The conditions within which smallholder pig value chains operate in Uganda…


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Presented by Alex Tatwangire at the Uganda smallholder pig value chains development planning workshop, Nairobi, 24-25 September 2012

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  • Most (80%) households keep a few pigs in the backyard- free-range managementFew (17%) peri-urban small-scale farmers that keep pigs on intensive basis.
  • The conditions within which smallholder pig value chains operate in Uganda…

    1. 1. The conditions within which smallholder pig value chains operate in Uganda: Preliminary results Alex Tatwangire ( smallholder pig value chains development planning workshop, Nairobi, 24-25 September 2012
    2. 2. The livestock sector in UgandaSection 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4• The livestock • The potential of • Import & export • Major sector and pig production of live pigs and constraints of policy in Uganda pig meat small holder pig framework in products production in Uganda • Pig production Uganda and production • Value addition• Consumption of systems by actors, • Conclusion pork and pig processig and meat products marketing of pig products
    3. 3. The livestock sector in Uganda • An important sector of the economy The • Contributes up to 23.8 percent of the GDP, generating about 48% of exportagricultural earnings (Republic of Uganda 2010; MAAIF 2011). sector • contributes about 15% of agricultural GDP (FAO, 2005). • A 3 percent increase in the number of livestock and poultry in Uganda during between 2009 and 2010 (MAAIF 2011). Livestock • About 4.5 million households (70.8%) in Uganda rear at least one kind of sector livestock or poultry (UBOS & MAAIF 2009). • Pig production in Uganda is widespread and increasing at a high rate. About 17.8 percent (1.1 millions) of all households own at least 1 pig (UBOS & MAAIF 2009)..Pig livestock • The number of pigs increased from 0.19 million in 1980 to 3.2 million in sub-sector 2008.
    4. 4. Trends in livestock populationTable 1: Trends in livestock population (values in ‘000’) in Uganda (FAO, 2005: MAAIF, 2009) Species Period (in Years) 1980 1990 2000 2002 2008 Cattle 4,771 4,913 5,966 6,075 11,409 Sheep and goats 3,862 5,490 7,477 7,993 15,863 Pigs 187 1,160 1,573 1,710 3,184 Poultry 13,200 18,960 26,974 32,638 37,444Table 2: Pigs and ruminant livestock population (, 000) in 2008 (Census Report, 2009) Pigs Cattle Goats Sheep Region Population % Population % Population % Population % Central 1,308 41 2,476 22 1,676 13 272 8 Eastern 700 22 2,489 22 2,500 21 319 9 Northern 341 11 1,642 14 2,696 22 569 17 Western 778 24 2,549 22 3,452 28 568 17 Karamoja 58 2 2,254 20 2,025 16 1,686 49 Total 3,184 100 11,409 100 12,450 100 3,413 100
    5. 5. Policy framework in UgandaCommitted to increase investment in core areas of: • Agricultural research; agricultural advisory services; pest and disease control; regulatory services; promoting value chain development; improved use of water for agricultural production, and; the support & supervision of service delivery in local governments. • Concerns of a costly policy duplication in the past 12 years.The National Development Plan (NDP), 2009-2014 • Replaced the two former national plans “the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and the Strategic Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA), 2001 - 2009. • In line with the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan (DSIP), a guide to the country’s agricultural priorities, development programs, and agricultural transformation. • A road-map to public interventions in the agricultural sector, to boost agricultural growth, food security and poverty reduction.
    6. 6. Policy framework in Uganda (ctn’d) • National Policy for the Delivery of VeterinaryAnimal Services (2001)health • National Veterinary Drug Policy (2002)related • The National Animal Feeds Policy (2005) • Animal Breeding Policy (1997) and Act (2001) • The National Meat Policy (2003 Food • Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP) II 2005-2010 safetyrelated • National Environment Policy • Decentralization Policy (1993) • The National Land Use Policy Other • National Adaptation Plan of Action 2007related • Uganda Food and Nutrition Policy, 2003
    7. 7. Consumption of pork and pig meat productsIncrease in Uganda’s human population, currentlyestimated to be about 34,612,250 millions; about773,463 reside in Kampala.• High domestic & regional demand for pork/pork products:- increase in human population growth, urbanization, purchasing power & change in tastes & preferencesDaily consumption of pigs (pigs slaughtered per day) inKampala is estimated to be between 300 and 500.• Pork products in Uganda include: live pigs, large pieces (usually the thighs and chest) of pork, pork chops, pork sausages, bacon, ham, roasted (or fried) pork chops and ribs.
    8. 8. Proportion of households that owned, sold, and slaughtered pigs, 1990-2010 1990 2000/01 2009/10Particulars Freq. % Freq. % Freq. %Male headedHouseholds that owned pigs 42 10.1 89 21.4 328 30.6Households that sold pigs 50 12.0 98 9.2Households that slaughtered pigs 9 2.2 6 0.6Total number of observations (N) 416 416 1071Female headedHouseholds that owned pigs 3 8.8 5 14.7 121 31.9Households that sold pigs 5 14.7 29 7.7Households that slaughtered pigs 0 0.0 1 0.3Total number of observations (N) 34 34 379OverallHouseholds that owned pigs 45 10.0 94 20.9 449 30.9Households that sold pigs 55 12.2 127 8.8Households that slaughtered pigs 9 2.0 7 0.5Total number of observations (N) 450 450 1451Notice: (i) Figure in the table include Frequencies and percentages; (ii) Statistics in the Table were computedbased on UBOS 2009/10 round of UNPS survey.
