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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience
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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience

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Presented by Azage Tegegne at the Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011.

Presented by Azage Tegegne at the Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011.

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  • 1. Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material: IPMS Experience<br />Azage Tegegne<br />Market-Oriented Smallholder Development: IPMS Experience-Sharing Workshop <br />ILRI, Addis Ababa, 2-3 June 2011<br />
  • 2. Background<br />Increasing urbanization<br />Increasing income<br />Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products <br />Excellent pre-conditions<br />GoE – favourable enabling environment, GTP, AGP, LGP<br />Suitable agro-ecology <br />Large livestock population <br />Tradition of livestock keeping <br />Culture of consumption of animal products <br />Large labour force <br />Huge market opportunity, etc<br />
  • 3. But, hindered by <br />Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates<br />Inbreeding??<br />High prices for improved dairy animals<br />About 50% - male calves in dairy system<br />Low level of promotion of indigenous breeds<br />Weak targeted technological interventions<br />
  • 4. Cow♀<br />Bull♂<br />Joining/Mating<br />Conception<br />Calving<br />Weaning<br />Simple requirement for cattle reproductive performance <br />
  • 5. Involution/breeding season<br />Critical 75-90 days<br />Parturition<br />Conception<br />Gestation<br />280 days<br />Reproductive cycle<br />
  • 6. Some technological options<br />Conventional artificial insemination (AI)<br />Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI<br />Sexed semen<br />Sex fixer<br />Embryo transfer and sexed embryos<br />In-vitro fertilization plus sexed semen<br />
  • 7. Stages of bovine oestrous cycle<br />
  • 8. What is oestrus synchronization?<br />Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply…<br />
  • 9. Natural hormones for oestrus synchronization<br />Prostaglandins<br />PRID<br />Syncromate B <br />Ear Implant<br />
  • 10. General Response to Prostaglandin: PGF2α<br /><ul><li>Estrus (heat): 2-5 days after treatment
  • 11. Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours; cows ~72 hours
  • 12. Estrus response - about 60-65% of treated herd
  • 13. Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers</li></li></ul><li>Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context<br />To produce large number and uniform animals of desired germplasm (kick start) <br />To match calving with feed availability and market demand for dairy and meat <br />To control heat period and allow more accurate AI service<br />To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of AI service (AI staff deal year round; no AI in rural areas (butter and/or meat) <br />Possibility of avoiding milk production during fasting season <br />
  • 14. Options to improve use of human resource for AI services <br />Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of animals in a two weeks period through:<br />Community mobilization to bring animals with the desired characteristics to a central point with good animal handling facility<br />Use of hormonal synchronization and subsequent insemination within 2-5 days of treatment<br />In a dairy system, use of sexed semen or sex fixer to increase the number of female <br />
  • 15. Performance of existing AI system (National data; Dessalegn et al., 2010) <br />One AI technician inseminates about 300 animals per year<br />Pregnancy rate to first AI is about 27% = 81 calves/year<br />50% female = 41 calves/year<br />
  • 16. Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigray and SNNPR<br />Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90%<br />Two AI technicians working in as a team can inseminate about 200 synchronized cows in a 2 week period – 100 cows/AI technician<br />Result of pregnancy testing - 60% (due to increased precision and effectiveness of AI) <br />
  • 17. A Possible Scenario<br />
  • 18. Assumptions on annual output of a mobile team<br />Two person team <br />work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year (2 weeks/village)<br />synchronize & inseminate 200 cows/village = 2000 cows<br />1000 cows/AI technician <br />Pregnancy rate of 60% = 600 calves/AI technician<br />Use of sex fixer/sexed semen = 90% female<br />Number of female calves per AI technician = 540/year<br />
  • 19. Applying this to the proposed plan - Oromia<br />Existing plan<br />Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians<br />300 AI x 60 technician = 18,000 AI/year<br />50% pregnancy rate = 9,000 (improved performance)<br />50% female calves = 4,500 female calves/year <br />Alternative approach<br />This would result in:<br />60 technicians x 540 female calves = 32,400 calves/year (7.2 times higher)<br />
