IDENTIFICATION AND ADVOCATING FOR SCALING PARTNERS: INTEGRATING
RIGHTS AND LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS WHILE MEASURING EMPOWERMENT...
Justification: Rights and Livelihoods Together
“Human development, if not engendered is endangered (HDR, 1995)”
• Engender...
Key messages from participants at the results dissemination,
and rights and livelihood integration workshop
 Livelihoods ...
Impact Pathway – addressing and measuring change (GTD)
Women become more empowered and gender empowerment gap is reduced

...
Scale up strategy
Identify Potential scale-up partners
• Partners we have worked with – KARI, Juhudi
Kilimo and EADD
• Potential partners we...
Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)
Adapted from Alkire et al 2012 by Waithanji et al forth coming

Schematic re...
Dissemination: WEAI Results
0.35

GBV attitudes
Reproductive health

DISEMPOWERMENT INDEX (M0=1-6DE)

0.3

Work distributi...
Feedback Questions – from sharing forums
1.How can WEAI be adopted in for polygynous
communities? What would be the best w...
Answers
1. Two sampling options – either way, proportion
of women becomes disproportionately high and
requires an adequate...
Implementation challenges
• It is difficult to find husband and wife, at
home, to interview especially in peri-urban
and u...
Stakeholder Workshop Participants roles and interests
CARE, EADD, University of Nairobi, FAO-UN, World Vision
Internationa...
Workshop Output: A strategy of integrating
livelihoods and rights for empowering women
Three working group sessions:
 Int...
Conclusions/ Recommendations
 Livelihoods and rights are intertwined and inseparable
and development actors should addres...
Activities towards dissemination

15
Partner capacity building…
A: Partner training:
Together with Enumerators
– On research methods and ethics
– On gender and...
Training cont….
Graduate students, quantitative technicians and
scientists
C: Data entry – Using CsPro (Training in CsPro
...
Dissemination
• Presentations and consultations at meetings/
workshops
• Research and workshop reports – hard and
soft cop...
Scale up milestones
• Trained KARI technical team
• Training four graduate students MA (UoN), Ph.D
(KARI/Uon)
• To use met...
Thank You!

20
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Identification and advocating for scaling partners: Integrating rights and livelihood programs while measuring empowerment using the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

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Presented by Elizabeth Waithanji at the "Expanding Livelihood Opportunities for Poor Households Initiative in East Africa (ELOPHI)" Sharing Forum at the Crown Plaza Hotel Nairobi, 20 August 2013

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Identification and advocating for scaling partners: Integrating rights and livelihood programs while measuring empowerment using the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

