Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience

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Presented by Azage Tegegne at the Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011.

Presented by Azage Tegegne at the Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011.

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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience Presentation Transcript

  • Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
    Azage Tegegne
    Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop
    ILRI, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011
  • Background
    Increasing urbanization
    Increasing income
    Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products
    Excellent pre-conditions
    GoE – favourable enabling environment, GTP, AGP, LGP
    Suitable agro-ecology
    Large livestock population
    Tradition of livestock keeping
    Culture of consumption of animal products
    Large labour force
    Huge market opportunity, etc
  • But, hindered by
    Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates
    Inbreeding??
    High prices for improved dairy animals
    About 50% - male calves in dairy system
    Low level of promotion of indigenous breeds
    Weak targeted technological interventions
  • Cow♀
    Bull♂
    Joining/Mating
    Conception
    Calving
    Weaning
    Simple requirement for cattle reproductive performance
  • Involution/breeding season
    Critical 75-90 days
    Parturition
    Conception
    Gestation
    280 days
    Reproductive cycle
  • Some technological options
    Conventional artificial insemination (AI)
    Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI
    Sexed semen
    Sex fixer
    Embryo transfer and sexed embryos
    In-vitro fertilization plus sexed semen
  • Stages of bovine oestrous cycle
  • What is oestrus synchronization?
    Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply…
  • Natural hormones for oestrus synchronization
    Prostaglandins
    PRID
    Syncromate B
    Ear Implant
  • General Response to Prostaglandin: PGF2α
    • Estrus (heat): 2-5 days after treatment
    • Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours; cows ~72 hours
    • Estrus response - about 60-65% of treated herd
    • Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers
  • Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context
    To produce large number and uniform animals of desired germplasm (kick start)
    To match calving with feed availability and market demand for dairy and meat
    To control heat period and allow more accurate AI service
    To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of AI service (AI staff deal year round; no AI in rural areas (butter and/or meat)
    Possibility of avoiding milk production during fasting season
  • Options to improve use of human resource for AI services
    Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of animals in a two weeks period through:
    Community mobilization to bring animals with the desired characteristics to a central point with good animal handling facility
    Use of hormonal synchronization and subsequent insemination within 2-5 days of treatment
    In a dairy system, use of sexed semen or sex fixer to increase the number of female
  • Performance of existing AI system (National data; Dessalegn et al., 2010)
    One AI technician inseminates about 300 animals per year
    Pregnancy rate to first AI is about 27% = 81 calves/year
    50% female = 41 calves/year
  • Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigray and SNNPR
    Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90%
    Two AI technicians working in as a team can inseminate about 200 synchronized cows in a 2 week period – 100 cows/AI technician
    Result of pregnancy testing - 60% (due to increased precision and effectiveness of AI)
  • A Possible Scenario
  • Assumptions on annual output of a mobile team
    Two person team
    work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year (2 weeks/village)
    synchronize & inseminate 200 cows/village = 2000 cows
    1000 cows/AI technician
    Pregnancy rate of 60% = 600 calves/AI technician
    Use of sex fixer/sexed semen = 90% female
    Number of female calves per AI technician = 540/year
  • Applying this to the proposed plan - Oromia
    Existing plan
    Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians
    300 AI x 60 technician = 18,000 AI/year
    50% pregnancy rate = 9,000 (improved performance)
    50% female calves = 4,500 female calves/year
    Alternative approach
    This would result in:
    60 technicians x 540 female calves = 32,400 calves/year (7.2 times higher)
  • Management factors affecting conception
    Animal handling facility
    A.I. technicians
    Body condition score, health and cyclicity of cows/heifers
    Semen quality and handling techniques
    Heat detection accuracy and time of insemination
    Heat stress
  • Just do the right thing and do it right –
    No silver bullet!!
  • Attempts to solve the problem
    IPMS Experience
    Tigray, Amhara, SNNPR
  • Hands-on training - regional teams @ EMDTI
  • Community Mobilization – Mekelle-AdigratMilkshed, Tigray and Dale, SNNPR
  • Good site, lots of space and good animal handling facility!
    Poor animal handling facility
  • Good conditioned animals
  • Poor conditioned animals
    Pre-mature heifer calves
  • An old man asked by his wife to take the cows…no clue about the cow..when asked about the cow, he says ‘let me check with my wife first…’
    School children with
    no clue about the cow!!
  • Women know better about their cows!!
  • Many on-lookers affect efficiency!!
  • Support from administration and PA officials… KEY
  • Explain properly and set clear expectations
  • Agree on clear roles and responsibilities
  • Practice, practice, practice - Key
  • Team work and multi-tasking – Key and critical
  • A little experience and record keeping!
  • Poor animal handling facility – causes stress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!
  • Be prepared for on the spot insemination and treatment of some sick animals
  • Exhausted…….some break! Carry enough water and some food...
  • Beef System – Metema, Amhara
    Good export market – live animals & meat
    High cattle population and large holdings
    Large underutilized feed resource
    Mainly highland zebu brought with settlers
    Mismatch between genotype and environment
    High environmental stress, particularly heat
    Lower fertility and calving rate
    High pre-weaning calf mortality
    Slower growth rate, low market weight
    Lower milk production
  • Highland Zebu, Transhumance & Heat Stress
  • Young Boran bulls at Andassa Ranch, Bahir Dar
  • Supplemented with synchronization and AI
  • Boran crossbred calves…
  • Key lessons
    Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams
    Proper Planning – commodity development
    Ensure necessary equipment and supplies for the team and safe and efficient field operation
    Leadership - team formation, clear roles and responsibilities
    Awareness creation and community mobilization
    Facilities – animals handling, lab, equipment, etc
    Technical, organizational & institutional arrangements
    The technology is a means not an end by itself!!
    Synchronization ≠ milk or meat!!!
  • THE FUTURE
    (for discussion)
  • Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems
    Guernsey
    Jersey
    Ayrshire
    Norwegian Red
    Brown Swiss
  • Beef system - Our own Boran….in
    Kenya
    South Africa
    USA
    Australia
  • Potential milk sheds for fluid milk
    Tigray
    • Adgirat-Mekelle
    • Adwa-Axum-Shire
    Amhara
    • Gondar
    • Bahir Dar
    • Debre Markos
    • Dessie
    • Debre Berhan
    Oromia
    • Addis Ababa
    • Adama
    • Jimma
    • Ambo
    • Arsi
    • Wellega
    • Zewai-Shashemene
    SNNPR
    • Awassa-Dilla
    • Arbaminch
    • Butajira-Soddo
    Special
    • Harar
    • Dire Dawa
    • Jigjiga
  • Potential for beef production and development using Boran cattle
  • Sperm sexing technology
    First commercial sexed semen 1999.
    Flow cytometers are used to sort female sperm cells from the male sperm cells.
    The female (X bearing chromosome) contains 3.8% more DNA than the male (Y bearing chromosome).
    It is this difference in DNA content that is detected by the sensors when the sperm cells pass by a laser beam, one at a time in a fluid stream.
  • On average sexed semen straw contains over 90% female sperm cells
    In dairy system, almost doubles the number of heifer calves produced
    Sex fixer with active constituent blocks the H-Y antibody receptor site on ovum; effectively blocking chance of Y chromosome from binding with ovum
  • Mid to long-term – ET and in-vitro fertilization
  • Training EIAR researchers – in-vitro fertilization technique
  • Thank You!