    9. 9. Pig production in Uganda • About 80-90% of livestock keepers are Pig industry in smallholders, keep pigs in the backyard. Uganda • Has increased in the last 3 decades, underdeveloped. • Livestock growth rate (3%) lower than growth rate (3.3 %) in human population. The current • The country has the potential to be population of pigs self sufficient in pork products.estimated to be 3.2 • The numbers of pigs slaughtered million increasing • Are relatively resistant to some diseases,Pigs can have high and their unrestrictive feeding habits productivity & allows the use of various feedstuffs, growth rates • Only pigs & poultry continue to register minor gains in off-take rate
    10. 10. Total number of pigs by district in Uganda (The National Livestock Census Report 2008, Pg 60)
    11. 11. Pig production systems in Uganda • Pigs are kept housed all the time (are provided with feeds, water, and protection from extreme weather)Intensive pig • Characterized by higher demand for labour/other inputs. Provides system higher farm output; accounts for a very small proportion • Pigs are partly housed and partly kept outdoors on the pasture • Allows improvement in: feeding; growth rate; disease control; control Semi- of heat stress; mating, and; the quality of animals. Demands highintensive pig system amounts of labour, but gives relatively high farm output. • The simplest & most common system in Uganda. Pigs are kept out- door, to freely move around the homestead as they feed on their own,Extensive or or tethered.tethered pig- • Often practiced by the very poor, who tend to invest in a low cost/ low system output farming system, characterizes subsistence production
    12. 12. Imports and Exports of Live Pigs and Pig meat products, 2007-2011Items 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Live pigs importedNumber - 1030 - - --Value (Million Ushs) - 24.6 - - -Pig meat and meat products importedQuantity (Kg) 10341 9375 10777 - 133601Value (Million Ushs) 28.6 40.4 53.3 - 2247.6 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Live pigs exportedNumber 310 174 - 122 -Value (Million Ushs) 31.8 8.5 - 43.1 -Pig meat and meat products exportedQuantity (Kg) 18622 - 179 32790.4 1346.1Value (Million Ushs) 17.5 - 6.0 295.5 29.6Source: Compiled from Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) Data, Division of Research
    13. 13. Activity Chain actors and interactionsConsumption Consumers in Consumers in Consumers in Pig value the pork joints households institutions and hotels chain map in Uganda (adaptedRetailing and Roadside pork Super Outlets ofdistribution butcheries markets urban from: processors Farmers’ FGDsSlaughter and Slaughter Pork Urban Local conductedprocessing of houses and butcheries consumerspig meat City abbatoirs processors by the LivestockMarketing of Data Local Government Traders Otherlive piglets and trader in thru NAADS, in adult farmers 1% Innovationadult pigs piglets and NGOs pigs Project in 5% 5% 10% 50% 34% 5% Wakiso and %Rearing of pigs Pig farmer 1: Pig farmer 2: Mukonoon farms Keeps pigs and breeds 90% Keeps and fattens districts, piglets piglets September 2012Farm inputs and Land Farm toolstheir suppliers Water Pig feeds from feed stores Labor (daily or monthly) for Drugs, disinfectants & tending pigs acaricides: veterinary Capital for investment and shops sources such as: banks, MFIs, Crop inputs (fertilizers, and friends and relatives seeds,& pesticides)
    14. 14. Major constraints of small holder pig production in Uganda 1• Lack of capital on farms; limited access to information/training on pig husbandry• Poor management (animal feeding/nutrition)• Expensive veterinary services/extension services• Fake drugs and feeds.• Limited access to & knowing which pig breeds that are productive for different production systems.• Poor structure of pig industry (more traders in the supply chain).• Farmers are poorly organized (unable to take advantage of collective marketing/upgrading)• Low productivity due to technical/management problems on farms
    15. 15. Major constraints of small holder pig production in Uganda 2• Poor transport & market infrastructure• Limited value addition on pork & pig meat products.• Pig production not among priority areas in the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan (DSIP) for Uganda.• Pork safety problems of zoonoses (e.g. tape worms, TB, & anthrax) & contamination• Pig diseases: -African Swine Fever, helminthosis, scabies, mange (i.e. skin disease characterised by intense itching and caused by mites), coughing and diarrhoea.
    16. 16. Conclusions 1Access to affordable credit, training, extension services, veterinary services, improved infrastructure and good breeds crucial if pig productivity is to improve.Improvement in the pig production system due to recent routine interventions in the control of animal diseases.Efforts to achieve meat output targets in the country limited by livestock policies that focus more on cattle, goats, sheep and chicken enterprises that require high cost of production.The private veterinary services sector is growing at a very slow pace compared to the demands for such services.The animal feed industry is under developed, unable to ensure supply of quality feed all year round due to limited infrastructure. Problem of substandard feeds and feed stuffs.
    17. 17. Conclusions 2Poor hygiene/contamination of pork, abattoirs, and pork joints is greatly reducing the competitiveness of pig sector in Uganda.Boosting pig productivity requires improvement in breeding, feed production, and modern pig abattoirs.Meat inspectors in the country demoralised due to the lack of authority to punish culprits of illegal and unhygienic pig slaughter.The market of live pigs, pork & pork products is segmented and needs to be improved to reward quality and supply to the poor.The increase in the number of pigs reared appears to be more pronounced among the richest 25 percent & poorest 25 percent of households.
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