Watershed management experiences in Amhara Region, Ethiopia


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Presented by Fentahun Mengistu at the Stakeholders’ Workshop on Enhancing Communities’ Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Induced Water Scarcity in Kabe Watershed, South Wollo Zone, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia, 24-25 November 2011.

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Watershed management experiences in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

  1. 1. Watershed Management Experiences in Amhara Region Fentahun Mengistu (Dr.) Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI) Stakeholders’ Workshop on Enhancing Communities’Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Induced Water Scarcity in Kabe Watershed, South Wollo Zone Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia, 24-25 November 2011
  2. 2. Why Watershed Approach?• Land degradation seriously Food Insecurity and Poverty Trap: affects livelihoods and food Interrelationships between key security in Ethiopia challenges• Land degradation arises: soil erosion- steep slopes, continuous encroachment and cultivation of marginal lands deforestation overgrazing negative coping strategies (animal dung burning , charcoal, reduced rotation, etc.)• has political, social and economic To combat the land degradation-food implications insecurity-poverty nexus, a holistic approach: watershed management
  3. 3. CommonPractices
  4. 4. Commonout comes
  5. 5. Commonout comes
  6. 6. Commonout comes
  7. 7. Elements and characteristics of watershed• Biophysical (water, land, • Socio-economic vegetation) • population• climate (rainfall, altitude, and winds), drainage and • farming systems water, • social setups• soil, vegetation, specific • economic activities topographic features (gradient and length of • vulnerability profile slope, shape and direction • gender and past/current erosion features (rill, gullies, land slides,etc).• Land use: homesteads, cultivated land, grazing land,
  8. 8. PWDP as a foundation for sustainable agricultural development in rural Ethiopia• CBPWD Guideline• 5 Yrs GTP: on Natural Resources Management and Climate Change: In all areas which require physical soil and water conservation works will be fully implemented through proactive and organized community participation• Amhara rural development strategy: a conservation based, watershed focused development approach• watershed focused NRM campaign as of last year with organized community participation ( Development Army, 20-30 people, 1 to 5 work team)• Almost all BI-lateral/Multi-lateral projects/NGOs follow IWM
  10. 10. 1. Amhara Micro-enterprise development, Agricultural Research, Extension, and Watershed management (AMAREW) Project• Launched in July 2002• Focus: functional integration of on-farm research, extension, and watershed management activities• 3 pilot watersheds: Yeku (Sekota), Lenche Dima (Guba Lafto) and Gumet (Sekela)
  11. 11. Approach: multi-faceted and integrated ruraldevelopment activities in agricultural research, extension,watershed management and micro enterprisedevelopmentEngaged Research in testing a wide range of technologiesat the watersheds and to provide the Extension and otherdevelopment organizations with land use planning toolsand proven technologies for sustainable development andrehabilitationCommunity watershed management organization(CWMO) 12-32 members responsible for planning,implementing and monitoring the watersheddevelopment activities
  12. 12. Interventions madeI. Physical and biological soil & water conservation measures• Hill side and Farm land terrace• Check dam construction• Bund stabilization• Gully rehabilitation• Trench construction• Small Scale Dam construction• Micro basin , eye burrow basin• Improved pits , Cut-off drains• Hand dug well construction• Trapezoidal water tanks• Plastic bed water harvesting ponds• Forestry and agro forestry• Area closure
  13. 13. Gully Rehabilitation: Yeku watershed
  14. 14. Impacts of interventions on Wsheds• Hillside closure ,moisture harvesting • improved seeds at household and - seasonal spring flow extended by 2M community seed bank level - ground water at a depth of 8m • Poor farmer hhs- asset thr. goat• income from grasses sell and sheep restocking• Degraded gullies- feed and fuel wood • Food-for-work –facilitated upper• Water point -for human and livestock catchments land care activities,• Soil moisture harvesting , gully covered watershed community rehabilitation on degraded hillside & food gap farm lands maintained soil moisture for plant growth , assisted the • Gabion box production and fuel replenishment of ground water and saving stove production- extended stream flow period additional income, reduction of• vegetables and fruits thr. irrigation soil erosion and deforestation• Striga resistant sorghum varieties • Pilot Wsheds served as learning Gobiye and Abshir center for DAs, woreda experts and farmers in the region
  15. 15. Impacts?