  • 20. Management factors affecting conception<br />Animal handling facility<br />A.I. technicians <br />Body condition score, health and cyclicity of cows/heifers<br />Semen quality and handling techniques<br />Heat detection accuracy and time of insemination<br />Heat stress <br />
  • 21. Just do the right thing and do it right – <br />No silver bullet!!<br />
  • 22. Attempts to solve the problem<br />IPMS Experience <br />Tigray, Amhara, SNNPR<br />
  • 23. Hands-on training - regional teams @ EMDTI<br />
  • 24. Community Mobilization – Mekelle-AdigratMilkshed, Tigray and Dale, SNNPR<br />
  • 25. Good site, lots of space and good animal handling facility!<br />Poor animal handling facility<br />
  • 26. Good conditioned animals<br />
  • 27. Poor conditioned animals<br />Pre-mature heifer calves<br />
  • 28. An old man asked by his wife to take the cows…no clue about the cow..when asked about the cow, he says ‘let me check with my wife first…’<br />School children with <br />no clue about the cow!!<br />
  • 29. Women know better about their cows!!<br />
  • 30. Many on-lookers affect efficiency!!<br />
  • 31. Support from administration and PA officials… KEY<br />
  • 32. Explain properly and set clear expectations<br />
  • 33. Agree on clear roles and responsibilities<br />
  • 34. Practice, practice, practice - Key<br />
  • 35. Team work and multi-tasking – Key and critical<br />
  • 36. A little experience and record keeping!<br />
  • 37. Poor animal handling facility – causes stress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!<br />
  • 38. Be prepared for on the spot insemination and treatment of some sick animals <br />
  • 39. Exhausted…….some break! Carry enough water and some food...<br />
  • 40. Beef System – Metema, Amhara<br />Good export market – live animals & meat<br />High cattle population and large holdings<br />Large underutilized feed resource<br />Mainly highland zebu brought with settlers<br />Mismatch between genotype and environment<br />High environmental stress, particularly heat<br />Lower fertility and calving rate<br />High pre-weaning calf mortality<br />Slower growth rate, low market weight<br />Lower milk production<br />
  • 41. Highland Zebu, Transhumance & Heat Stress<br />
  • 42. Young Boran bulls at Andassa Ranch, Bahir Dar<br />
  • 43. Supplemented with synchronization and AI<br />
  • 44. Boran crossbred calves…<br />
  • 45. Key lessons<br />Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams<br />Proper Planning – commodity development<br />Ensure necessary equipment and supplies for the team and safe and efficient field operation<br />Leadership - team formation, clear roles and responsibilities<br />Awareness creation and community mobilization<br />Facilities – animals handling, lab, equipment, etc<br />Technical, organizational & institutional arrangements<br />The technology is a means not an end by itself!!<br />Synchronization ≠ milk or meat!!!<br />
  • 46. THE FUTURE <br />(for discussion) <br />
  • 47. Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems<br />Guernsey<br />Jersey<br />Ayrshire<br />Norwegian Red<br />Brown Swiss<br />
  • 48. Beef system - Our own Boran….in <br />Kenya<br />South Africa<br />USA<br />Australia<br />
  • 49. Potential milk sheds for fluid milk<br />Tigray<br /><ul><li>Adgirat-Mekelle
  • 50. Adwa-Axum-Shire</li></ul>Amhara<br /><ul><li>Gondar
  • 51. Bahir Dar
  • 52. Debre Markos
  • 53. Dessie
  • 54. Debre Berhan</li></ul>Oromia<br /><ul><li>Addis Ababa
  • 55. Adama
  • 56. Jimma
  • 57. Ambo
  • 58. Arsi
  • 59. Wellega
  • 60. Zewai-Shashemene</li></ul>SNNPR<br /><ul><li>Awassa-Dilla
  • 61. Arbaminch
  • 62. Butajira-Soddo</li></ul>Special<br /><ul><li>Harar
  • 63. Dire Dawa
  • 64. Jigjiga</li></li></ul><li>Potential for beef production and development using Boran cattle<br />
  • 65. Sperm sexing technology<br />First commercial sexed semen 1999. <br />Flow cytometers are used to sort female sperm cells from the male sperm cells. <br />The female (X bearing chromosome) contains 3.8% more DNA than the male (Y bearing chromosome). <br />It is this difference in DNA content that is detected by the sensors when the sperm cells pass by a laser beam, one at a time in a fluid stream. <br />
  • 66. On average sexed semen straw contains over 90% female sperm cells <br />In dairy system, almost doubles the number of heifer calves produced<br />Sex fixer with active constituent blocks the H-Y antibody receptor site on ovum; effectively blocking chance of Y chromosome from binding with ovum <br />
  • 67. Mid to long-term – ET and in-vitro fertilization <br />
  • 68. Training EIAR researchers – in-vitro fertilization technique<br />
  • 69. Thank You!<br />♀<br />♂<br />

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