The role of gender in strengthening  the causal linkages between livestock production and human nutrition
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The role of gender in strengthening the causal linkages between livestock production and human nutrition

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Presentation by Jemimah Njuki to the BECA-CSIRO Workshop on Human Nutrition, ILRI Nairobi, 26-29th April 2010

Presentation by Jemimah Njuki to the BECA-CSIRO Workshop on Human Nutrition, ILRI Nairobi, 26-29th April 2010

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  • Access to right quantity/quality/stability of food We need to do more than the blue circle

The role of gender in strengthening  the causal linkages between livestock production and human nutrition The role of gender in strengthening the causal linkages between livestock production and human nutrition Presentation Transcript

  • The Role of Gender in Strengthening the Causal Linkages between Livestock Production and Human Nutrition Jemimah Njuki Presented at the BECA-CSIRO Workshop on Human Nutrition ILRI Nairobi, 26-29 th April 2010
  • First a note on agriculture and nutrition
    • Four main pathways through which agriculture can improve nutrition
    Increasing household availability and access to sufficient and affordable quantities of food Increasing availability and access to high-quality foods and diverse diets Reducing gender inequity and empowering women, who play a critical role in ensuring food, nutrition and health security for their families Increasing income and reducing poverty in households and communities engaged in agricultural work Agriculture links to nutrition
  • How can we improve nutrition? Breastfeeding Complementary feeding Vitamin A Zinc Hygiene INSTITUTIONS POLITICAL & IDEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ECONOMIC STRUCTURE RESOURCES ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Food/nutrient intake Health Water/ Sanitation health services Interventions Immediate causes Underlying causes Basic causes - Agriculture - Poverty Reduction - Education - Health Systems Strengthening - Income generation - Women’s empowerment Maternal and child-care practices Access to food
  • Livestock production and human nutrition? What do we know? Figure. Hypothesized causal linkages between livestock keeping and human nutrition and health outcomes among the poor (adapted from Nicholson et al., 2003). ASF = animal-source food; HH = household (Randolph et al. 2007) Its complex!
  • Basic pathways from livestock production to improved nutrition
    • Consumption of animal source foods from a household's own production
    • Impacts on household income from sale of livestock products (can be spent on other food, or not)
    • Impacts on productivity of cropping systems through nutrient cycling
    • Impacts on the allocation of labour, including labour for care of children
    • Impacts on human disease incidence from livestock keeping
  • Assuming some simplicity……….. ? ? What are the intervening issues What are the pre-conditions
  • Consumption of animal source foods and improved nutrition: what do we know?
    • ASF are energy dense and good sources of
      • Protein
      • Minerals (Fe, Zn and Ca)
      • Vitamins (Vit B12 and Riboflavin)
    • Many minerals are better absorbed from ASF than they are from plant source foods
    • ASF also tend to be rich in fat, good source of fat soluble vitamins
    • Potential to boost immunity in HIV infected persons
  • Consumption of animal source foods and improved nutrition: what do we know?
    • Pregnancy
      • Consumption of ASF associated with infant growth
      • Maternal haemoglobin concentration associated with infant birth weight
    • Infancy and childhood
      • Positive association between milk consumption and height for age Z scores of children (Ruel, 2003)
      • Positive association between meat consumption by children and physical growth
      • In Kenya, children consuming meat had greater MUAC than non-consumers (Grillenberger, 2005)
      • In observational studies in 3 countries, the only dietary measure that has predicted cognitive performance in children is the amount of ASF in the diet (Allen, 1993)
  • Consumption of animal source foods and improved nutrition: what do we know?
    • Animal Source Foods and Chronic Disease Risk
      • Red meat consumption can increase the risk of coronary heart disease and several forms of cancer (Hu and Willet, 1998). Poultry consumption does not seem to be a risk factor and fish may lower the risks
      • In healthy diets, the beneficial role of meat outweighs the uncertain association with cancer (Hill, 2002)
  • We know the links between consumption of ASF and improved nutrition!
    • What we do not know is:
      • what are the interventions, programs, policies that will lead to livestock production leading to increased consumption of animal source foods !
      • To what extent is this a technology /social science question? Or a combination?
    ?
  • Livestock production and improved nutrition? What are the intervening factors
    • Set within 4 levels of dairy intensification
    • Low-income smallholder households without cattle
    • Low-income smallholder households with indigenous cattle with no or very irregular milk sales
    • Low-income smallholder households already participating in formal milk markets (still low market orientation)
    • Low-income smallholder households with cross or purebred dairy cows and regular milk sales.
  • 1. Direct Nutrition Benefits
      • Intermediate determinants of child nutritional status
      • Breast Feeding and weaning practices
      • Food intake patterns and practices (diet diversity and food frequencies)
      • Intra-household food allocation
      • Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices
  • 2. Gender mediated interventions
      • Changes in women’s roles with introduction /intensification of livestock production especially in terms of time allocation (care giver time)
      • Decision making in relation to use of milk and income allocation
      • Expenditure patterns-food and health input purchases
      • Access to training, nutrition information, livestock assets
  • 3. Household Economics
      • Changes in income and income share generated by dairy activities
      • Income expenditure on food
      • Allocation of milk production to own consumption vs sale
  • 4. Public Health
      • Health related determinants of child nutritional status (healthcare expenditure and health seeking behaviour
      • Disease risk profiling
      • Syndromic surveillance
      • Access to public health services and information
  • Key Areas for further research
    • Given these social factors intervening between livestock production and improvements in human nutrition
      • What livestock? What milk? What forms?
      • How do we structure livestock programes so that they deliver on nutrition outcomes?
      • What are the most optimal pathways (combination of pathways) to nutrition improvement through livestock
      • Safety and nutrition