Veterinary public health research in SEA:      lessons for managing health risks in smallholder                        pig...
Content1. Veterinary public health research in SEA• Selected regional research  (focus on research under the VPHCAP, CMU T...
VPHCAPPlace:          Vet Faculty of the                Chiang Mai UniversityVPHCAP:         Veterinary Public Health Cent...
Regional VPH Research (VPHCAP)                              2003 - 2011Countries:      Thailand, Vietnam, Lao, Cambodia, I...
Regional VPH Research                     Pig and pig products - Vietnam              Studies on antimicrobial residuals o...
Regional VPH Research                  Pig and pig products - Vietnam           Studies on antimicrobial residuals or resi...
Regional VPH research                       Pig and pig products Vietnam                       Studies on microbial contam...
Regional VPH Research                      Pig and pig products Vietnam                     Studies on microbial contamina...
Regional VPH Research                     Pig and pig products LaoMicrobiological Quality of Pig Carcass at Dorn Du Slaugh...
Regional VPH Research          Studies on Cysticercosis and Trichinellosis                            CambodiaPrevalence o...
Regional VPH Research                             Pig and pig products NepalPrevalence of Salmonella in retail meat shops ...
Regional VPH Research                  Pig and pig products - ThailandSource of salmonella in fattening pigs (Wunnakhum at...
Regional VPH Research                       Pig and pig products - ThailandSalmonella in Pork Products in Chiang Mai, Thai...
Regional VPH Research                      Pig and pig products - ThailandPrevalence study of Antibiotic Resistance in Swi...
Regional VPH Research                      Pig and pig products - ThailandConsumer selection of pork and viscera in Chiang...
Regional VPH Research (VPHCAP)                           2012-2013• Microbiological contamination (pig, chicken, sea food)...
ILRI Pig VietnamImproving competitiveness of pig producersin an adjusting Vietnam market•   Emerging concerns on food safe...
Pig Vietnam - Hazard Assessment                 100                  90                                                   ...
2. Lessons for managing health risks in               smallholder pig systems Available research varies by country Resea...
2. Lessons for managing health risks in               smallholder pig systems Hazards have been well documented in severa...
2. Lessons for managing health risks in            smallholder pig systems Available research and control efforts focuses...
Final comments•   Hazards vs. Risk•   Farm to Fork•   Risk along value chains & role of actors    (informal sector)•   Cap...
Source of available literature:• http://vphcap.vet.cmu.ac.th• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/• Promed mail• FAO• WHO: ...
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Veterinary public health research in Southeast Asia: lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems

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Presented by Fred Unger at the Managing Risks in Emerging Pork Markets: An International South – South Symposium, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, 23-25 April 2012.

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Veterinary public health research in Southeast Asia: lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems

  1. 1. Veterinary public health research in SEA: lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systemsInternational symposium on Managing Risks in Emerging Pork Markets Fred Unger 23rd - 25th of April 2012, Melia Hanoi Hotel
  2. 2. Content1. Veterinary public health research in SEA• Selected regional research (focus on research under the VPHCAP, CMU Thailand) – Examples by country and hazard• ILRI pig Vietnam2. Lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems
  3. 3. VPHCAPPlace: Vet Faculty of the Chiang Mai UniversityVPHCAP: Veterinary Public Health Centre for Asia PacificFounded: October 2003Objectives To create the regional information center in food safety of food from animal origin the countries in Asia Pacific.Key activity: Joint Master of Science in Veterinary Pubic Health
