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UTILIZING TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE MARKET ACCESS ANDLIVELIHOOD SECURITY AMONG PASTORALISTS IN EASTERN AFRICA:          A CASE...
The Scenario in Pastoral areas  Climatic conditions in Eastern Africa are drastically   changing     •   Increase in freq...
Questions that need to be addressed  How can we reduce the vulnerability and increase the   resilience of communities wit...
Sheep in Pastoral Systems   Indigenous sheep breeds exist across the East African    Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania...
Environment and distribution of Sheep in Eastern AfricaSpatial distribution of drylands in Eastern Africa   Distribution o...
Sheep in Pastoral Systems   Indigenous sheep breeds exist across the East African    Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania...
Objective of the Pilot ProjectIdentify the key constraints toaccess to and optimal utilization ofimproved sheep genetics, ...
Targeted areas                                          Iloodo-ariak                                   -   Wooded bush lan...
Understanding the Environment  1. Site visits
Community Meetings: Participatory Rural Appraisal
PRA: Key Constraints in Sheep productionProblem/Constraint                CausesWater                                High ...
PRA: Sheep breeds and their most important traitsProject Area       Sheep breed       Important traits                  An...
BASELINE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY                               Iloodo-ariak: 134 HH, 6 villagesEnkaroni: 163 HH, 9 villages
RESULTS: Livestock Species kept and herd sizes                              Enkaroni (N = 163)                Iloodo-ariak...
RESULTS: Sheep flock composition and structure                                                                            ...
RESULTS: Sheep Management• Pure breeding: Red Maasai, Cross-breeding: Dorper• Source of breeding rams:     Iloodo-ariak -...
RESULTS: Sheep Management• Pure breeding: Red Maasai, Cross-breeding: Dorper• Source of breeding rams:     Iloodo-ariak -...
RESULTS: Reasons for buying Sheep            Food                    Increase                                           Il...
RESULTS: Sheep Health                           160                                                                       ...
Number of respondents                                              0                                             10       ...
Number of respondents                                             0                                                 10    ...
RESULTS: Rank of animals for drought tolerance                         140 Number of respondents                         1...
RECOMMENDATIONS• Community based Sheep breeding and management program for each area•Infrastructure and Services  Animal ...
Basic building blocks for sustainable            breeding programsSuitable indigenous, exotic or crossbred Animal  Geneti...
Breeding programmes: the result of a systems approach       with both short and long term benefits !                Monito...
Expected OutcomesImproved Sheep production and productivity from pastoral systemsReduced loss of livestock in pastoral p...
Thank youThe presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit ...
Utilizing technology to improve market access and livelihood security among pastoralists in eastern Africa: A case for the...
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Utilizing technology to improve market access and livelihood security among pastoralists in eastern Africa: A case for the indegenous sheep in Kenya

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Presented by J.M.K Ojango, E.P. Oyieng, J. Audho and A.M. Okeyo at “Results from a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Baseline Survey to partners” held at Concern Worldwide, Nairobi, 26 March 2013

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  • Sheep was ranked second after Goat
  • Transcript of "Utilizing technology to improve market access and livelihood security among pastoralists in eastern Africa: A case for the indegenous sheep in Kenya"

    1. 1. UTILIZING TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE MARKET ACCESS ANDLIVELIHOOD SECURITY AMONG PASTORALISTS IN EASTERN AFRICA: A CASE FOR THE INDIGENOUS SHEEP IN KENYAResults from a PRA and Baseline Survey presented to partners at Concern Worldwide, Nairobi, 26 March 2013 J.M.K. Ojango, E. P. Oyieng, J. Audho & A.M. Okeyo GHBOU EI RS N IN CE IT IA N Pr IA s es TI V E A LL om l in ot in g ur De bo p e n d ab l e N e i g h
