Overview of African Swine Fever (ASF) Impact and surveillance in Uganda
Overview of African Swine Fever (ASF) Impact and surveillance in Uganda Presented by Dr. Chris Rutebarika Dr. Anna Rose Ademun Okurut During African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas within sub-Saharan Africa Fairview Hotel Nairobi, July 19th – 22nd 2011
Pig Industry Exotic pigs were introduced in Uganda in the 1950s and 1960s mainly to provide pork for European and Goan communities Large White, Landrace and Wessex Saddleback breeds were the main breeds introduced LES Entebbe and Mbarara stock farms were established as breeding and multiplication centres In 1970 the pig industry declined drastically There has been considerable increase in the number of semi-intensive and intensive pig units since then
Pig Industry The pig population now stands at about 3.2 million pigs Pig production is dominated by the free-range system largely rural The improved breeds are managed semi-intensively and intensively Production system varies depending on agro-ecological zone, land availability and proximity to markets. All domestic pigs were introduced by the colonial government
Production systems Free-range scavenging Semi-intensive system Small-scale intensive production Large scale??
Free-range scavenging Common in rural set up Local breeds are commonly used In most cases pigs are not housed but tethered around homestead Scavenge and find themselves a large part of their food Food may be supplemented with kitchen-refuse or agricultural wastes There is practically no attempt to improve production Characterized by widespread in-breeding practices High piglet death rates and slow growth rates Average herd size is 3 pigs with one or two breeding sows Is low input/low output The pigs are normally kept to supplement family incomes.
Semi-intensive system Pigs are confined to some extent but allowed to roam around homestead. More common in rural set-up Pigs comprise largely of mainly cross-breeds and exotics Are commonly sheltered in poor/temporary open structures Once or twice a day are fed on fodder, swill or crop wastes and brewers wastes Average herd size is 2-5 breeding sows with one boar Level of involvement is higher with men controlling management The objectives are to supplement family incomes.
Small-scale intensive production Pigs kept in confinement and are mostly housed Largely found in peri-urban or urban set-up Housed with permanent or semi-permanent materials Better breeds but largely crosses of Large-white and Landrace Larger herd sizes up to 5-10 breeding pigs are very few in the country Improved management practiced Fed on maize bran, banana peelings tubers etc depending on agro-ecological conditions Goal is purely commercial.Large scale intensive is currently one enterprise
2008 Census (Population By Region) Region Numbers Central 1,307,460 Eastern 699,680 Northern 340,460 Western 778,350 Karamoja 58,350 TOTAL 3,184,310 Adult males comprise 17.2% while adult females are 35.3%
Pig Ownership1.1 million households own pigs in Uganda (17.8%)Household average herd size is 3 pigs Region Household average Central 3 Eastern 2.7 Northern 3.2 Western 2.4 Karamoja 6.1Highest number of households owning pigs is Central regionA typical household in Uganda owns 0.5 pigs
Lake Victoria Crescent Districts – 2008 Census District No. of Pigs Masaka 236,150 Wakiso 199,960 Mukono 181,850 Mpigi 108,080 Rakai 102,870 Bugiri 65,450 Jinja 26,860 Mayuge 18,340 Busia 14,200 These districts own 31% of the total number of pigs
Major Challenges in the Pig Industry Diseases African Swine Fever – heavy losses and loss of interest in the industry Cysticercosis – pork condemnation Non structured production – low yield and diseases Non structured breeding systems decline on the imported breed characteristics No research on contribution of pigs to disease in other animals – FMD Socio-cultural issues – Limited capital investments in agricultural sector – loans are expensive and banking industry is not familiar/confortable with such investments
Major Challenges in the Pig Industry Lack of organized marketing system Lack of processing plants Poor product quality
African Swine Fever Outbreaks over the last 10years (Passive surveillance). Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2001 in AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2001 Uganda 10 K GU IT M 9 8 N APAC 7 DI SOR TI O NAKAPIRIPIRIT SIN 6 MA H IM O A KAYUNGA KAM LI U LUWERO 5 JINJA UG B IRI M BE U NDE A ISO 4 AL WAK SSEMBABULE M IG P I M SAK A A 3 Frequency NG LA RAKAI KA 2 1 Key ASF outbreaks 2001 Districts 0 IGANGA MPIGI NAKAPIRIPIRIT HOIMA MASAKA APAC MUBENDE MUKONO KALANGALA JINJA KITGUM MASINDI WAKISO KAMULI KAYUNGA LUWERO RAKAI SEMBABULE SOROTI Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2002 in AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2002 Uganda 6 K GU IT M 5 N 4 APAC I D SOR TI O NAKAPIRIPIRIT N SI A M H IM O A 3 A UNG KAM LI U LUWERO KAY IGANG A M BE U NDE JINJA BUG I IR 2 2002 AL WAKISO MUKONO I G SSEMBABULE PI M 1 A M SAK A A NG LA RAKAI KA 0 BUGIRI JINJA KITGUM MASINDI WAKISO KAMULI KAYUNGA MPIGI SEMBABULE MASAKA APAC MUBENDE MUKONO LUWERO SOROTI Key ASF outbreaks 2002 Districts AFRICAN SWINE FEVER O T U BREAKS 2003 Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2003 in Uganda 8 7 N 6 LIRA DI APAC KATAKWI 5 SIN N SOROTI A MA K A S HOIMA KUMI 4 O N KAPCHORWA G A PALLISA O KAYUNG LA KIBAALE KAMULI LUWERO MUBENDE IGANGA 3 WAKISO BUSIA KASESE 2 2003 MASAKA BUSHENYI RAKAI KALANGALA 1 0 Key A F outbreaks 2003 S Districts