  4. 4. Regional VPH Research (VPHCAP) 2003 - 2011Countries: Thailand, Vietnam, Lao, Cambodia, Indonesia, Bhutan, Nepal and ChinaPig or pig products related topics:• Microbiological quality, Salmonella spp. /E. coli contamination• Antimicrobial resistants and residuals• Classical zoonoses: Taenia / Cysticercosis / TrichinellosisPoultry or poultry products related topics:• Microbiological quality, Salmonella/E. coli/Campylobacter• HPAIRuminants/dog:• Brucellosis, E. granulosisSea food related topics:• Shrimps: Microbiological quality and contamination
  5. 5. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - Vietnam Studies on antimicrobial residuals or resistancesAnalysis of Tetracycline Residues in Marketed Pork in Hanoi,Vietnam• Cross-sectional study• 290 raw muscle samples (suburb and urban districts of Hanoi)• Agar inhibition test and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography)• 5.5 % (16/290) positive• Factor region (origin of meat): Odds Ratio 4.03 suburb versus urban districtMsC thesis: Duong Vat Nhiem
  6. 6. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - Vietnam Studies on antimicrobial residuals or resistancesA study on antimicrobial resistant of E. coli isolated fromRetail Fresh pork in Hanoi, Vietnam• 403 pork samples from 141 meat retailers (out of 14 districts)• 93.1% of E. coli isolates with observed resistance to at least one of the 12 tested antimicrobials• Tetracycline, OTC (>70%), followed by Sulphonamides. TMP• Multi-resistances 89.6% (for up 11 antimicrobials)• Risk factor – origin of meat (more likely to be observed in meat from neighboring provinces then from Hanoi)• Excessive drug abuse of pig farmers (suggested to be further investigated)MsC Thesis: Mr Chu Van Tuat
  7. 7. Regional VPH research Pig and pig products Vietnam Studies on microbial contaminationMicrobial contamination of fresh minced pork from theRetail market in Hanoi• Fresh minced pork samples butcher shops and retail markets• Salmonella and E. coli count• 36.6% positive for Salmonella spp.• OR (Odds ratio) 6.2 more likely to detect Salmonella in spring time versus winter time (seasonal)(same applies for E. coli counts)• Poor hygiene during fresh pork preparation• Need of cool chain emphasizedMsC thesis: Ms. Pham Thi Thu Hien
  8. 8. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products Vietnam Studies on microbial contaminationPrevalence of Salmonella in Pig Carcasses at a SlaughterhouseIn Hanoi, Vietnam• 356 pig lymph nodes and carcass swaps• Prevalence for Salmonella spp 56.5% (carcass swaps) and 34.8% lymph node cuts• Differences by farm type (lymph node cuts) Backyard (43.2%) versus intensified farming systems (27.8 %)MsC thesis: Nguyen Phu Thai
  9. 9. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products LaoMicrobiological Quality of Pig Carcass at Dorn Du Slaughterhouse inVientiane Municipality Lao PDR (MsC thesis: Mr. P. Inthavong)• 46.8% – 66.1% Salmonella positive (meat swaps) and 53.2 (lymph node)Risk Assessment of Human Tape Worm Infection caused by PorcineCysticercosis in the Northern part of Lao (MsC thesis: V. Tammajedi)• Free range farms significant higher than in enclosed farms• Ante mortem (8%)(Se: 15% - 70%); post mortem 0%• Human: records from 6 provinces (2004-2008: 199 annual average) + a few human cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC)
  10. 10. Regional VPH Research Studies on Cysticercosis and Trichinellosis CambodiaPrevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Trichinellosisin Slaughter Pigs of Cambodia (Msc thesis: Than Sovira)• 4 slaughterhouses in Phnom Penh (432 pigs)• 11% positive for cysticercosis (meat inspection) & 1.1% sero- positive for trichinellosis• Human hospital case review: no records, lack of knowledge and diagnostic facilities
  11. 11. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products NepalPrevalence of Salmonella in retail meat shops in Kathmandu, Nepal(MsC thesis: M. Upadhyaya) 492 environmental swaps, 82 meat retail shops Salmonella contamination: chopping boards (36%), knifes (33%), tables (25%) Evening versus morning OR 1.9 Risk factors: multiple persons vs. single persons involved, open vs. closed shop, number of knives used, different meat types but single knifePrevalence of porcine cysticercosis and trichinellosis in slaughterpigs in Kathmandu, Nepal (MsC thesis: B. S. Sapkota) Cysticercosis (0.99%) only in outdoor &Trichinellosis (1%) all indoor pigs Human: NCC few cases (2000-2004, from 6 hospitals)