    2. 2. The Scenario in Pastoral areas Climatic conditions in Eastern Africa are drastically changing • Increase in frequency and intensity of droughts • Spread of vector borne diseases • Migration of people and animals in search of food and water • High mortalities of animals • Dependency of populations: Need for food aid
    3. 3. Questions that need to be addressed How can we reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of communities within pastoral areas?  Livestock insurance  Payment for environmental services  Change livelihoods How can the assets of pastoralists be secured?  Manage and treat diseases  Identify and promote adapted breeds How can animal productivity within the rangelands be increased?  Design and institute sustainable breeding programs  Re-seed the rangelands  Improve management and use of water resources
    4. 4. Sheep in Pastoral Systems Indigenous sheep breeds exist across the East African Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Somalia & Uganda
    5. 5. Environment and distribution of Sheep in Eastern AfricaSpatial distribution of drylands in Eastern Africa Distribution of Sheep in Eastern Africa
    6. 6. Sheep in Pastoral Systems Indigenous sheep breeds exist across the East African Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Somalia & Uganda Well adapted to the environment, tolerate droughts Have demonstrated genetic resistance to intestinal worm infections
    7. 7. Objective of the Pilot ProjectIdentify the key constraints toaccess to and optimal utilization ofimproved sheep genetics, anddetermine context specificintervention options for improvedsheep production under pastoralsystems of Eastern Africa
    8. 8. Targeted areas Iloodo-ariak - Wooded bush land - Rocky ground - Severe droughts - Sparse human population - Water is a challenge Enkaroni- Good ground cover- Higher rainfall- Both Grazing and arable land- Shallow wells and boreholes
    9. 9. Understanding the Environment 1. Site visits
    10. 10. Community Meetings: Participatory Rural Appraisal
    11. 11. PRA: Key Constraints in Sheep productionProblem/Constraint CausesWater High cost associated to water access severe drought Limited water technologyAnimal diseases Uncontrolled livestock movement Poor management of water points Limited pasture resources (social sharing systems)Low returns (profits) Limited market access Poor animal breeds Poor animal husbandryInadequate feeds/fodder/pasture overgrazing Diminishing land sizeUncontrolled mating Poor management of animals Uncontrolled animal movement
    12. 12. PRA: Sheep breeds and their most important traitsProject Area Sheep breed Important traits Animal rank based on the overall traits (1=Best, 2=Average, 3=Poor)Enkaroni Red Maasai Drought tolerant Good mothering ability 2 Good milk production Black Head Persian Good mothering ability Travel long distances in search 3 of water and grass Dorper Good milk production 1 High lambing weightIloodo-ariak Red Maasai Disease resistance 2 Good milk production Drought tolerant Black Head Persian Good body fat 3 Hardy Dorper Good growth rate 1 Good milk yields
    13. 13. BASELINE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY Iloodo-ariak: 134 HH, 6 villagesEnkaroni: 163 HH, 9 villages
    14. 14. RESULTS: Livestock Species kept and herd sizes Enkaroni (N = 163) Iloodo-ariak (N = 134) Maximum herdSpecies Breed Mean ± SD Maximum herd size Mean ± SD size Local 7.99 ± 14.65 90 24.54 ± 42.85 200Cattle Cross/Exotic 8.20 ± 29.46 300 48.20 ± 114.68 700 Local 13.97 ± 32.21 330 43.13 ± 42.53 200 Goat Cross/Exotic 6.77 ± 21.92 200 60.90 ± 54.59 250 Local 5.60 ± 11.61 93 28.77 ± 28.96 100Sheep Cross/Exotic 17.75 ± 23.61 130 54.28 ± 70.53 402Poultry 2.26 ± 5.64 40 7.17 ± 5.69 22Donkey 3.24 ± 3.02 14 7.47 ± 8.39 46Rabbit 0.03 ± 0.39 5 8.50 ± 4.95 12
    15. 15. RESULTS: Sheep flock composition and structure 60 Iloodo-ariak 60 Enkaroni Number of sheep 50Number of sheep 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 RAM RAM EWE 10 EWE 10 LAMB LAMBS 0 0 BBDD RM BHP DORPER RRDD RRBB RM BBDD BHP DORPER RRDD RRBB Sheep breed Sheep breed Key: RM -Red Maasai, DD -Dorper, BHP - Blackhead Persian, RRDD - Red Maasai and Dorper cross, RRBB-Red Maasai and Blackhead Persian cross, BBDD - Blackhead Persian and Doper cross.
