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Women and livestock: Why gender matters are big matters
 

Women and livestock: Why gender matters are big matters

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Presentation by Kathleen Colverson, Susan MacMillan and Dorine Odongo, 8 March 2014

Presentation by Kathleen Colverson, Susan MacMillan and Dorine Odongo, 8 March 2014


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    Women and livestock: Why gender matters are big matters Women and livestock: Why gender matters are big matters Presentation Transcript

    • WOMEN AND LIVESTOCK Why GENDER Matters are BIG Matters Kathleen Colverson  Susan MacMillan  Dorine Odongo International Livestock Research Institute International Women’s Day 8 March 2014
    • Some definitions • ‘Sex’ Biological, fixed, mostly unchangeable differences between males and females • ‘Gender’ Socially constructed, changeable, culturally specific roles for women and men • ‘Livestock value chains’ Full range of production, processing and delivery activities from farm to fork
    • Why integrate gender into livestock research? In most of the world, women perform most of the work to produce most of the world’s food
    • Why integrate gender into livestock research? A person’s gender affects: • a person’s nutritional well• the impacts and being and livelihood strategies effectiveness of (e.g., interests and roles in livestock interventions livestock value chains) • a person’s access to • household food security natural resources
    • Why integrate gender into livestock research? • Worldwide, women play major roles in smallholder livestock systems • Women are disproportionately clustered in small livestock production systems (poultry, sheep, goats) and in milking and milk processing • Women-headed and AIDSaffected households are among the poorest and hungriest
    • Why assess different value chains differently? • Along livestock value chains in developing countries, women and men typically provide different kinds of labour and work in different segments of the chains • Women and men obtain different benefits from this work, with women receiving significantly fewer total benefits than men
    • Why women face large hurdles in benefiting from their (large) livestock labours Typically, in poor countries: • Men rather than women own the most valuable household livestock assets • Women may own smaller, less valuable, livestock species • Women and children raise and care for all species of livestock • Women harvest, process and sell the livestock products and control some of the income
    • Why women’s contributions to livestock value chains are often hidden • The percentage of ‘economically active’ women increases significantly when certain activities − cultivating a home garden, raising animals, gathering firewood − are recognized as productive Conventional survey 21% 79% Economically active Economically inactive • The proportion increases further when certain activities within the ‘reproductive sphere’ are included, such as meal preparation and child care Source: FAO Dominican Republic 16% 84% *including gardening and raising animals
    • Why gender plays a role in technology transfer • Women and men have unequal access to information and technology • Women have less access to agricultural inputs • Women have specialized livestock knowledge • Women and men play different roles in livestock management • Women serve as guardians of livestock diversity
    • Why global food security depends on reducing gender inequality in agriculture • Gender relations can change with introduction of new livestock technologies if women have access to inputs, training and markets • Evidence confirms that improving the status of women: – increases farm productivity – reduces household poverty – improves family nutrition Quoted from Feed the Future 2012
    • Why all the variables matter • Gender issues must be viewed in relation to other variables such as age, assets, income, education, and ethnicity of men and women • Interventions made to improve livestock value chains may result in more work and fewer benefits for women, or less work and greater benefits for men
    • Why mainstream gender in livestock value chains? Optimizing women’s participation in livestock value chains can lead to: • Higher livestock incomes for poor women • Improved rural family welfare, especially for children – better nutrition, health, educational opportunities • Stronger female intrahousehold bargaining power and voice in decision-making
    • How to integrate gender into R4D projects • Identify and address gender-based constraints • Target gender issues and women in research and training • Work with women’s associations • Collect, analyze and use sex-disaggregated data • Increase women’s participation and benefits in R4D projects • Employ participatory methods • Work towards social as well as technical goals
    • How to mainstream gender in a livestock value chain project cycle #1 Map gender roles and relations along the value chain Measure the success of actions Take actions to remove genderbased constraints Underlying principles guiding a strategy for integrating gender in a livestock value chain Assess the consequences of genderbased constraints Move from gender inequalities to gender-based constraints Adapted from: Rubin et al. 2010, Mayoux et al. 2010
    • Collect, analyse and use gender disaggregated data Provide empirical evidence of: • Division of labour along livestock and food chains • Related needs, interests and knowledge • Decision-making processes • Access to and control of resources • Access to credit and control of revenues • Gender-based performance of same activities
    • Use participatory research methods to engage and empower women • Employ mix of quantitative & qualitative approaches (e.g. semi-structured interviews, focus groups, journaling) • Ensure equal numbers of women and men in training / surveys • Train women in their priority areas • Investigate genderspecific issues in value chains • Interview women household heads, incl. single, divorced, and widowed women
    • Address women’s priorities and concerns • Attend to the time of day, duration of use and location of the technological interventions • Give women more time for activities if needed • Identify and address women’s priorities • Hold separate focus groups for women and men • Actively invite women to meetings and trainings • Network with women leaders and gender experts in NGOs
    • Use gender-sensitive indicators to mark changes in the status and roles of women and men • Measure successes in removing gender-based constraints • Provide consistency and flexibility • Attend to process and outcomes • Use quantitative and qualitative tools • Find the stories behind the numbers • Avoid assumptions • Recognize household differences
    • Gender training manual • Closing the gender gap in agriculture: A trainer’s manual • By Kathleen Colverson, ILRI senior gender scientist • Published July 2013 • Series: ILRI Manual 9 • Nairobi, Kenya • International Livestock Research Institute • http://bit.ly/Nmtd6i
    • Thank you
    • Art credits Slide 02: Figure of Woman Shown in Motion, Albrecht Durer, 1528, via Wikipaintings Slide 03: Reaper, Kazimir Malevich, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 04: Going to the Marketplace (A green cow), David Burliuk (1882−1967), via Wikipaintings Slide 05: Silhouette of a Peasant Woman Digging Carrots, Vincent van Gogh, 1885, via Wikipaintings Slide 06: The Spoonful of Milk, Marc Chagall, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 07: The Shepherdness, Franz Marc, 1912, via Wikipaintings Slide 09: Russian Peasant, David Burliuk, 1928, via Wikipaintings Slide 10: Woman with a Book, Fernand Leger, 1923, via Wikipaintings Slide 11: Girl and Goat, Pablo Picasso, 1906, via Wikipaintings Slide 12: Reading, Pablo Picasso, 1921, via Wikipaintings Slide 13: Painting by Baya Mahieddine (1931−1998), Algeria, via Algerian Embassy in Rome website Slide 15: Illustration in 14 Questions People Ask about Hinduism (Hinduism Today), Oct−Dec 2011, Himalayan Academy Publications, Hawaii, via Wikimedia Slide 16: Peasant Woman with Red and Green Cows, David Burliuk (1882−1967) Slide 17: Daphnis and Chloe frontispeice, Marc Chagall, 1961 Slide 18: Salome, Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko, 1910, via RasMarley on Flickr Slide 19: The Towers of Trebizond cover design by Lindsay Mayer-Beug for Farrar, Straus and Giroux, via Paris Review Slide 20: [Num and cow], Lowell Herrero (1921− ), via Pinterest
    • better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.