Update on theParticipatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH)                           Jeffrey C....
Jeffrey Mariner - International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)Cyrille Pissang - Vétérinaires sans Frontières – Belgiu...
Overview of the presentation• Definition and Brief History of PE• Participatory Epidemiology (PE)• Applications of PE• Par...
Participatory EpidemiologyThe use of participatory rural appraisal techniques to collect epidemiological      knowledge an...
Participatory Rural Appraisal             (PRA)• Qualitative intelligence  gathering process• Key informants• Iterative• P...
Participation• The empowerment of people to find  solutions to their own development  challenges• Both an attitude and phi...
Origins of PE• NGO and development experts  enter into animal health  programmes    – Climate of innovation    – Needs ass...
Existing Veterinary Knowledge• Traditional terms and  case definitions• Clinical presentation• Pathology• Vectors• Reservo...
Tools• Secondary sources• Direct observation• Semi-structured interviews   – Checklists vs. questionnaires   – Open-ended ...
Applications of PE• Needs Assessments   – Priorities   – Entry points• Participatory Epi Research   – Basic epi studies   ...
Applications of PE• Community-based Disease  Reporting• Participatory Disease  Surveillance  – Case finding  – Disease fre...
Entry Points and IncentivesYoung girl presenting her pet chicken to culling team during a masscull, Indramayu District Jan...
Participatory Disease               Surveillance• Targeted surveillance  done by professionals• Risk-based• Highly sensiti...
Example fromparticipatory mappingfrom Indonesia
Integrating PDS into surveillance• Surveillance assessment  and plan• Surveillance fit-to-  purpose• Define objectives   –...
Attributes of PE/PDS Programs  – Flexible approach that allows for discovery  – Practitioners are problem-solvers and not ...
Lessons• Use PE/PDS for its strengths  – Flexibility and discovery vs. standardization• Institutionalization  – Organizati...
Appropriate Combinations ofComplimentary Techniques• Participatory approaches• Diagnostic testing• Analytical methods     ...
PENAPH    Participatory Epidemiology Network for           Animal and Public Health•   Building Surveillance Capacity•   G...
PENAPH  Participatory Epidemiology Network for         Animal and Public Health• Nine Core Partners  - Action-oriented  - ...
PENAPH Activities•Capacity building  • Institutional approach•Development of standards – policy briefs•Action research•Pro...
PENAPH Certification•   Practitioners    - Practical Intro training    - Field practice    - Refresher•   Trainers    - Ex...
PENAPH Capacity Building•   International training of trainers    - Geographically diverse    - English, French, etc.•   T...
First Technical Workshop      Chiang Mai Dec 11-13• Presentation of papers and discussion  forums  – 55 abstracts submitte...
Conclusion• Participatory epidemiology is an accepted tool for  addressing animal health issues that compliments more  str...
Thank you!
Update on the Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH)
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Update on the Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH)

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Presented by Jeffrey Mariner at the 13th International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) Conference Maastricht, The Netherlands, 20–24 August 2012.

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Update on the Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH)

