Pro-poor issues for livestock and some lessons for Vietnam from ILRI’s research


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Presented by Lucila A. Lapar at the Vietnam Agriculture Outlook Conference 2013, Hanoi, Vietnam, 4 April 2013.

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Pro-poor issues for livestock and some lessons for Vietnam from ILRI’s research

  1. 1. Pro-poor issues for livestock and some lessons for Vietnam from ILRI’s research Ma. Lucila A. Lapar Vietnam Agriculture Outlook Conference 2013 Hanoi, Vietnam 4 April 2013
  2. 2. Definition • Pro-poor livestock research is defined as research that is planned and implemented with the specific objective of producing research outputs that are of value in the development and implementation of technologies, tools, processes, or policies that result in reduction in poverty of people who depend to some extent on livestock for their livelihoods.
  3. 3. Context of a changing Asia • Economies are growing rapidly. • Incomes are rising in at least a proportion of the population. • Dietary patterns are changing. • Climate change and other environmental challenges are becoming front and center of development issues that need to be tackled. • All these have implications for the livestock sector and for the poor who depend on livestock.
  4. 4. Key drivers of changing livestock landscape in Asia • The rural-urban divide. • Rapidly growing demand and rising prices for livestock products. • A food retail revolution, supply chain adjustment, and importance of traditional local markets • Trade liberalization. • Endemic, emerging, and re-emerging diseases, • Environmental concerns. • Changing production systems. • Evolving policy needs. • Increased donor interest in agriculture. • Changing roles of public and private sector.
  5. 5. Five key actions for pro-poor livestock research in Asia from ILRI consultations • Raising awareness and promoting the need for livestock research for poverty reduction; sensitization to the need for pro-poor livestock research. • Developing a livestock knowledge resource. • Defining regional research issues; linking international and national programs, regional or sub-regional level • Working in partnership. • Capacity strengthening.
  6. 6. Some highlights from recent ILRI studies in Vietnam Pork value chain
  7. 7. Meat demand analysis: Implications for Vietnam • As income rises: – Pork and other meat consumption would substantially increase -  opportunities for livestock production, including smallholder production. – Fresh pork remains important, however, consumers tend to diverse their diet towards other meat such as seafood, poultry, beef and eggs. -- livestock production must diversify to cater for more diverse demand. • Price is still a key factor in meat purchase decision and thus in meat market competition - reducing cost price is the key in livestock development. • Increase in price of one meat often reduces its consumption and consumption of other meat due to income effect.  Cost reduction would enhance competitiveness and increase meat consumption. • Different types of meat are weakly substitutable, given income effect - livestock production must diversify
  8. 8. Food safety and risk assessment studies Nearly half the consumers (43%) had concerns about pork. Most common was fear of disease from pork, followed by fear of chemical contamination, un-fresh pork, and bad smell. Only 1% expressed nutritional concerns.
  9. 9. Average ranking of major concerns about meat safety HN HCMC All Diseases of livestock 1.2 1.1 1.2 Hormone used in animals 2.8 3.0 2.9 Antibiotic use 3.0 2.9 3.0 Hygiene in market outlet (including meat seller) 3.8 2.6 3.2 Hygiene in slaughtering 3.9 2.8 3.4 Concentrate feeding of animals 3.7 4.1 3.8 Other 3.5 3.1 3.2 Animal diseases tops the list of major concerns of urban consumers about meat safety.
  10. 10. Consumer response to pig disease outbreak •About half of consumers either stop or reduce pork consumption; about one-third substitute other meats. •More consumers in HCMC than in Hanoi shift to modern outlets for pork. 52% 6% 35% 7% Hanoi Stopped/reduced consumption Shift to modern outlets Substitute other meats Other 50% 15% 29% 6% HCMC Stopped/reduced consumption Shift to modern outlets Substitute other meats Other
  11. 11. Types of market outlets for fresh pork in Vietnam Temporary Neighborhood Market
  12. 12. Types of market outlets for fresh pork in Vietnam Permanent Open Market
  13. 13. Types of market outlets for fresh pork in Vietnam Modern Retail Outlets
  14. 14. Implications from market studies  Market outlet choice by consumers of fresh pork in urban cities in Vietnam is conditioned by factors related to their level of affluence, time budgets (female), concerns about food safety and hygiene, proximity to market outlets, and geographical location.  Use of modern retail outlets is increasingly observed among urban consumers who are younger, more affluent and hence can afford to invest in cooling facilities for storing fresh food, are more concerned about food safety and hygiene and opted to live farther away from city centers.
