Technological options and approaches to improve supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience
Technological options and approaches toimprove supply of desirable animal genetic material for dairy and beef development: IPMS Experience Azage Tegegne and Dirk HoekstraPresented at the 19th Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Annual Conference Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-17 December 2011
Background Increasing urbanization Increasing income Increasing demand for meat, milk and milk products – prices of meat , milk and milk products has sky rocketed globally Excellent pre-conditions GoE – favourable enabling environment, GTP, AGP, LGP Suitable agro-ecology Large livestock population Tradition of livestock keeping Culture of consumption of animal products Large labour force Huge market opportunity, etc
But, hindered by Weak AI delivery system and low pregnancy rates Inbreeding?? High prices for improved dairy animals About 50% - male calves in dairy system Low level of promotion of indigenous breeds Weak targeted technological interventions
Reproductive cycle Involution/breeding season Parturition Critical 75-90 days Conception Gestation 280 days
Some technological options Conventional artificial insemination (AI) Hormonal oestrus synchronization plus AI Sexed semen Sex fixer Embryo transfer and sexed embryos In-vitro fertilization plus sexed semen
Stages of bovine oestrous cycleStage Period ActivityPro-oestrus 17-21 days Follicular growth CL regressionOestrus 6-30 hrs Sexual receptivity Growth and maturity of graffian folliclesMet-oestrus 1-3 days CL commences developmentDioestrus 4-16 days Luteal development (Progesterone)
What is oestrus synchronization? Occurrence/induction of estrus in all females in a group at the same time; or simply…
Natural hormones for oestrus synchronizationProstaglandins PRID Syncromate B Ear Implant
General Response to Prostaglandin:PGF2α• Estrus (heat): 2-5 days after treatment• Estrus interval - heifers ~50 hours; cows ~72 hours• Estrus response - about 60-65% of treated herd• Pregnancy rate to AI – about 50% of responding cows/heifers
Why synchronize? - Ethiopian context To produce large number & uniform animals of desired germplasm (kick start) To match calving with feed availability and market demand for dairy and meat and produce uniform animals (sheep) To control heat period and allow more accurate AI service To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of AI service To increase the number of marginalized/endangered breeds (eg. Fogera) To quickly multiply breeds with specific genetic merit (eg. Sheko) and to contribute to resilience of pastoral livestock systems – re-stocking Possibility of avoiding milk production during fasting season Mitigation of environmental impact of livestock through more from less To help transform livestock extension system
Options to improve use of human resource forAI services Use of Regional/Zonal mobile teams; AI large numbers of animals in a two weeks period through: Community mobilization to bring animals with the desired characteristics to a central point with good animal handling facility Use of hormonal synchronization and subsequent insemination within 2-5 days of treatment In a dairy system, use of sexed semen or sex fixer to increase the number of female
Performance of existing AI system (National data;Dessalegn et al., 2010) One AI technician inseminates about 300 animals per year Pregnancy rate to first AI is about 27% = 81 calves/year 50% female = 41 calves/year
Mobile teams - preliminary data from Tigrayand SNNPR Oestrus response to hormonal treatment = 90% Two AI technicians working in as a team can inseminate about 200 synchronized cows in a 2 week period – 100 cows/AI technician Result of pregnancy testing - 60% (due to increased precision and effectiveness of AI)
Example Ethiopia–improve calving rate and reducecalf mortality with targeted interventions Improved scenarioExisting situation Total cattle population = 49 M Male = 44.5%; Female = 55.5% Total cattle population = 49 M Females = 27 M Male = 44.5%; Female = 55.5% Females breed age 3-10 yrs = 35.9% = 10 M Females = 55.5% = 27 M Females breed age 3-10 yrs = 35.9% = 10 M Calving rate = 75% = 7.4 M (+30%) Mortality = 10% = 736,398 (-10%) Calving rate 45% = 4.4 M Surviving = 6.6 M Male calves 50% = 3.3 M Mortality 20% = 883,678 Surviving = 3.5 M Difference = 1.6 M more male Male calves 50% = 1.8 M calves 1.6 M x 10,000 Birr = 1.6 Billion Milking cows = 4.4 M Milk yield/year = 300 litres Total Milk production = 7.4 M x 300 = 2.2 Billion litres/year Total milk production – Difference = + 8.8 M litres/year 1.4 Billion litres/year 8.8 x 8 Birr = 70.4 Million
What can this synchronization and sexed sementechnology do? Eg. OARI, Oromia planOriginal plan – 5 years Modified possibility – 1 60 woredas; 3 PAs/Woreda; year 100 cows /PA Organize Zonal teams 60 x 3 x 100 = 18,000 Use hormonal synchronization Use sexed semen or sex fixer to cows/year increase probability of female calves 5 years x 18,000 = 90,000 to 90% cows in 5 years 18,000 cows/zone/year; 5 Zones 18,000 cows = 200 cows per day for 70% calving rate = 63,000 three months??? calves 5 x 18,000 = 90,000 cows/year 31,500 female calves 70% calving rate = 63,000 calves 15% calf mortality = 4,725 63,000 female calves 15% calf mortality = 9,450 Result = 26,775 Result = 53,550 heifers in 5 years! heifers in one year!!