  1. 1. IDENTIFICATION AND ADVOCATING FOR SCALING PARTNERS: INTEGRATING RIGHTS AND LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS WHILE MEASURING EMPOWERMENT USING THE WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN AGRICULTURE INDEX (WEAI) Elizabeth Waithanji, Ph.D. Expanding Livelihood Opportunities for Poor Households Initiative in East Africa (ELOPHI) Sharing forum at the Crown Plaza Hotel Nairobi, on 20th August 2013
  2. 2. Justification: Rights and Livelihoods Together “Human development, if not engendered is endangered (HDR, 1995)” • Engendered development transforms unequal relations of power produced, justified, maintained, and sustained through socially constructed claims and implemented actions based on “perceived” gender differences – With women being the powerless gender • Two key pillars that enable and support empowerment include the ability to exploit economic opportunities and the ability to claim one’s rights • Yet, development interventions work towards women’s empowerment using one or the other pillar and rarely, both together • Combining women’s economic opportunities and women’s rights could have the potential to lead to broader women’s empowerment “What gets measured gets done” (Peter Drucker, Tom Peters, Edwards Deming, Lord Kelvin and others including Hillary Clinton) 2
  3. 3. Key messages from participants at the results dissemination, and rights and livelihood integration workshop  Livelihoods and rights are intertwined and inseparable and development actors should address them together: How?  Partnerships that harness expertise on livelihoods and on rights are necessary for gender transformative development to happen  Sharing forums, like this one, among [network] actors  Share tools, experiences, and ideas on advancing GTD agenda  Actor capacity building on how to address the barriers in gender focused rights and livelihood projects and measure change 3
  4. 4. Impact Pathway – addressing and measuring change (GTD) Women become more empowered and gender empowerment gap is reduced Projects to implement strategies and evaluate impacts on women’s empowerment and gender parity Develop strategies for ensuring women’s empowerment in development interventions Project teams build capacity to (i)measure women’s empowerment and gender parity in empowerment; and (ii) implement strategies in projects to ensure women’s empowerment Develop analytical framework and methodology for assessing project impact on women’s empowerment Measure the status of men’s and women’s empowerment and the gender parity in empowerment 1. 2. Document and disseminate results Develop a strategy to enhance women’s empowerment in development projects 4
  5. 5. Scale up strategy
  6. 6. Identify Potential scale-up partners • Partners we have worked with – KARI, Juhudi Kilimo and EADD • Potential partners we have shared with regional network on gender and livelihoods; IDRC-CFSRF actors • Peers who are interested in empowering women through research for development projects e.g. IDRC-CFSRF projects e.g. Root crop and dairy goat project (CGP) in Tanzania and the CBPP subunit vaccine adoption project in Kenya 6
  7. 7. Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) Adapted from Alkire et al 2012 by Waithanji et al forth coming Schematic representation of the six dimension WEAI The 1st Sub-Index: THE SIX DOMAINS OF EMPOWERMENT (6DE) 1 DOMAIN Production 2 Resources 3 4 Income Leadership 5 Time 6* Health INDICATORS Input in productive decisions Autonomy in production Ownership of assets Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets Access to and decisions on credit Control over use of income Group membership Speaking in public Workload Leisure Decision making on reproductive health Vulnerability to gender based violence 7
  8. 8. Dissemination: WEAI Results 0.35 GBV attitudes Reproductive health DISEMPOWERMENT INDEX (M0=1-6DE) 0.3 Work distribution 0.25 Leisure 0.2 Identity card Speaking in public 0.15 Group membership 0.1 0.05 Taken loan Women Men Women Men 0 Not taken loan Waithanji et al forth coming Domains contributing most to women’s disempowerment were resources and health/ rights Women who took loans more disempowered in the time and leadership domains than those who did not Well meaning interventions can cause unintended impacts Control over use of income Access to and decisions on credit Purchase or sale of assets Ownership of assets Autonomy in production Input in productive decisions Source: http://www.slideshare.net/ILRI/weai-evaluating-impacts 8
  9. 9. Feedback Questions – from sharing forums 1.How can WEAI be adopted in for polygynous communities? What would be the best way to sample so as to avoid interviewing “favorite wives”? 2.When you monitor and document change in WEAI, say from a value of 70 to 75, what does this mean? Is there a statistical test for significance in difference? Ditto for 5DE and GPI? 9
  10. 10. Answers 1. Two sampling options – either way, proportion of women becomes disproportionately high and requires an adequate budget – Include all wives in the sample – Randomly select two wives or purposively select the senior wife the randomly select one or two other wives 2. You can’t test for significance in differences in the WEAI because aggregate data was used. So, to test for significance, go back to the men’s and women’s individual scores (5DE) 10
  11. 11. Implementation challenges • It is difficult to find husband and wife, at home, to interview especially in peri-urban and urban areas • When a husband and wife’s responses contradict, who is right? • Hard to maintaining the same respondents in repeated (panel – up to 5 yrs) studies • Property rights – only use the term “WEAI” if using original USAID format 11
  12. 12. Stakeholder Workshop Participants roles and interests CARE, EADD, University of Nairobi, FAO-UN, World Vision International, IRRI, UN-Women, UN-WFP – Share experiences KARI – To measure empowerment of beneficiaries – women and men in their innovation platforms and seek ways of addressing areas of disempowerment identified Juhudi Kilimo – to identify strategies of addressing the challenges of control of credit money faced by women from MHH Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) – To identify ways of integrating livelihood issues when addressing human rights issues 12
  13. 13. Workshop Output: A strategy of integrating livelihoods and rights for empowering women Three working group sessions:  Integrating rights in agricultural (including livestock) value chain projects  Integrating rights in micro-credit projects and  Integrating livelihoods in rights based projects Questions answered by each group: Beyond what was presented on WEAI, •What other rights/livelihood indicators would you like to consider integrating in your projects? •What constraints/challenges/issues would you anticipate when integrating rights/ livelihoods? •How and when in the project cycle would you address each of the challenges identified above? •What indicators would you use to measure progress of implementation and change? (Report hard copy circulated here and soft copy in http://agrigender.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/weai_rightsworkshopreport_may2013.pdf) 13
  14. 14. Conclusions/ Recommendations  Livelihoods and rights are intertwined and inseparable and development actors should address them together: How?  Partnerships that harness expertise on livelihoods and on rights are necessary for gender transformative development to happen  Sharing forums, like this one, among [network] actors  Share tools, experiences, and ideas on advancing GTD agenda  Actor capacity building on how to address the barriers in gender focused rights and livelihood projects and measure change 14
  15. 15. Activities towards dissemination 15
  16. 16. Partner capacity building… A: Partner training: Together with Enumerators – On research methods and ethics – On gender and development – Livelihoods and rights – WEAI • concept and method • Data collection tools • Pretesting questionnaires B: Field work - field data collection and checking questionnaires (Quality control) 16
  17. 17. Training cont…. Graduate students, quantitative technicians and scientists C: Data entry – Using CsPro (Training in CsPro before training in data entry) D: Making a data entry template in CsPro E: Concatenate data F: Data cleaning and validation G: Transferring/ export data from CsPro to Stata H: Data analysis using Stata I: Documentation 17
  18. 18. Dissemination • Presentations and consultations at meetings/ workshops • Research and workshop reports – hard and soft copies • Policy briefs • Peer reviewed articles • Book?? • Integration of methodology in R4D projects 18
  19. 19. Scale up milestones • Trained KARI technical team • Training four graduate students MA (UoN), Ph.D (KARI/Uon) • To use method in new projects – Banana value chain in Meru (MA student) – Honey value chain in Transmara (Ph.D. student) – CBPP subunit vaccine (adoption) project in Ijara and Turkana in Kenya (MA and Ph.D. students) • Future possibility – other vaccine adoption projects in RSA ?? 19
  20. 20. Thank You! 20

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