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The role of gender in crop value chains in Ethiopia
 

The role of gender in crop value chains in Ethiopia

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Presented by Lemlem Aregu, Ranjitha Puskur and Clare Bishop Sambrook at the Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011

Presented by Lemlem Aregu, Ranjitha Puskur and Clare Bishop Sambrook at the Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011

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    The role of gender in crop value chains in Ethiopia The role of gender in crop value chains in Ethiopia Presentation Transcript

    • The Role of Gender in crop Value Chains in Ethiopia Lemlem Aregu, Ranjitha Puskur and Clare Bishop Sambrook ILRI/IPMS Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 31st January–2nd February 2011
    • 1.Background
      • Rural women represent a significant productive force in the agri sector of Ethiopia either
        • As a family member
        • Heading the household
      • Government policies to strengthen the position of women
        • PASDEP 2005 planned to reach out to 30% women in MHH and100% FHH in the agri extension program
        • GTP reinforce participation of women in the new plan
      • Despite these initiatives, women’s limited participation in value chains due to a variety of constraints is inhibiting the commercialization of agriculture
      • IPMS has conducted gender analysis for priority commodities selected in each PLWs as a first step in addressing the gender issues in commodity development
    • 2. Objectives of the gender analysis
      • To understand the different roles of women and men in crop production, marketing, decision making and their share in benefits
      • To identify potential barriers for women’s and men’s participation in market-led development initiatives
      • To identify what actions may be required by the project in order to overcome some of the barriers
    • 3. Methods and process Qualitative studies undertaken by the project in 4 regions across 10 PLWs The field work was conducted between 2005 and 2007 The information was gathered in 4 PAs per woreda A range of participatory tools like Wealth ranking, proportional pilling used 10 to 28 community members per PA participated (1/3rd-1/2 of were women) Separate discussions held with men and women community members
    • 3. Methods and process
      • The gender analysis also gathered information on
        • Division of labour in production – who does what
        • Role of gender in marketing – who sells what, how much, when, how often, where and to whom
        • Access and control of resources and benefits - who controls the income from the sale of the produce
        • Access to inputs technologies, information and services – who has access to which inputs, technologies and services; what are the sources of knowledge and information for men and women
        • Decision making - who decides on what
      • Findings shared among partners through various events and communication products
      • Published as a working paper
    • 4. Gender characteristics of rural populations
      • 4.1. Workload of rural women
      • In Ethiopia most rural women work from dawn to dusk (10-12 hours per day) vary b/n wet & dry season
      • In contrast with men they have little time for leisure or socializing
      • They are the major source of labor in agriculture
      • They are also responsible for caring of children and entire household
      • Half of their working hours devoted to HH activities
      • In rainfed farming systems, men’s workload is lightest during the dry season compared to HHs with access to irrigated land
    • 4. Gender characteristics of rural populations
      • Women
      • Engaged in diverse off-farm livelihood activities, influenced by
        • the local farming systems
        • resource endowments & wealth
      • In Rich and middle wealth HHs
        • Trade in ag products at small scale
      • In poor HHs
        • Work as casual laborer on farm and in the home of rich HHs
        • Sell fuel wood, sorghum/maize stalk
        • Engaged in cotton spinning or injera making for sell
        • Brewing and selling local alcohol
      4.2. Rural livelihoods
      • Men
      • Men also undertake a wide range of off-farm activities
        • Influenced by wealth
      • Rich men involved in activities that require capital
        • Trading in ag product
        • Investing in processing equipments
        • Lending money
      • In poor HHs
        • Work as casual laborer on farm
        • Migrate temporarily for work
    • 4. Gender characteristics……. 4.3. Female headed HHs
      • On average the proportion of FHHs is 15-35% in Ethiopia
      • They are found among the poorer HH in each community
      • Few FHH in the rich or middle wealth groups
      Distribution of male and female-headed households by wealth category Incidence of female-headed households The challenges of FHHs are different from those faced by MHHs 26 7 South 36 5 Total 34 5 Oromia 36 16 Amhara 35 35 Tigray Range of FHH in % Region
    • 5. 1 Gender division of labour in crop production
      • MEN
      • Men are typically responsible for heavier manual tasks like tillage
      • Men play dominant role in seed selection, reflecting their better access to information
      • They also involved in skilled jobs of broadcasting seed and fertilizer
      • However once the household adopted row planting any family members can plant including women
      • Men are also responsible for threshing and winnowing
      Generally men are key players in crop production
      • WOMEN
      • Women are involved with activities require handiness and attention to details like rasing seedlings, transplanting and weeding
      • They are also responsible closely associated with their household responsibilities like storage, processing and adding value
      • Deviations
      • During critical times, both women and men do the activities together like weeding and harvesting
      • Richer HHs often overcome labour peaks by hiring labour
      • Middle wealth use reciprocal labour arrangement ( Debo,Jigi, wenfel…)