  15. 15. Implications from market studies  There is still a substantial group of urban consumers who are dependent on traditional market outlets ranging from temporary neighborhood outlets to permanent open markets and who value accessibility and trust in the supplier that has been developed over time from repeated transactions.  These consumers belong to lower income groups who generally have limited options for food supply, hence, making it more important that they maintain access to their preferred outlets.
  16. 16. Implications from market studies  The strong preference of Vietnamese consumers to purchase fresh pork at non-modern retail outlets provides a degree of market protection to smallholder pig producers from imports of pork.  The relevant policy debate is how to ensure that traditional market outlets remain viable and up to par with the competition posed by modern retail outlets, since these outlets are key to smallholder producers’ inclusion in the restructuring process going on in the food retail sector, while keeping fresh meat easily accessible to low income urban consumers.
  17. 17. Pig genotypes studies Context • Some indigenous pig species have disappeared and some others are at high risk (research with NIAS collaborators). • Some of these breeds are still used by many ethnic groups. • Niche market for some pork meat with desired taste. Recommendation • Breed conservation (the role & responsibility of NIAS) • Exploit & further study the potential of some of these breeds (collaborative research with NIAS) and explore potential for niche markets for pork meat with desired taste Some of these breeds are useful as maternal sows for small- scale piglet production.
  18. 18. Pig genotypes studies Context and proposed model for piloting (Mong Cai sow + western male for piglet production) • In many rural & remote districts of northern & central Vietnam, there is insufficient local production of piglets and fatteners. • As a consequence, rural pig producers buy piglets being transported from lowland or coastal areas. Outcome: disease spread & low fattening productivity. • “In these systems, more meat from pig production would be difficult to market” (local stakeholders). • Pig production can instead be targeted to produce more piglets. Outcome: same number of fatteners produced / year but increased number of locally born piglets / year, decreased number of imported piglets / year, more piglets sold by local producers.
  19. 19. Costs, efficiency, competitiveness • Own-produced feed holds significant share of pig feed in household pig production, providing low-cost feeding strategies • Use of industrial feed associated with scale of production • Use of crossbreeds with high % of local breeds (e.g., Mong Cai) suitable to smallholder conditions • Adoption of improved breeds associated with scale of production, wealth of producers
  20. 20. Costs, efficiency, competitiveness • Feed conversion ratio (FCR) estimates using maize equivalent (ME) suggest no significant differences in feed efficiency across scale • There are no significant differences in cost/unit output across scales • While not significant, differences in unit cost is highly sensitive to feed cost (65- 90% of total production cost) • No clear evidence of economies of scale found in household pig production in this study.
  21. 21. Implications from technology adoption studies  Pig raising will likely remain tied to agricultural crop production by households that have available human and financial resources and land – an issue for rural development.  Opportunities for non-farm employment and other non-farm income sources will likely compete for household labor available for pig raising – an issue for scaling up.
  22. 22. Implications from technology adoption studies  Market access (input and outputs) is an important stimulus for derived demand for improved breed and feed (increasing demand for pork).  Poor, small producers may not likely benefit from productivity gains from adoption of improved technologies – an issue of access and capacity to adopt.
  23. 23. Implications from technology adoption studies  Public sector policy has a role to play in improving access and capacity of the poor.  Specific types of production systems (e.g., local breed piglet production) can provide pro- poor niche market opportunities. Here, public sector policy can facilitate access to supporting services to reduce production and market risk (e.g. animal health services) and improving market access.
  24. 24. Proposed actions from value chain studies  Invest in upgrading slaughterhouse and market facilities to improve hygiene and food safety standards in pork.  Undertake a comprehensive pork risk assessment to inform policy, improve consumer safety, and safeguard participation of smallholders in the pork supply chain.  Pilot test strategies for collective action and other forms of organization that will reduce transaction costs of input procurement and output marketing. Need supporting policies to foster an enabling environment for their propagation.  Set up pilot schemes for testing the viability of a quality assurance system that is feasible in smallholder context and its cost-effectiveness in delivering safe pork.