Towards an understanding of livestock water productivity in the Nile River Basin

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A presentation prepared by A. Astatke, D. Peden, K. Sonder, W. Ayalneh, G. Tadesse, G.H. Kiwuwa, F. Ahmed, M. Abdel-Meguid, and T. Kumsa for the CPWF Workshop, Entebbe, 27 November to 1 December 2005.

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Towards an understanding of livestock water productivity in the Nile River Basin

  1. 1. Towards an understanding of livestock water productivity in the Nile River Basin A. Astatke, D. Peden, K. Sonder, A. Ayalneh, G. Tadesse, G.H. Kiwuwa, F. Ahmed, M. Abdel-Meguid, and T. Kumsa CPWF Workshop, Entebbe 27 November to 1 December 2005
  2. 2. Outline : Nile Basin livestock water productivity <ul><li>Partners & background </li></ul><ul><li>Water requirement for livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock water productivity framework </li></ul><ul><li>Related gender roles and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples for increasing LWP </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background: <ul><li>Focus countries: Ethiopia, Sudan & Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt participating </li></ul><ul><li>10 partners </li></ul><ul><li>LWP approach to: </li></ul><ul><li>Better integrated river basin management </li></ul><ul><li>Improved livelihoods at households and in communities </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul>NEED TO FILL MAJOR KNOWLEDGE GAP! PROJECT DETAILS
  4. 4. Livestock use of water resources <ul><li>Past research focused on direct intake: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water in feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metabolic water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water to produce feed is 50 to 100 times greater than intake. </li></ul><ul><li>But water to produce adult human diet of 3000 kcal/day is 3500 litres or 70 times than domestic water needs of 50 l/person/day. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Livestock use of water resources <ul><li>Tropical livestock unit = 250 kg of live animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking: 20 to 80 litres/TLU/day. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance: 1230 litre/TLU/day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance: 450 m 3 /TLU/year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual up to 2X greater. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ non-consumptive degradation & contamination. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Livestock use of water resources <ul><li>SSA production and consumption of animal products will increase at up to 4 %/year between 1993 and 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Most increased consumption will be in rapidly growing urban areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic growth cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased per capita urban consumption </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Livestock use of water resources: A preliminary Nile-wide overview (Assume 450 m 3 /TLU/day) A Based on cattle, sheep, goats and camels B Refers to water needed to produce maintenance feed only, but more is needed for growth, reproduction, work, etc. 26.2 58.4 TOTAL <0.1 0.1 D.R. Congo 2.3 5.2 Uganda 0.1 0.3 Burundi 2.4 5.3 Kenya 0.3 0.6 Eritrea 2.9 6.5 Egypt 0.3 0.6 Rwanda 5.3 11.7 Ethiopia 2.2 4.8 Tanzania 10.4 23.2 Sudan H 2 0 for feed B (km 3 /year) Million TLU A Country H 2 0 for feed B (km 3 /year) Million TLU A Country
  8. 8. Nile livestock densities <ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><li>(Highland) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><li>(Lake shore) </li></ul><ul><li>Many species & breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Many purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Many cultures </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ground & soil water recharge Infiltration Evaporation Discharge/flood Contamination & Degradation Transpiration A water accounting approach to LWP Ground water In - flow Surf-ace Rain Driver of all agriculture & agro ecosystem services Drinking Livestock drinking is a vital internal process within agro-ecosystem, but not part of LWP Depletion = Water lost & not re-usable within agro ecosystems
  10. 10. In - flow Surf-ace Rain Ground & soil water recharge Infiltration Evaporation Discharge/flood Contamination & Degradation Ground water Drinking LWP = ∑(Beneficial outputs) ∑ (Depleted water) Depleted water Beneficial animal outputs: Meat, milk, hides, farm power, manure, wealth savings, & cultural values Tree fodder Pasture/range Grain Feed crops Transpiration Residue Food crops
  11. 11. In - flow Surf-ace Rain Ground & soil water recharge Infiltration Evaporation Discharge/flood Contamination & Degradation Tree fodder Pasture/range Grain Feed crops Transpiration Resid . Food crops STRATEGIES TO INCREASE LWP Gr. water Drinking Beneficial animal outputs: Meat, milk, hides, farm power, manure, wealth savings, & cultural values Imported feed Feed Sourcing Feed/forage crop improvement & selection Enhancing Production Breeding, vet health, nutrition, adding value, market Water conserving Veg., soil, water, watering, Managing waste & hygiene
  12. 12. LWP & gender <ul><li>Strategies for improving LWP are highly gendered (Van Hoeve & Van Koppen (2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing drinking water frees up labour that can be re-allocated to value added butter production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting from grazing to zero-grazing can shift burden of labour from boys to girls. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Example strategies for increasing LWP <ul><li>Feed sourcing and estimating LWP </li></ul><ul><li>Animal productivity enhancing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Water conservation strategies: livestock watering </li></ul><ul><li>Water conservation strategies: grazing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Feed sourcing and estimating LWP 1US = 8.7 Birr Estimated livestock water productivity (LWP) LWP HIGHER IN NON-IRRIGATOR HOUSEHOLDS – WHY? 0.24 0.14 0.30 0.18 LWP (US/ m 3 ) 2.05 1.20 2.62 1.50 LWP (Birr/m 3 ) 1611 3087 936 1551 Water required for livestock feed (m 3 /hh) 3306 3668 2453 2315 Total 200 200 200 200 Livestock products consumed 228 - - 200 Livestock & products sales 457 685 310 393 Manure 684 699 466 392 Threshing 1155 1290 1035 480 Transport 582 794 442 650 Draught Non-irrigator Irrigator Non-irrigator Irrigator Batu Degaga Doni Estimated Parameters
  15. 15. Feed sourcing - Ethiopia The relation of crop residue available and LPW Livestock production based on use of crop residue and by-products requires no extra water for feed production
  16. 16. Enhancing Animal productivity - Egypt <ul><li>Livestock: 30 % of agricultural GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting improved species and breeds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>milk yield from the native Baladi cow is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switch to buffalo or Friesian crosses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>farmers mix own feed rations for improving the feed quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veterinary care. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conserving Water: grazing (Uganda) <ul><li>Underutilization of pasture >>> encroachment of bush reducing productivity potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing >>> reduces vegetation cover & compacts soil enhances soil & run-off losses & reduces infiltration. </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal production and termites aggravate low LWP. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conserving water: grazing Unique site specific responses A B C 0 Decrease Increase PRIMARY PRODUCTION GRAZING INTENSITY <ul><li>Primary production may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A” decrease with increasing grazing intensity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ B” remain unaffected until intermediate levels of grazing intensity are reached and then fall; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ C” increase with increasing grazing intensity to an optimal level and the decrease. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conserving water: watering Crowded watering contaminates wells, ground water, rivers, & lakes enhancing human and animal disease risk SUDAN ETHIOPIA Improved watering can reduce degradation of water resources and wetlands.
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>LWP assessment helps understanding of options for more effective use of water by livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable at different spatial scales </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to assess values that livestock provide in terms of cultural, social and wealth savings. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating gender analyses into ex-ante assessments of LWP is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to integrate with wider WP research. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to scale out to other basins. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank You! Pastoralists in Sudan store water in Baobab trees for use in dry season

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