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Goat value chains in Shinelle district, Somali zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment
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Goat value chains in Shinelle district, Somali zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment


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Presented by Hasen Abdurahman at the Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting Action Research on Lowland Sheep and Goat Value Chains in Ethiopia, Debre Zeit, 1-2 April 2013 …

Presented by Hasen Abdurahman at the Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting Action Research on Lowland Sheep and Goat Value Chains in Ethiopia, Debre Zeit, 1-2 April 2013

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  • 1. Goat value chains in Shinelle district,Somali zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment Hasen Abdurahman Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting ActionResearch on Lowland Sheep and Goat Value Chains in Ethiopia Debre Zeit 1-2April 2013
  • 2. 1. Description of the study areaLocation: Somali region, 15 km east of Dire Dawa townAltitude :- ranges from 950-1350m above sea levelRainfall:- 500-700 mm/year, it has two rainy seasons( Gu and Karan)Population: - 96988( 2007 population estimates made from 1994 census)Livelihood:- Pastoralism: livestock produced mainly shoats, cattle and camel
  • 3. 2. METHODOLOGY Field Visits, Focused Group Discussion(FGD) and Interviews with Key Informants  Discussion with district administration and district agricultural office  selected two kebeles (Dhegah-jabis and Gaad)  these two kebeles have the highest small ruminant population in the district  10 -12 men and women in each of these two kebeleles in Shinelle districts.
  • 4. Key Informant Interview (KII) experts of livestock extension, livestock marketing, cooperatives promotion, traders, butchers, transporters, veterinarians and NGOs. Similarly, major shoat markets within and outside the study area were visited. These include Shinelle and Dire Dawa.
  • 5. 3. RESULTS OF SHOAT VALUE CHAIN ASSESSMENT 3.1 Mapping of the Core Functions Input Production Marketing Processing Consumption supplyActivities Supply of: Feeding Collection Slaughtering Consuming • Extension Housing Intermediat Cooking -Meat services ion Breeding -Milk • Animal Transportati health Health -Milk on services care products Credit Distribution access (NGO) Actors Woreda Pastoralist Producers, Butchers, Consumers Agriculturral s brokers, traders, Hotels Office collectors, cooperatives OXFAM
  • 6. Input supplyExtension Service Extension service and training and capacity building to livestock producers is rarely provided by NGOs whose main focus is on training community animal health workers. FTC/PTCs are there but not functional.Animal health services There are only 4 functional health posts out of the total 16 health posts in the woreda Vaccination is the major health service provided and it doesn’t cover all. There are CAHWS and only small number of them are functional however, they don’t have enough drugs. NGOs like Oxfam, HCS help agricultural district expert with logistics.
  • 7. Credit services There is no formal credit service institution that provides credit for the pastoralists. Oxfam provides credit for shoat producers. The credit is given to female pastoralists in order to buy shoats.
  • 8. Production Pastoralists rear sheep and goat for sell, milk production and slaughter at home. Pastoralists indicated that shoats are the most important sources of income to meet the household’s immediate cash needs and they protect other household assets. Whenever the household comes across problems needing cash expenditure, they first sell shoats. Camel and Cattle would be sold when the family runs out of shoats. The other important purpose of rearing small ruminants is production of goat milk for household consumption.
  • 9. Feeding- Feed natural pasture and shrubs- No forage conservation- Seasonal movement used as copping mechanism- graphBreeding- Black head somali sheep and long eared somali goats- No Selection for goat. No controlled mating for goats- Selection and controlled mating for sheep- Inbreeding problem for both sheep and goats- Perception about inbreeding very lowHousing- Fences- Sheep and goat together but kids are separatedAnimal health care- Major diseases: shoat pox, CCPP, PPR, Ticks, FMD,- Shortage of vaccines, drugs
