Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience
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Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience



Presented by Azage Tegegne and Dirk Hoekstra at the 19th Ethiopian Society of Animal production Annual Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-17 December 2011.

Presented by Azage Tegegne and Dirk Hoekstra at the 19th Ethiopian Society of Animal production Annual Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-17 December 2011.



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    Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience Presentation Transcript

    • Technological options and approaches toimprove supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience Azage Tegegne and Dirk HoekstraPresented at the 19th Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Annual Conference Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-17 December 2011
    • Background Increasing urbanization Increasing income Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products – prices of meat , milk and milk products has sky rocketed globally Excellent pre-conditions  GoE – favourable enabling environment, GTP, AGP, LGP  Suitable agro-ecology  Large livestock population  Tradition of livestock keeping  Culture of consumption of animal products  Large labour force  Huge market opportunity, etc
    • But, hindered by Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates Inbreeding?? High prices for improved dairy animals About 50% - male calves in dairy system Low level of promotion of indigenous breeds Weak targeted technological interventions
    • Simple requirement for cattle reproductiveperformance Cow Bull♂ Joining/Mating Conception Calving Weaning
    • Reproductive cycle Involution/breeding season Parturition Critical 75-90 days Conception Gestation 280 days
    • Some technological options Conventional artificial insemination (AI) Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI Sexed semen Sex fixer Embryo transfer and sexed embryos In-vitro fertilization plus sexed semen
    • Stages of bovine oestrous cycleStage Period ActivityPro-oestrus 17-21 days Follicular growth CL regressionOestrus 6-30 hrs Sexual receptivity Growth and maturity of graffian folliclesMet-oestrus 1-3 days CL commences developmentDioestrus 4-16 days Luteal development (Progesterone)
    • What is oestrus synchronization? Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply…
    • Natural hormones for oestrus synchronizationProstaglandins PRID Syncromate B Ear Implant
    • General Response to Prostaglandin:PGF2α• Estrus (heat): 2-5 days after treatment• Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours; cows ~72 hours• Estrus response - about 60-65% of treated herd• Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers
    • Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context To produce large number & uniform animals of desired germplasm (kick start) To match calving with feed availability and market demand for dairy and meat and produce uniform animals (sheep) To control heat period and allow more accurate AI service To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of AI service To increase the number of marginalized/endangered breeds (eg. Fogera) To quickly multiply breeds with specific genetic merit (eg. Sheko) and to contribute to resilience of pastoral livestock systems – re-stocking Possibility of avoiding milk production during fasting season Mitigation of environmental impact of livestock through more from less To help transform livestock extension system
    • Options to improve use of human resource forAI services Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of animals in a two weeks period through:  Community mobilization to bring animals with the desired characteristics to a central point with good animal handling facility  Use of hormonal synchronization and subsequent insemination within 2-5 days of treatment  In a dairy system, use of sexed semen or sex fixer to increase the number of female
    • Performance of existing AI system (National data;Dessalegn et al., 2010) One AI technician inseminates about 300 animals per year Pregnancy rate to first AI is about 27% = 81 calves/year 50% female = 41 calves/year
    • Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigrayand SNNPR Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90% Two AI technicians working in as a team can inseminate about 200 synchronized cows in a 2 week period – 100 cows/AI technician Result of pregnancy testing - 60% (due to increased precision and effectiveness of AI)
    • A Possible Scenario
    • Example Ethiopia–improve calving rate and reducecalf mortality with targeted interventions Improved scenarioExisting situation  Total cattle population = 49 M  Male = 44.5%; Female = 55.5% Total cattle population = 49 M  Females = 27 M Male = 44.5%; Female = 55.5%  Females breed age 3-10 yrs = 35.9% = 10 M Females = 55.5% = 27 M Females breed age 3-10 yrs = 35.9% = 10 M  Calving rate = 75% = 7.4 M (+30%)  Mortality = 10% = 736,398 (-10%) Calving rate 45% = 4.4 M  Surviving = 6.6 M  Male calves 50% = 3.3 M Mortality 20% = 883,678 Surviving = 3.5 M  Difference = 1.6 M more male Male calves 50% = 1.8 M calves  1.6 M x 10,000 Birr = 1.6 Billion Milking cows = 4.4 M Milk yield/year = 300 litres  Total Milk production = 7.4 M x 300 = 2.2 Billion litres/year Total milk production –  Difference = + 8.8 M litres/year 1.4 Billion litres/year  8.8 x 8 Birr = 70.4 Million
