Using hubs to increase smallholder farmers’ access to services: Experiences from the East Africa Dairy Development Project
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Using hubs to increase smallholder farmers’ access to services: Experiences from the East Africa Dairy Development Project

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Presented by Isabelle Baltenweck and Immaculate Omondi at Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011

Presented by Isabelle Baltenweck and Immaculate Omondi at Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011

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Using hubs to increase smallholder farmers’ access to services: Experiences from the East Africa Dairy Development Project Using hubs to increase smallholder farmers’ access to services: Experiences from the East Africa Dairy Development Project Presentation Transcript

  • Using hubs to increase smallholder farmers’ access to services: Experiences from the East Africa Dairy Development Project Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 31st January–2nd February 2011 Isabelle Baltenweck and Immaculate Omondi
  • Basic project information
    • Vision: doubling household dairy income by year 10 through integrated interventions in dairy production, market-access and knowledge application.
    • Target of 179,000 families
    • 4 (and a half) year pilot phase in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda
    • Consortium led by Heifer International, with TechnoServe, ILRI, ABS-TCM and ICRAF
    • Most activities involve involvement of farmers’ groups
      • Small groups of 15 to 30 farmers, for training
      • Larger groups (500 +), who owns cooler or manages the bulking centre
  • Cornerstone of the project: the hub approach
  • Advantages of the hub approach
    • Improved access to inputs and services
      • Physical availability
      • Quality
      • Price (bulk purchase)
      • Possibility to purchase on credit using the “check-off” system
    • Improved access to milk market
      • Chilling plant
      • Or bulking raw milk centre (traditional hub)
  • Transforming Chilling plants to Business Hubs TRANSPORTERS TESTING FARMERS FIELD DAYS FEED SUPPLY AI & EXTENSION VILLAGE BANKS OTHER RELATED MEs HARDWARE SUPPLIERS CHILLING HUB
  • ILRI role in EADD
    • In charge of baseline survey
    • Technical support to specific activities (feed and traditional market)
    • “ knowledge broker”- EADD is a pilot project
      • capture and share lessons
      • pilot tests “best bets”
  • Hypotheses tested
    • There is no difference between male and female headed households regarding:
    • registration
    • shareholding
    • milk sale to chilling plants
    • use of services at hub
    • Data do not allow us to do look at intra households decision making
  • Sampling and Data Collection Consultative Participatory Process Structured Dairy Farmer Household Interviews Criteria obtained from 2008 & 2009 Baseline survey ILRI Existing Hub Advanced - Kipkaren New Hub Starter - Kaptumo 301 Households Non-participating Households Hub participating Households New Hub Emerging - Kabiyet
  • Data used
    • Data collected from 301 dairy households in Kenya
      • registered at the EADD hub (56%)
      • Non-registered households (44%)
    • Household socio-economic data collected
      • Farmer characteristics
      • Farm characteristics
      • Hub participation
      • Farmer preferences
  • Registration to the Hub Households are encouraged to register at the hub when they deliver milk or access inputs or services. Data are kept by the hub management. The service is free. There are more registered households among male headed households than among female headed households (difference not statistically significant)   % Male headed households   % Female headed households     n % n % Households registered in EADD hubs 143 57 23 46 Households not registered in EADD hubs but have registered in other group (KCC/ self-help groups) 1 <1 1 2 Households not registered in EADD hubs or any other group 107 43 26 52 total 251 100 50 100.00
  • Who is registered? Relatively large proportion of spouse (women) is registered in male headed households, either on her own (26% of the households) or jointly with head (7%).
  • Challenges with group registration Provide more and better information to potential beneficiaries
  • Shareholding In Chilling Plant hubs, companies are set up to own cooler and equipment. Farmers are encouraged to buy shares
    • Most households have not bought shares (“wait and see attitude”)
    • No major difference between male and female headed households
  • Milk marketing No difference in percentage of male and female headed households selling milk to chilling plants
  • Reasons for not delivering milk
    • Interventions
    • Training on feed management; planning for dry season feeding
    • Price… how to make CP profitable and still pay “good” price to farmers??
  • Use of hub services
    • Fewer female headed households use Animal Health services, Agrovet and Feed store and Artificial Insemination
    • This is likely to have negative impact on milk production
  • Decision to sell milk to chilling plant or purchase inputs at the hub No significant effect on decision to sell milk or purchase inputs   milk marketing use of input & services Variables Coef. P>z Coef. P>z 1 if head is male, 0 if female 0.7 0.14 -0.32 0.68 Education of Head (years of schooling) 0.05 0.36 -0.11 0.17 Household size 0.1 0.36 0.02 0.89 1 if head registered as member of hub, 0 otherwise 1.81** 0.04 1.55 0.11 1 if spouse registered as member of hub, 0 otherwise 1.45 0.15 3.21** 0.01 Value of shares paid in USD (1 USD=Kshs.80) 0.02 0.1 0.07** 0.01 Number of total livestock kept (TLU) 0.21*** 0 0.08 0.35 1 if household keeps exotic cattle, 0 otherwise 1.24 0.17 0.74 0.47 1 if household keeps crossbred cattle, 0 otherwise 1.48 0.09 1.97** 0.05
  • Challenges with Hub Agrovet shop
  • Challenges with Hub AI services
  • Conclusions
    • About 70 hubs, of which 13 do not have chilling plants (traditional market, bulking raw milk)
    • Hub approach provides a flexible way to provide input and output services to small farmers, many of them are women
    • It however requires good governance structure and a lot of “facilitation” to reach sustainability
    • Some adjustments needed for the women to participate, and benefit fully
    • To better understand what’s working (and not working), pilot testing of interventions targeted at women, the poor and the youth planned this year
      • Women‘ group purchase of shares
      • Subsidized access to inputs and services