  • 10. Seasonal Distribution of Feed Resources Relative to the Rainfall Pattern 100 5 80 4Feed Availability (%) Rainfall Score (0-5) 60 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Browsing Grazing Rainfall (score 0-5)
  • 11. Milk production Both sheep and goat milk produced Only goat milk is consumed Sheep milk used for butter production Milking and milk marketing is the role of women Shoat milk usually used for hh consumption. But it is also marketed Whole goat milk is marketed but it only butter from sheep milk that is marketed Milk marketing groups
  • 12. MarketingProportion of Actors in the marketBrokers 17%Pastoralists 20%Hotels 13%Individual consumers 3%Traders 13%Collectors 23%Cooperatives 10%
  • 13. To whom they sellPastoralists 5%Hotels 15%Individual consumers 10%Traders 20%Collectors 30%Cooperatives 20%
  • 14. Type of live animals sold in the market Yearling 20% they sale for slaughter and fattening Ewes 40% for hotels Young female 10% for breeding Fattened male 15% for holidays and death occasion Kids 15% for fattening and agro-pastoralists
  • 15. Processing No export abattoirs in the district as well as in Dire dawa town. Butcheries/slaughter cooperative slaughter shoats in municipal slaughter houses and retail meat on kilogram basis both at Shinelle and Megala-jebdu (Dire)
  • 16. Consumption Shoats from Shinelle district have three end markets of which are Shinelle market, Dire dawa market and foreign market. Consumers at Shinelle get from slaughtering cooperatives based at Shinelle. Consumers at dire dawa get from Hotels at dire dawa and butcheries at Megala-jebdu and live shoat from Dire markets
  • 17. Shoats Marketing Routes Buraad Haramaya 24% 20% Meta Jalanqo Mayu 40% Bisle 8% 6% 2% Shinelle Shinelle Dire 10% Dewa Watter 5% Harraw Badano awa Barja 40% Errer 10% Gaad 4% 15% 16%Figure 2: Shoats marketing routes from the Shinelle Figure 2: Shoats marketing routes to Dire Dawa town Market
  • 18. Marketing channels Land owner Rule and Regulations Security Enabling Env’t Individual consumers Individual consumers at Live export toConsumption at Shinelle Djibouti & Somalia Dire dawa town Meat Hotels at Dire Butcheries at Dire Processing Slaughtering cooperative 30% 10% dawa 60% Pastoralists (forLive animal Big Traders Collectors Cooperatives breeding purpose) Individual buyers 20% marketing 30% (20%) 20% (10%) Brokers 5% 10% 75% 10% Production Pastoralists/Agro-pastoralists Rearing Livestock Vet. TransporInput Supply Service Extension Credit tation
  • 19. Marketing Channels Market Channel 1:Pastoralists Broker Big trader Export marketMarket Channel 2 Pastoralists Broker Collector Hotels Individual consumers Market Channel 3 Pastoralists Broker Cooperatives Butchers Individual consumers Market Channel 4 Pastoralists Broker Individual Buyers Market Channel 5Pastoralists Broker Cooperatives Butchers Export market
  • 20. Major Constraints along Shinelle Shoat value chainInput Supply Shortage of veterinary drugs and equipment Shortage of in-service training for CAHWS and veterinarians Non-functional animal health posts and CAHWs No credit service facilities and practices in the area.
  • 21. Production Feed shortage due to seasonality of rainfall frequent and prolonged droughts scarcity of livestock feed both in quality and quantity Lack capacity building/awareness creation on improved shoat production and management practices degradation of grazing lands Prevalence of diseases and parasites (PPR, Shoat pox, CCPP, IP (Fasciola), EP (Tick, Mange), FMD, etc
  • 22. Marketing Native pasture and subsistence based livestock production Spoilage of milk within a short period of time caused by poor management and lack of improved/standard milk containers and equipment. Lack of market information system Long distance between the production areas and the livestock markets There is market infrastructure but not functional No permanent linkage between producers and buyers. Poor horizontal linkages between actors in the shoat value chains. No quarantine and certification facilities and other necessary structures for livestock export.
  • 23. Conclusion Non market oriented production Input supply and service provision not well organized Shortage of feed due to frequent drought is the major challenge Pastoralists use seasonal migration as a coping mechanism Diseases and parasites are also influencing shoat production. But there is insufficient supply of drugs, vaccines, the health posts and clinics are not providing expected services No formal credit There is seasonal export operation The major destination market is Dire Dawa