  12. 12. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - ThailandSource of salmonella in fattening pigs (Wunnakhum at al. 2011)• Floor (40%), sewage (20%), water (20%), feed (negative)• No difference between standard versus non-standard farmsPrevalence of Salmonella in breeder saws in Chiang Mai(MsC thesis: R Ngasaman)• Open house versus closed house system no significant difference (pigs)• Environmental samples: higher prevalences in open systemsSalmonella Prevalences in pre-slaughter pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand(Msc thesis: Samart Dorn In)• 95% Salmonella in floor swaps or waste water• Fecal samples; 62% (22 pig farms)
  13. 13. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - ThailandSalmonella in Pork Products in Chiang Mai, Thailand(MsC thesis: A. Sanguankiat)• 173 meat cuts (SH), 173 transported pork, 200 retail pork• 55% (SH meat cuts), 70% (transported pork) & 70% retail (bone products)Microbiological quality along a selected product line of ThaiNorthern Sausage (MsC thesis; Wiratsudakul)• Some Salmonella spp, S. aureus, C. perfringensfound in integriends• But not in final product (grilled with 100 C for 20 min and stored in fridge for 7 days)
  14. 14. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - ThailandPrevalence study of Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Tissues in ChiangMai by using microbiological Assays(W. Chantong et al,2012, CMU)• 15 % of antimicrobial resistanceIdentification of Antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suisisolates from pigtonsil swaps(C. Pansumdang et al,2012, CMU)• High resistance to certain antimicrobial drugs (81-100%)
  15. 15. Regional VPH Research Pig and pig products - ThailandConsumer selection of pork and viscera in Chiang Mai and Lamphun(P. Muenanan et al, 2012, CMU)• Consumers choose pork based on freshness and cleanliness but no strong interest in quality assurance certification• Majority of consumers believe that pork is cleaner in supermarkets than in fresh markets• But tendency to prefer fresh markets as meet believed to be more fresh (e.g. lower preference for frozen/chilled meat offered in supermarkets)
  16. 16. Regional VPH Research (VPHCAP) 2012-2013• Microbiological contamination (pig, chicken, sea food) (e.g. Vietnam, bacteriological contamination along pig market chain)• Microbiological and other residuals (e.g. Vietnam, antimicrobial residuals along pig market chain)• BTB• Brucellosis• Camphylobacter
  17. 17. ILRI Pig VietnamImproving competitiveness of pig producersin an adjusting Vietnam market• Emerging concerns on food safety• Consumer response to pig diseases• Competiveness of HH pig producers• Risk assessment (qualitative)L. A. Lapar and project team
  18. 18. Pig Vietnam - Hazard Assessment 100 90 Supermarket Wet market 80 s Village market% UNACCEPTABLE 70 60 s 50 40 ns v 30 ns 20 10 ns 0 Total bacteria Enterobac Staph Listeria Residues
  19. 19. 2. Lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems Available research varies by country Research on Veterinary Public Health in SEA (and Asia) more frequently related to studies on microbiological contamination  Includes collection of base line date for certain production systems/processes  Often focusing on the slaughter process alone  Prior to slaughter studies less well researched
  20. 20. 2. Lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems Hazards have been well documented in several studies (in particular on slaughter/processing level) How observed hazards are related to the actual risk less documented Risk assessment tools are rarely applied (in particular quantitative tools) (few studies for Vietnam and Thailand) Farm – Fork approach, if applied than more likely for large scale/industrial sector
  21. 21. 2. Lessons for managing health risks in smallholder pig systems Available research and control efforts focuses on the medium/large scale sector Small scale production sector less researched  small scale pig vs. studies on large scale premises (e.g. CP Thailand, strong private sector & Thailand/Vietnam/Indonesia/China: prioritization by policy makers rather on large scale sector)
  22. 22. Final comments• Hazards vs. Risk• Farm to Fork• Risk along value chains & role of actors (informal sector)• Capacity in risk and value chain analyses• Demand for safe food & consumers perception (includes informal sector)• Behavior and incentive• Integrated approaches (One Health)
  23. 23. Source of available literature:• http://vphcap.vet.cmu.ac.th• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/• Promed mail• FAO• WHO: http;//who.int/salmsurv/links/en/

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