    • What can this synchronization and sexed sementechnology do? Eg. OARI, Oromia planOriginal plan – 5 years Modified possibility – 1 60 woredas; 3 PAs/Woreda; year 100 cows /PA  Organize Zonal teams 60 x 3 x 100 = 18,000  Use hormonal synchronization  Use sexed semen or sex fixer to cows/year increase probability of female calves 5 years x 18,000 = 90,000 to 90% cows in 5 years  18,000 cows/zone/year; 5 Zones  18,000 cows = 200 cows per day for 70% calving rate = 63,000 three months??? calves  5 x 18,000 = 90,000 cows/year 31,500 female calves  70% calving rate = 63,000 calves 15% calf mortality = 4,725  63,000 female calves  15% calf mortality = 9,450 Result = 26,775  Result = 53,550 heifers in 5 years! heifers in one year!!
    • Assumptions on annual output of amobile team Two person team  work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year (2 weeks/village)  synchronize & inseminate 200 cows/village = 2000 cows  1000 cows/AI technician Pregnancy rate of 60% = 600 calves/AI technician Use of sex fixer/sexed semen = 90% female Number of female calves per AI technician = 540/year
    • Applying this to the proposed plan - OromiaExisting plan  Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians  300 AI x 60 technician = 18,000 AI/year  50% pregnancy rate = 9,000 (improved performance)  50% female calves = 4,500 female calves/yearAlternative approach This would result in:  60 technicians x 540 female calves = 32,400 calves/year (7.2 times higher)
    • Management factors affecting conception Animal handling facility A.I. technicians Body condition score, health and cyclicity of cows/heifers Semen quality and handling techniques Heat detection accuracy and time of insemination Heat stress
    • Just do the right thing and do it right – No silver bullet!!
    • Attempts to solve the problem IPMS Experience
    • Hands-on training - regional teams @ EMDTI
    • Aulprofem – Sex Fixer
    • Practical training – sex fixer application
    • Effect of BCS (1-5) on heifer fertilityBCS Pregnancy rate, %Poor (1) 3Backward store (2) 54Forward store (3) 68Fat (4) 84
    • Community Mobilization – Mekelle-AdigratMilkshed, Tigray and Dale, SNNPR
    • Good site, lots of space andgood animal handling facility! Poor animal handling facility
    • Good conditioned animals
    • Poor conditioned animals Pre-mature heifer calves
    • An old man asked by his wife to take the cows…no clue aboutthe cow..when asked about the cow, he says ‘let me check withmy wife first…’ School children with no clue about the cow!!
    • Women know better about their cows!!
    • Many on-lookers affect efficiency!!
    • Support from administration and PA officials…KEY
    • Explain properly and set clear expectations
    • Agree on clear roles and responsibilities
    • Practice, practice, practice - Key
    • Team work and multi-tasking – Key andcritical
    • A little experience and record keeping!
    • Poor animal handling facility – causesstress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!
    • Be prepared for on the spot insemination andtreatment of some sick animals
    • Exhausted…….some break! Carry enoughwater and some food...
    • Beef System – Metema, Amhara Good export market – live animals & meat High cattle population and large holdings Large underutilized feed resource Mainly highland zebu brought with settlers Mismatch between genotype and environment  High environmental stress, particularly heat  Lower fertility and calving rate  High pre-weaning calf mortality  Slower growth rate, low market weight  Lower milk production
    • Highland Zebu, Transhumance & HeatStress
    • Young Boran bulls at Andassa Ranch,Bahir Dar
    • Supplemented with synchronization and AI
    • Boran crossbred calves…
    • Activity and Plan Region Dairy system Beef system Tigray 728 cows in Mekele-Adigrat Alamata (85 done), and Adwa-Axum-Shire milk Humera?? sheds done SNNPR 750 cows done in Awassa- 1500 cows in South Dilla milk shed – done Omo Zone Amhara 27 done; 950 cows in Bahir 120 Borana done in Dar milkshed; Chagni Ranch Metema; new plan and Andassa Research Undecided Centre Oromia 150 done, 500 cows in East 1500 cows in Borana and West Shoa Zone Zone milksheds
    • Key lessons Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams Proper Planning – commodity development Ensure necessary equipment and supplies for the team and safe and efficient field operation Leadership - team formation, clear roles and responsibilities Awareness creation and community mobilization Facilities – animals handling, lab, equipment, etc Technical, organizational & institutional arrangements The technology is a means not an end by itself!!Synchronization ≠ milk or meat!!!
    • THE FUTURE(for discussion)
    • Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems Guernsey Jersey AyrshireNorwegian Red Brown Swiss
    • Beef system - Our own Boran….inKenya South AfricaUSA Australia
    • Potential milk sheds for fluid milk Amhara Tigray •Gondar •Adgirat-Mekelle •Bahir Dar •Adwa-Axum-Shire •Debre Markos Oromia •Dessie •Addis Ababa •Debre Berhan •Adama •Jimma •Ambo •Arsi •Wellega •Zewai-Shashemene SNNPR •Awassa-Dilla Special •Arbaminch •Harar •Butajira-Soddo •Dire Dawa •Jigjiga
    • Potential for beef production and developmentusing Boran cattle
    • Sperm sexing technology  First commercial sexed semen 1999.  Flow cytometers are used to sort female sperm cells from the male sperm cells.  The female (X bearing chromosome) contains 3.8% more DNA than the male (Y bearing chromosome).  It is this difference in DNA content that is detected by the sensors when the sperm cells pass by a laser beam, one at a time in a fluid stream.
    •  On average sexed semen straw contains over 90% female sperm cells In dairy system, almost doubles the number of heifer calves produced Sex fixer with active constituent blocks the H-Y antibody receptor site on ovum; effectively blocking chance of Y chromosome from binding with ovum
    • Mid to long-term – ET and in-vitro fertilization
    • Training EIAR researchers –in-vitro fertilization technique
    • Thank You!