  1. 1. Update on theParticipatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH) Jeffrey C. Mariner - PENAPH Coordinator 13th International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) Conference Maastricht, The Netherlands, 20–24 August 2012 c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Jeffrey Mariner - International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)Cyrille Pissang - Vétérinaires sans Frontières – Belgium (VSF-B)Robert Allport - UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)Baba Soumare - Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR)Susanne Munstermann - World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)Parmley Jane - Veterinarians without Borders – Canada (VSF-C)Dirk Pfeiffer - Royal Veterinary College, United Kingdom (RVC)Peter Bloland - US Centers for Disease Control (US-CDC)Monday Busuulwa - African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  3. 3. Overview of the presentation• Definition and Brief History of PE• Participatory Epidemiology (PE)• Applications of PE• Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS)• Attributes of PE/PDS Programs• Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health (PENAPH)• First PE Technical Workshop, Chiang Mai, Dec 11-13, 2012
  4. 4. Participatory EpidemiologyThe use of participatory rural appraisal techniques to collect epidemiological knowledge and intelligence
  5. 5. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)• Qualitative intelligence gathering process• Key informants• Iterative• Problem-solving• Decision-making• Best-bet scenarios
  6. 6. Participation• The empowerment of people to find solutions to their own development challenges• Both an attitude and philosophy – Learning – Discovery – Flexibility• A response to past failures
  7. 7. Origins of PE• NGO and development experts enter into animal health programmes – Climate of innovation – Needs assessments and program design using PRA – New insights• Conventional science sceptical – Anecdotal vs. qualitative inquiry – Difficult to publish – Results of PE applications changed perceptions• Widely practiced technique – Not a panacea – Fit-to-purpose
  8. 8. Existing Veterinary Knowledge• Traditional terms and case definitions• Clinical presentation• Pathology• Vectors• Reservoirs• Epidemiologic features
  9. 9. Tools• Secondary sources• Direct observation• Semi-structured interviews – Checklists vs. questionnaires – Open-ended questions • Discovery • Non-leading – Probing• Visualization - mapping• Scoring - piling• Key diagnostics
  10. 10. Applications of PE• Needs Assessments – Priorities – Entry points• Participatory Epi Research – Basic epi studies – Disease modelling – Risk assessment• Impact Assessment – Epidemiological – Livelihoods – Well-being• Strategy and Policy Reform – More direct link between decision-makers and the livestock owners
  11. 11. Applications of PE• Community-based Disease Reporting• Participatory Disease Surveillance – Case finding – Disease freedom – Community assessments • RP, FMD, PPR • RVF,CSF, HPAI – Fit-to-purpose
  12. 12. Entry Points and IncentivesYoung girl presenting her pet chicken to culling team during a masscull, Indramayu District January 2006. Photo by Peter Roeder.
  13. 13. Participatory Disease Surveillance• Targeted surveillance done by professionals• Risk-based• Highly sensitive – Traditional information networks – Extended time frame• Specificity – Validation – Cross-checking Photo: C. Pissang Tchangaï, VSF-B – Diagnostic testing
  14. 14. Example fromparticipatory mappingfrom Indonesia
  15. 15. Integrating PDS into surveillance• Surveillance assessment and plan• Surveillance fit-to- purpose• Define objectives – National priorities• Optimal balance of attributes – Sensitivity, timeliness, etc.• Optimal mix of activities
  16. 16. Attributes of PE/PDS Programs – Flexible approach that allows for discovery – Practitioners are problem-solvers and not enumerators – Strength of the approach lies in its flexible and qualitative nature – Orients and complements, but does not replace structured and quantitative methods – Information from diverse sources and methods – Analyzed in an iterative process referred to as triangulation – Integrates daignostic testing and quantitative methods when appropriate to objectives
  17. 17. Lessons• Use PE/PDS for its strengths – Flexibility and discovery vs. standardization• Institutionalization – Organizations and rules of the game – What is the objective? • An accepted problem solving tool or a • Structured routine to fill databases?• Invest in expert teams – Focus on quality not quantity of personnel
  18. 18. Appropriate Combinations ofComplimentary Techniques• Participatory approaches• Diagnostic testing• Analytical methods Persistence as a Function of Initial Herd Immunity 800 Length of Outbreak (Days) 700 600 500 400 300 200 1 00 0 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 1 00000 1 20000 1 40000 1 60000 1 80000 200000 Initial Number Recovered (Immune)
  19. 19. PENAPH Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health• Building Surveillance Capacity• Good Practice Guidelines• Certification of Training• Research, Policy and Advocacy• Pro-Poor and One Health Focus• Knowledge Exchange c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  20. 20. PENAPH Participatory Epidemiology Network for Animal and Public Health• Nine Core Partners - Action-oriented - Decisions by consensus• Practitioners, Trainers and Organizations - Key stakeholders - Over 300 members to date• Linkages with Regional and National Organizations c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  21. 21. PENAPH Activities•Capacity building • Institutional approach•Development of standards – policy briefs•Action research•Project development•PENAPH website and virtual community of practice www.penaph.net•Policy dialogue and advocacy c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  22. 22. PENAPH Certification• Practitioners - Practical Intro training - Field practice - Refresher• Trainers - Experienced practitioners - Training on training - Mentored training experience• Master Trainers• Policy Brief c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  23. 23. PENAPH Capacity Building• International training of trainers - Geographically diverse - English, French, etc.• Training support  2 projects• Regional Networks  4 projects• Mentoring process  3 projects• Certification c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  24. 24. First Technical Workshop Chiang Mai Dec 11-13• Presentation of papers and discussion forums – 55 abstracts submitted• Forums – Incorporating participation in epi and surveillance – Methods for evaluation – Information at www.penaph.net c/o ILRI, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya; phone: +254-20 422 3000; fax:+ 254-20 422 3001; email:ilri-kenya@cgiar.org
  25. 25. Conclusion• Participatory epidemiology is an accepted tool for addressing animal health issues that compliments more structured or quantitative approaches• Combining PE with more conventional approaches can add value and strength• Guidelines rather than rules• Appropriate training is essential for quality results• Don’t cut corners.
  26. 26. Thank you!
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