Assumptions on annual output of amobile team Two person team work 40 weeks in 10 villages/year (2 weeks/village) synchronize & inseminate 200 cows/village = 2000 cows 1000 cows/AI technician Pregnancy rate of 60% = 600 calves/AI technician Use of sex fixer/sexed semen = 90% female Number of female calves per AI technician = 540/year
Applying this to the proposed plan - OromiaExisting plan Sixty (60) Woredas/year involving 60 technicians 300 AI x 60 technician = 18,000 AI/year 50% pregnancy rate = 9,000 (improved performance) 50% female calves = 4,500 female calves/yearAlternative approach This would result in: 60 technicians x 540 female calves = 32,400 calves/year (7.2 times higher)
Management factors affecting conception Animal handling facility A.I. technicians Body condition score, health and cyclicity of cows/heifers Semen quality and handling techniques Heat detection accuracy and time of insemination Heat stress
Just do the right thing and do it right – No silver bullet!!
Poor animal handling facility – causesstress, is high risk, creates inefficiency!!
Be prepared for on the spot insemination andtreatment of some sick animals
Exhausted…….some break! Carry enoughwater and some food...
Beef System – Metema, Amhara Good export market – live animals & meat High cattle population and large holdings Large underutilized feed resource Mainly highland zebu brought with settlers Mismatch between genotype and environment High environmental stress, particularly heat Lower fertility and calving rate High pre-weaning calf mortality Slower growth rate, low market weight Lower milk production
Activity and Plan Region Dairy system Beef system Tigray 728 cows in Mekele-Adigrat Alamata (85 done), and Adwa-Axum-Shire milk Humera?? sheds done SNNPR 750 cows done in Awassa- 1500 cows in South Dilla milk shed – done Omo Zone Amhara 27 done; 950 cows in Bahir 120 Borana done in Dar milkshed; Chagni Ranch Metema; new plan and Andassa Research Undecided Centre Oromia 150 done, 500 cows in East 1500 cows in Borana and West Shoa Zone Zone milksheds
Key lessons Capacity building – multidisciplinary regional teams Proper Planning – commodity development Ensure necessary equipment and supplies for the team and safe and efficient field operation Leadership - team formation, clear roles and responsibilities Awareness creation and community mobilization Facilities – animals handling, lab, equipment, etc Technical, organizational & institutional arrangements The technology is a means not an end by itself!!Synchronization ≠ milk or meat!!!
Introduction and testing other dairy breeds for fluid milk and butter systems Guernsey Jersey AyrshireNorwegian Red Brown Swiss
Beef system - Our own Boran….inKenya South AfricaUSA Australia
Potential milk sheds for fluid milk Amhara Tigray •Gondar •Adgirat-Mekelle •Bahir Dar •Adwa-Axum-Shire •Debre Markos Oromia •Dessie •Addis Ababa •Debre Berhan •Adama •Jimma •Ambo •Arsi •Wellega •Zewai-Shashemene SNNPR •Awassa-Dilla Special •Arbaminch •Harar •Butajira-Soddo •Dire Dawa •Jigjiga
Potential for beef production and developmentusing Boran cattle
Sperm sexing technology First commercial sexed semen 1999. Flow cytometers are used to sort female sperm cells from the male sperm cells. The female (X bearing chromosome) contains 3.8% more DNA than the male (Y bearing chromosome). It is this difference in DNA content that is detected by the sensors when the sperm cells pass by a laser beam, one at a time in a fluid stream.
On average sexed semen straw contains over 90% female sperm cells In dairy system, almost doubles the number of heifer calves produced Sex fixer with active constituent blocks the H-Y antibody receptor site on ovum; effectively blocking chance of Y chromosome from binding with ovum
Mid to long-term – ET and in-vitro fertilization
Training EIAR researchers –in-vitro fertilization technique