      • The poor may also use reciprocal labour arrangements but they use their family labour
      • Women support these, through providing refreshment food & drink preparation
      • In Fogera most of the activities associated with pepper cultivation are done by women
      • In Alaba, they are performed solely by men
      • In Bure, the activities are shared
      • Men dominate vegetable activities in Atsbi while it is shared in Bure
      5.1. Gender division of labour……. There are inter-regional differences in division of labor (e.g., pepper & Vegetable) Division of labor differences by wealth group
      • In Miesso, men perform all activities related to maize and sorghum production in rich HHs
      • The activities are shared in middle and poor HHs
      Generally the gender division of labour less marked in poor HHs; the income tend to share more equitable
        • MEN
      • Men from rich and middle wealth HHs often sell major crops in bulk
      • Occasionally they may travel to distant markets to secure high prices
      • Poorer farmers and women tend to accept price at local markets which are accessible by foot
      • Women and the poor are more likely to sell directly to consumers
      • Men and better off HHs sell to private traders and cooperatives
      5.2. Gender roles in marketing and sharing the benefits from the production The nature of market engagement differs significantly b/n women & men and influenced by wealth of HHs
        • WOMEN
      • Women have little control over the income benefits from crop production
        • Out of 13 crop commodities produced for market which were studied, men control income from 11
        • Women control and share income only from 2 crops
      • Due to the dominance of men in marketing, women sometimes sell small quantities of the produce in secret which results in market inefficiencies Table 6 control of income.doc
    • 5.2. Gender roles in marketing ……
      • When the volume of produce per HH is small, women control the income
      • when it is more substantial, the income tends be shared
      • When the production is commercialized, men control the income Table 5 workload and benefit sharing.doc
      Control over the income differs with the level of production (e.g., fruit production in Goma) Generally there is imbalance between workload and share in the benefit of the crop Wealth group gender Avocado sales by HH wealth in Goma Bulbulo Limu Sapa Gengi Elbu Rich W 10 - - M - - 800 T 10 - 800 Middle W 12 60 50 M - - 600 T 12 60 650 Poor W 15 - 150 M - - 20 T 15 - 170
    • 5.3. Gender based preferences for seeds
      • Women opt to produce varieties which are good quality and for domestic consumption
      • Men prefer crop varieties which have high market demand and fetch high price
        • Eg.in Ada men prefer to produce improved varieties Shasho, Arerti of chick pea for the market
        • In Alaba men prefer to produce improved haricot bean Mexican & Awash as they fetches higher price
        • women prefer the local variety Dima & Red wolayta
      • Poor tend to prefer generally less risky (disease resistant and locally available crop varieties)
      Women’s preferences for crop varieties differs from that of men
    • 6. Gender differences in technology &services
      • Although both men and women benefit from improved technology availability, men tend to benefit more
      • Adoption of technology among poorer inhibited by inability to afford
      • Women and poor HHs access agricultural inputs mainly through formal government sources
      • There is limited private sector involvement in input supply and service provision, mainly catering to the rich and middle wealth HHs
      6.2. Gender access to inputs and services 6.1. Gender differences in tech adoption
    • 7. Gender access to sources of information, knowledge and skill and Decision-making
      • Men depend mainly on formal information sources
      • This helps men to improve their skills and knowledge and their performances in agricultural activities
      • In contrast, women farmers rarely get extension support that would enable them to enhance their knowledge and skills which can improve their performance of agri activities
        • They depend on informal sources (neighbors & husbands)
      7.1 Source of infon, knowledge and skill depends on the HHs wealth and gender differences
      • Decisions about enterprise mix and technology adoption tend appears to be male dominated
        • Particularly in Rich and middle households
        • joint decisions in poor households
      • Only in FHHs women control the decision on what to plant and technologies to adopt,
      7.2. Decision-making
    • 10. Implication for market led development
      • As a result of market-oriented development it is expected that workload will increase for both men and women but in different magnitude
        • Depending on what tasks they are responsible for
      • Generally there is an imbalance between workload and share in the benefit of the crop production
      • There is very real risk that process of commercialization may further marginalize women
      • Women may be also deprived of control over income from the limited range of commodities that they enjoy at present
      Risks that further marginalize women should be understood and measures should be introduced along side the intervention
    • 11. Conclusion
      • While designing development interventions for supporting market oriented agricultural development, it is important to take account of gender differences in terms of workload, share of the benefits and accessing, inputs technologies and services
      • It is also relevant to consider their input preferences
        • provide access to improved varieties which serve dual purpose - home consumption and sale
      • Access to credit is critical to be able to use some of the modern technologies
        • Capital scarcity acts as a major barrier for women and poor and tends to leave them out of the technology development process
      It is required to conduct site and commodity specific gender analysis to understand gender roles and relations in crop value chain
    • Thank you!