Operationalizing inclusive innovation: lessons from innovation
platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique...
Introduction
• Growing local and informal markets for high value agricultural
commodities; providing opportunities for the...
Principles of well functioning IPs
IP is the ‘real world’ implementation of IS approach to stimulate innovation
and learni...
Analytical framework
IP formation
• Inclusion & representation
• Vision and tasks/roles
• Inventory knowledge/skills
• Con...
The imGoats project
• imGoats increasing income
and food security through
goat VCs in India and Moz.
• livelihood option f...
Implementation of the IP
Source: Van Rooyen & Homann-Kee Tui (2009)
Development
Process
Activities &
Outputs
Time
Establis...
Outcomes
 No. goats increased by at least 1-2 animals
per household in India; also anecdotal
evidence of increased herd s...
Methodology
Objective and questions
 To identify and better understand the factors and conditions that
play a role in mak...
IP formation
• Inclusion and representation: rather inclusive; members representative of
VC actors and producer groups ; l...
IP functioning
Participation and
ownership
• CAHWs and
government staff
actively engaged
• Producers’
participation
incons...
IP functioning
Information flow
• Information flow market to production improved, but far
from optimal; system seems more ...
IP functioning
Use diversity of knowledge/skills
• IP tapped into knowledge/skills of VC
actors
• Especially in India, kno...
IP functioning
Systematic
process
• Problem solving
iterative process
(simultaneously;
technical,
organizational,
institut...
IP functioning
Facilitation & management
• Multiple and diverse tasks (including
reconstruction of the chain)
• Start hand...
Discussion
1. Actors – rules and regulations need to be adapted to include the poor;
representation critical issue; interm...
Conclusion
Overall, innovation platform is a promising model to
stimulate innovation and stakeholder interaction for
pro-p...
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given ...
Establish
linkage with
Veterinary
College
Establish
linkage with
Animal
Husbandry
Department
Training of
CAHW on fecal
sam...
Discussion
with
veterinary
services on
identification
communal
grazing areas
Suggestion
to raise fee
to sustain IP
Discuss...
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Operationalizing inclusive innovation: Lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique

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Presented by K. Swaans, B. Boogaard, R. Bendapudi, H. Taye, S. Hendrickx, and L. Klerkx at the International Workshop on New Models of Innovation for Development, Manchester, UK, 4-5 July 2013

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Operationalizing inclusive innovation: Lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique

  1. 1. Operationalizing inclusive innovation: lessons from innovation platforms in livestock value chains in India and Mozambique International Workshop on New Models of Innovation for Development, Manchester, UK, 4-5 July 2013 Swaans, K., B. Boogaard, R. Bendapudi, H. Taye, S. Hendrickx, and L. Klerkx
  2. 2. Introduction • Growing local and informal markets for high value agricultural commodities; providing opportunities for the poor, but also challenges • VC approach to reach development outcomes, but due to market failures, limited participation of the poor • Innovation platforms (IPs) as mechanism for inclusive innovation • IPs are spaces that allow different type of individuals & organizations to come together and address issues of mutual interest through knowledge exchange and generation and putting this into use.  Question: how best to operationalize innovation system approaches?  Aim to investigate the formation and functioning of IPs to draw lessons on factors and conditions that play a role in making them effective
  3. 3. Principles of well functioning IPs IP is the ‘real world’ implementation of IS approach to stimulate innovation and learning among actors, and enable reshaping of relations and institutions • They are inclusive and follow participatory processes • There is a common vision and an agreed set of operating modalities • Members are committed and have adequate incentives to participate • Diversity of members capabilities, capacities, resources, skills, knowledge, interests and needs are acknowledged • There is efficient and effective communication, knowledge and information sharing • Joint identification of challenges and opportunities and options to address them through collective action • There is an appreciation for learning by doing and M&E
  4. 4. Analytical framework IP formation • Inclusion & representation • Vision and tasks/roles • Inventory knowledge/skills • Constraints & opportunities • Organization & governance • Resources IP functioning • Participation & ownership • Information flow • Use diversity of knowledge • Capacity building • Systematic process • Facilitation & management • Resource mobilization Outcomes • Interactions/relations • Practices/activities, • Production and income Context
  5. 5. The imGoats project • imGoats increasing income and food security through goat VCs in India and Moz. • livelihood option for dry- land regions; add hoc, risky, informal Both countries: Low input – low output system Limited knowledge goat management practices • Transform production and marketing in sound & profitable enterprise • Targets poor goat keepers (producer groups); other VC actors
  6. 6. Implementation of the IP Source: Van Rooyen & Homann-Kee Tui (2009) Development Process Activities & Outputs Time Establish IP and define roles and responsibilities Workshop Workshop Workshop Workshop Workshop Activities implemented by members Activities implemented by members Activities implemented by members ProjectDriven StakeholderDriven Activities implemented by members Sustainability M&E M&E M&E M&E Set Impact Indicators
  7. 7. Outcomes  No. goats increased by at least 1-2 animals per household in India; also anecdotal evidence of increased herd size in Moz. (>10).  Producers in India selling more animals (from 1 to 2 on average; also higher price). Mozambique, producers interested in selling, but insecure local demand. • Reduced goat mortality: animal treatment, goat management practices (role CAHWs) • Feeding: communal grazing areas, new forages/techniques • Goat markets: tried with mixed results; alternative strategies explored
  8. 8. Methodology Objective and questions  To identify and better understand the factors and conditions that play a role in making IPs effective • How were the IPs intended and how were they implemented in practice? • What went well and not well? • What were the key challenges and lessons? Methods • Comparative case study • Review project documents, IP process reports, outcome mapping and project team reflections • Reflection by authors on factors, conditions, challenges, and lessons
  9. 9. IP formation • Inclusion and representation: rather inclusive; members representative of VC actors and producer groups ; limited set of VC actors • Vision, tasks/roles: visioning by partners; producers did not link platform with commercialization (esp. Moz.); tasks/roles VC actors unexplored • Inventory of knowledge/skills: initial assessment producers/CAHWs through partners’ experience, later baseline studies; knowledge limited (change regular sales difficult); no assessment among other VC actors • Constraints & opportunities: rather participatory; focus production (health, feed) and marketing (goat fairs); key constraints closely interlinked • Organization & governance: partners took lead in facilitation & management; mechanisms established to hand over to local actors • Resources: project funding; transport issue in Moz. due spread out locations project villages
  10. 10. IP functioning Participation and ownership • CAHWs and government staff actively engaged • Producers’ participation inconsistent • Difficult to involve traders and women Mozambique: IP relied on limited number of traders; vulnerable; VC hardly existing
  11. 11. IP functioning Information flow • Information flow market to production improved, but far from optimal; system seems more responsive in India compared to Moz. • Flow from IP to PGs good; weak in bringing issues back to IP • CAHWs link with producers; project staff with other VC actors India: PG meeting
  12. 12. IP functioning Use diversity of knowledge/skills • IP tapped into knowledge/skills of VC actors • Especially in India, knowledge/skills from veterinarian and pharmacist • Diversity within each group largely unexplored (except model farmers Moz.) Capacity building • Importance of training and exposure and exchange visits • Mainly focused on producers and CAHWs (but also project staff) • IP meetings acknowledged as form of capacity building India: FGs being trained Mozambique: gender training
  13. 13. IP functioning Systematic process • Problem solving iterative process (simultaneously; technical, organizational, institutional elements) • in Mozambique stronger reflection on IP process Mozambique India
  14. 14. IP functioning Facilitation & management • Multiple and diverse tasks (including reconstruction of the chain) • Start handing over facilitation, but capacity local actors still weak (easier for facilitation compared to innovation brokering) • Contribution research highly appreciated Resource mobilization • Extra meetings to get support community leaders and producer groups • No clear strategies (nor resources) for continuation India: CAHWs Mozambique: IP president
  15. 15. Discussion 1. Actors – rules and regulations need to be adapted to include the poor; representation critical issue; intermediaries play critical role 2. Innovation – not new, but new in context; flexible approach to support incremental change and bundles of innovation; needs incentives 3. Learning – trough interaction/doing; also demonstration/exposure; reflexive learning by challenging critical constraints; role of research 4. Relations – nurture informal social relations to foster innovation; ensure consistency to reduce risk; innovation brokers (different levels) 5. Institutions – formal institutions to support the process; importance of informal institutions such as norms/values (e.g. gender), trust 6. Scope – analysis context & development challenge critical before implementation; actors need to feel mutually dependent; take into account diversity of actors; may affect entry point
  16. 16. Conclusion Overall, innovation platform is a promising model to stimulate innovation and stakeholder interaction for pro-poor growth, but… 1. Resource intensive – importance of cost-effective models and building innovation capacity 2. Requires a careful assessment of and adjustment to the (institutional) context
  17. 17. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. Better lives through livestock ilri.org
  18. 18. Establish linkage with Veterinary College Establish linkage with Animal Husbandry Department Training of CAHW on fecal sample collection and submission CAHWs organizing and facilitating IP meetings Regular transport of goats to Udaipur for sale Gender study Training of CAHWs on facilitation for IP meetings Planning of health camps & discussion on sales Value chain analysis Discussion on increased levels of abortions reported Identify VC constraints and agree on issues to address Discussion on main animal health issues goat fairs Aug 2011 2012 2013 Establish linkage with agricultural training center Demonstration of crop residue urea treatment Strengthening linkage with pharmacist for drug supply Training of CAHWs and goat keepers at Veterinary College and agricultural training center Ongoing testing of fecal samples by Animal Husbandry Department and treatment adapted accordingly Exploratory visit to Udaipur to assess market Discussion IP functioning & sustainability Training of BAIF project staff Demonstration of crop residue urea treatment & azolla IP India ---- ---- Baseline study Feed and fodder issues discussed Fodder tree plantations Plantation of fodder trees
  19. 19. Discussion with veterinary services on identification communal grazing areas Suggestion to raise fee to sustain IP Discussion with veterinary services to set up goat fairs Research on communal pasture areas Training project officers (followed by CAHWs) on communal pasture area management Meeting with community leaders on relevance platform Research on consumer preferences meeting with commercial producer to discuss goat sales Meeting with community leaders on communal grazing areas Research on IP performance Training course project officers (followed by CAHWs) on gender Gender study Training of IP secretariat on facilitation skills Agreement on transport IP members Additional training session for CAHWs on commer- cialization Value chain analysis IP president facilitates meeting alone Re-election secretariat Election IP secretariat Identify VC constraints Discussion IP benefits & sustainability Prioritize issues to address Agree on price/Kg goat IP secretariat, veterina ry services and CARE meet with traders at various locations to explore market May 2011 2012 2013 IP Mozambique Reflection IP process Discuss issues with setting up communal grazing areas ---- ---- Goat fairs Goat fairs Goat fairs Baseline study

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