  16. 16. Hillside Closure Speeded up Environmental Rehabilitation
  17. 17. Gully at Gumet
  18. 18. Closed from animal interference• self-help user groups organized to manage degraded hillsides Minimized soil erosion Brought significant environmental impact• allowed new shrubs and grass species• increased biodiversity
  19. 19. Conservation structures on farmlands, degraded hills
  20. 20. Catchment Treatment replenished ground water(Yeku)
  21. 21. Night pond at Yeku watershed used for cattle and other household service
  22. 22. Brought empowerment of watershed communities towards sustainable management of land & water resources (bunds, gully rehabilitation)
  23. 23. Fuel-efficient stove production at Yeku watershed Fuel efficient stove produced and marketed by an organized group of women •make money •reduction of deforestation •reduces the drudgery •encouraged schooling of •Children •stoves reduce smoke caused eye problems
  24. 24. Gabion Wire BoxProduction at Lenche Water Point Dima Watershed Development: Yeku
  25. 25. 2. Sida-Amhara Rural Development Programme 1997– 2008Eight Woredas in East Gojjam and eight Woredas in South Wello
  26. 26. Objectives: Approach:• Develop, test and demonstrate an • bottom-up integrated methodology • Watershed for management of small agric. Watersheds management committee • Watershed planning• To create public • Characterization awareness about flexibility and site specificity of IWM
  27. 27. Achievements• Agricultural productivity can be sustained through appropriate IWM approach• Improved land• Farmer’s livelihood improved
  28. 28. 3. SWHISA (Sustainable Water Harvesting and Institutional Strengthening in Amhara): Watershed Program• Designed to enhance sustainability of small-scale irrigation structures and dams and increase productive uses of water sources within the watersheds• Participatory approaches – farmer to farmer extension• Active promotion of self-help contributions from communities
  29. 29. Area covered by different SWC measures in the pilot watersheds
  30. 30. InterventionsPhysical soil conservation measures Biological conservation• Farm bunds:- stone/ soil measures bunds • Area closure• Hillside terraces • Planting on bunds• Gully treatment:- stone • Gully re-vegetation and gabion check dams; brushwood check dams • Homestead planting• Cutoff drains • Enrichment planting in• Artificial waterways closed areas• Percolation trenches • Planting on hillsides etc.• Micro-basin/eyebrow basin Planting pits
  31. 31. InterventionsWater harvesting • Change crops and cropping• Shallow hand dug well pattern (Diversification) • Introduction of improved• Run off water harvesting crop varieties• Sand dams • Compost preparation andNatural Pasture Management application etc• Grazing land improvement • Supplementary irrigation• Introduction of high value ( risk reduction) crops including feed crops • Dry season vegetable• Over-sowing of closed areas production with improved feed varieties • Subsistence oriented to Market oriented farming
  32. 32. AchivementsArea Closure: Karita (west Belessa) 2011 2008 Hay harvest 2009
  33. 33. Pasture Land Management R o t a t io n a l g r a z in g /F r e e g r a z in g ha y Maywoha watershed, Goncha, E. Gojam
  34. 34. Pasture Land ManagementP a r t ic ip a t o r y e v a lu a t io n of na tu ra lp a s t u r e : u n d e r f r e e g r a z in g ( le f t ) a n d h a yp r o d u c t io n ( r ig h t )Maywoha watershed, Goncha, E. Gojam 2009 2009 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, W. Gojam
  35. 35. Pasture Land ManagementC h a n g e c o m m u n a l p a s t u r e la n dm a n a g e m e n t : f r o m f r e e g r a z in gt o h a y p r o d u c t io n 2011 2010 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, W. Gojam
  36. 36. Pasture Land ManagementC h a n g e in n a t u r a l p a s t u r e m a n a g e m e n tin c r e a s e d h e r b a g e p r o d u c t iv it y a n d h e lpt o s t a b iliz e g u lly s y s t e mF r e e g r a z in g2 0 10 Hay production 2011 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, W. Gojam
  37. 37. Gully Rehabilitation 2009 2008 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, W. Gojam
  38. 38. Gully Rehabilitation 2008 2011 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, W. Gojam
  39. 39. Gully RehabilitationGully head retreat: when promoting gully erosion control measures,conservation of the entire hillside and watershed must beconsidered
  40. 40. Gully Rehabilitation 2008 2011 Debre Mawi watershed, Adet, E. Gojam
  41. 41. Degraded Land Management June 2007 October 2009
  42. 42. Shallow ground water development
  43. 43. Run off water harvesting 2011 2009 Tomato Onion Pepper
  44. 44. The gully formation in the Debremawi watershed is more importantly causedby subsurface erosion generated from soil pore water pressure.Land management processes that effectively drain subsurface water and reduce thepotential pore-water pressure in shallow soils are necessary Potholes and smaller pipe A, and concentrated water outflow zones, B.
