331 Do women hold committee/group position in the group 0.020 0.178 Beans ranked as the main source of income -0.194 -1.567* Beans sold to local vendors or from home 0.273 2.309** Farmers have access to market information 0.273 2.396** Education of the head of household -0.20 -1.834*
  • Conclusions
    • Increasing commercialization while having positive outcomes in increasing farmers incomes has implications for gender & subsequently for food security
    • The choice of enterprises / product matters; there is differential income share going to women between traditional cash crops such as tobacco & non traditional cash crops such as beans and soybeans.
    • Approaches that integrate gender either through training, selection of women specific enterprises lead to more income share going to women compared to the more tradition approaches such as contract farming
    • The location of the market is still a contentious issue—while women control more income from local markets, or farm gate sales, such markets are also commonly low value
  • Participatory Impact Diagramming
  • Thank you for your attention