    16. 16. RESULTS: Sheep Management• Pure breeding: Red Maasai, Cross-breeding: Dorper• Source of breeding rams: Iloodo-ariak - own bred Enkaroni - traders • Sheep entries Most farmers buy ewes
    17. 17. RESULTS: Sheep Management• Pure breeding: Red Maasai, Cross-breeding: Dorper• Source of breeding rams: Iloodo-ariak - own bred Enkaroni - traders • Sheep entries Most farmers buy ewes• Sheep exits  Sale of Live animals  Sale of culled ewes Sales mostly for household needs
    18. 18. RESULTS: Reasons for buying Sheep Food Increase Iloodo-ariakEnkaroni social Food security prestige security 3% Saving 3% 7% method Replacement 10% 28% Replacem Improve For trade ent mutton 24% 57% production 3%Saving Improvememethod nt of 50% Improve mutton milk production Trading production 2% 12% 1%
    19. 19. RESULTS: Sheep Health 160 Enkaroni Number of respondents 140 Iloodoariak 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Bloat RVF LSD PPR Anthrax ECF CCPP Foot rot Anaplasmosis Blue tongue Abscess Worms/Diarrhoea Foot and mouth Sheep DiseaseKey – CCPP - Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, RVF – Rift Valley Fever, PPR – Peste des PetitsRuminants, LSD – Lumpy Skin Disease, ECF – East Coast Fever
    20. 20. Number of respondents 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age 80 Sex Conformation Rank 1 Body weight Breed Age Sex Conformation Rank 2 Body weight Breed Age Sex Enkaroni Conformation Rank 3 Body weight BreedRank of attributes Age Sex Conformation Rank 4 Body weight Breed Age Sex Conformation Rank 5 Body weight RESULTS: Important attributes when buying sheep Breed
    21. 21. Number of respondents 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Age Sex Conformation Rank 1 Body weight Breed Age Sex Conformation Rank 2 Body weight Breed Age Sex Conformation Iloodo-ariak Rank 3 Body weight BreedRank of attributes Age Sex Conformation Rank 4 Body weight Breed Age Sex Conformation Rank 5 Body weight Breed RESULTS: Important attributes when buying sheep
    22. 22. RESULTS: Rank of animals for drought tolerance 140 Number of respondents 120 100 80 60 40 Enkaroni 20 Iloodo-ariak 0 Goat Goat Goat Goat Cattle Cattle Cattle Cattle Sheep Sheep Sheep Sheep Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank of Animal species
    23. 23. RECOMMENDATIONS• Community based Sheep breeding and management program for each area•Infrastructure and Services Animal health services Water availability Environmental management Pasture re-establishment  Markets and marketing of sheep products
    24. 24. Basic building blocks for sustainable breeding programsSuitable indigenous, exotic or crossbred Animal Genetic Resource for the environment and market Infrastructure organisation and management for conducting the breeding programme to be sustainable under pastoral systems Human resources and their development Financial and in kind resources Testing/evaluation scheme appropriate to be sustainable Communication of results to and feed-back from farmers
    25. 25. Breeding programmes: the result of a systems approach with both short and long term benefits ! Monitoring Agricultural genetic progress policy and market Selection and mating Infrastructure incl. gov t and farmer s role Prediction of breeding values Components Environment and of a breeding production system Purebreeding or (conservation) crossbreeding Define and programme characterize available Reprod.methods populations Phenotypic and Define breeding genetic analyses Livestock recording objectives and data processing
    26. 26. Expected OutcomesImproved Sheep production and productivity from pastoral systemsReduced loss of livestock in pastoral production systems resultant from changing climatic conditionsBetter livelihoods resulting from increased resilience among pastoral livestock keepers
    27. 27. Thank youThe presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.
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