African Swine Fever Outbreaks over the last10 years (Passive surveillance) Frequency of ASF in districts during 2004 in Uganda. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2004 12 10 PADER N GULU 8 APAC N SOROTI AK AS 6 O N G KAMULI PALLISA SIRONKO O LA KIBAALE KIBO GA LUWERO IGANGA 2004 JINJA MUBENDE 4 MUKONO O BUSIA SE KIS SE IGI KA WA MP 2 KANUNGU RAKAI 0 Key ASF outbreaks 2004 Districts Frequency of of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2005 in AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2005 Uganda KITGUM 4 PADER N 3 KATAKWI APAC SOROTI N 2 AK A SO N G KAMULI O KIBOGA LA JINJA MUKONO O 1 Frequency WAKIS MPIGI 0 KISORO MPIGI KAMPALA KISORO APAC PADER MUKONO NAKASONGOLA KIBOGA JINJA KITGUM KAMULI KATAKWI WAKISO SOROTI Key ASF outbreaks 2005 Districts DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRICTS THAT REPORTED AFRICAN SWINE FEVER IN 2006 Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2006 in Uganda MO YO N 3.5 NI MA JU AD PADER 3 IDO 2.5 MASINDI MA RA BE KA NA 2 KIB KA PALLISA SE OG KE A JINJA 1.5 MPIGI Frequency 1 KEY ASF RAKAI Districts 0.5 0 100 0 100 KM
African Swine Fever Outbreaks over the last10 years (Passive surveillance) DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRICTS THAT REPORTED AFRICAN SWINE FEVER IN 2007 Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2007 in Uganda. AD JU MA NI PADER N 3 NEBBI LIRA 2 A DE KE BU 1 Frequency TORORO JINJA MPIGI 0 KEY ASF Districts 80 0 80 160 KM AFRICA SW N INE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2008 Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2008 in Uganda MOYO GULU 5 4.5 N 4 MA SOROTI SIN 3.5 NA DI N KA S O A KA N KALIRO 3 G S O EK LA NAMUTUMBA MANAFWA E TORORO 2.5 KASESE 2 MPIGI 1.5 RAKAI Frequency 1 0.5 Key ASF outbreaks 2008 0 Districts MASINDI MPIGI GULU RAKAI KALIRO KASESE NAKASEKE MANAFWA MOYO NAKASONGOLA NAMUTUMBA TORORO SOROTI AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2009 Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2009 in Uganda 3 N O D AI AM 2 ER SOROTI AB NA K KA S O N G KALIRO O LA 1 Frequency KASESE MPIGI 0 Key ASF outbreaks 2009 Districts
African Swine Fever Outbreaks over the last10 years (Passive surveillance). Frequency of ASF outbreaks in districts during 2010 in Uganda AFRICAN SWINE FEVER OUTBREAKS 2010 3 KITGUM PADER N 2 APAC KATAKWI NA SOROTI KA SO NG OL A KAMULI KIBOGA JINJA WAKISO Frequency 1 # MPIGI MUKONO KAMPALA KISORO 0 Key ASF outbreaks 2010 Districts
Impact of African Swine Fever in Uganda ASF is endemic It is highly prevalent through out the ten year period The distribution has no pattern (mapping – genetic, epidemiological) However the Lake Victoria region is always affected and yet it has the highest pig population (Socio-economic study area) ASF usually decimates the whole herd and the farmer has to start all over again, leading to loss of interest in the industry In some instances ASF kills 70% to 80% leaving carriers which the farmer carries on with and adds by purchasing – ASF perpetuation (Study area) ASF has had a direct effect in reducing the pig population and the number of farmers in the industry (Impact area – advisory services)
Surveillance of African Swine Fever inUganda Passive surveillance through monthly reports Incidence reporting usually through mobile phone, report by DVOs to Commissioner Investigation when suspected disease is reported Active surveillance is now being carried out under ASFUga project which is a collaboration between Uganda and Sweden.
DiscussionValue of pigs in Uganda Inadequate diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases Revive populations that have lost livelihoods especially in the Northern Uganda Used in women and children groups, and other associations Enterprise that does not require much land; attractive to the more urban areas of the Lake Victoria Crescent Yet ASF tend to be concentrated in this area
ConclusionsSince there is no vaccine yet for ASF there is need to improve; Production systems (hygiene, housing, feeding –avoiding swill) Breeding systems Deal with diseases – treatment, prevention and control – quarantine, movement control
Way forward for the Pig Industry inUganda Promote establishment of nucleus breeding centers Support improvement of pigs through importation of breeding pigs Promote establishment of multiplication centers Promote use of artificial insemination in pigs Train advisory service providers Train farmers in modern pig husbandry Encourage formation of cooperative/farmer associations
Way forward for the Pig Industry inUganda Review relevant legislation Formulate standards for production and products Promote marketing of pigs and pig products by grades for better prices Sensitization of extension staff, farmers and butchers on standards and regulations Enforce standards and regulations
Way forward for the Pig Industry in Uganda Carry out research needs assessment Fund research in pig production Promote coordination and collaboration in research activities nationally and internationally. Establish suitable markets in appropriate locations Attract and encourage investments for processing in rural areas Support establishment of central/regional abattoirs