  45. 45. 4. Unlocking the potential of rainfed agriculture in Ethiopia for improved rural livelihoods
  46. 46. Gumara-Maksegnit WS
  47. 47. Goal/ObjectivesTo sustainably improve agricultural productivity and conserve theecosystem resources by integrating affordable and appropriatetechnologies in a favourable socioeconomic environment • identify, evaluate and apply appropriate interventions that may overcome the deficiencies and achieve higher productivity. • test and fine tune a package of water harvesting technologies that provides sufficient water for supplemental irrigation during dry spells to alleviate stress
  48. 48. Steps in WS selection-implementation Socioeconomic characterization of the watershed using PRA approach by interdisciplinary team of researchers Biophysical characterization of Community & District the watershed policy makers consultation and establishment of watershed community leaders
  49. 49. Consultation & WS community Establishment • Consultation made with Woreda policy makers. • Watershed community organized
  50. 50. Biophysical characterization
  51. 51. "Rainfed Ethiopia" projectInterventions Underway Theme II: Cross-cutting Theme III: Theme I: Water harvesting & theme: Agronomic/ Land conservation Supplemental Agronomic water land productivity Irrigation balance Subtheme 1: Subtheme 1: Implementation of Subtheme 1: Land conservation small ponds & drip Crop improvement irrigation systems Subtheme 2: Subtheme 2: Subthem 2: Supplemental watershed Crop management Irrigation field (double cropping) modeling experiment Subtheme 3: Subtheme 3: Subtheme 3: Communal, Improved/ Reforestation medium-size pond reduced tillage
  52. 52. Challenges• Negotiation and convincing • Focus on physical structures farmers • physical structures are not constructed to their• Sustainability, ownership technical standards • System productivity• completing the already • Social planning unit of the started watershed government vs watershed planning • Duplication of management (Wshed Devt Committee Vs Govt’ committee)
  53. 53. Lessons Learnt• Communities have high • Needs farm and non-farm interest in development activities initiatives including rehabilitating natural • Interdisciplinary team resources • IWM require a process• But, farmers will accept a approach change in agricultural • Supported with new practices if only if both ecological and economic knowledge and practices objectives are met • Site specificity nature• Community participation is vital that local farmers, users and beneficiaries play an active role
  54. 54. Lessons Learnt• Government/ donors should • Building local level refrain from directly institution: CWMOs engaging in watershed • More emphasis has to be management activities given to effective• create an enabling organization of environment; delivery of communities rather than technical and advisory only focusing on support introduction of technologies• Experience sharing tours for e.g. At Lenche Dema farmers • the watershed committee• Nothing should be given for was operational 2yrs after free • others near formed CWMOs(Tesfaye 2008)
  55. 55. …Lessons• Capacity building interventions • Withdrawal strategy, are necessary to manage their continued follow up resources and to guarantee needed: sustainability• Molding democratic pragmatism eg. At Dijl: (bottom up) within the existing • the spring had insufficient administrative rationalism (top flow and providing water down) governmental structure • Its construction was poor• E.g. A top-down approach by • no management committee GTZ: no community was established involvement during planning • the spring is not functioning (Tesfaye Habtamu, 2008) • the water harvesting community did not take over structures cracked the payments for the guard No attitude change