Feeding and breeding systems in the Uganda smallholder pigs value chain

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Presented by Natalie Carter and Danilo Pezo at the Workshop on In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminary identification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013

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Feeding and breeding systems in the Uganda smallholder pigs value chain

  1. 1. Feeding and breeding systems in theUganda smallholder pigs value chainNatalie Carter and Danilo Pezo“Workshop: In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminaryidentification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013”
  2. 2.  Production Systems Water Available Feeds Forages Constraints Solutions Summary Trends in breed-types Sources of pigs Mating management Constraints SummaryFeeding Breeding
  3. 3. Extensive: permanent scavengingSemi-intensive: sometimes scavengeIntensive: total confinement
  4. 4. 0102030405060708090 TAPWELLSBOREHOLERAINWATERPONDSSPRINGSWASTEWATERHUMANURINETAPWELLSBOREHOLERAINWATERPONDSSPRINGSWASTEWATERHUMANURINEWET SEASON DRY SEASONRU UU RR
  5. 5. 010203040506070RU UU RR
  6. 6. 010203040506070JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DECRU UU RR
  7. 7. 020406080100120Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov DecRUcommercial crop residuesforage home mixedkitchen leftovers
  8. 8. 020406080100120Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov DecUUcommercial crop residues foragehome mixed kitchen leftovers
  9. 9. 020406080100120Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov DecRRcommercial crop residues foragehome mixed kitchen leftovers
  10. 10. Cassava leaves and yam leaves – all threeAmaranthus – Rural-UrbanSweet potato vines – Urban-Urban & Rural-RuralCassava leaves: Very palatable Medicinal Give satisfaction to pigs Fast growth Human and animal feed
  11. 11. Amaranthus: Rich in vitamins PalatableSweet potato vines: Very palatable Give satisfaction to pigs Medicinal Boost growth and milk and reduces fat Accessible
  12. 12. Rural-Rural and Rural - Urban Expensive, poor quality commercial Lack knowledge - home mixing Drought – forages scarce Harmful objects – kitchen leftoversUrban-Urban Expensive commercial Drought – forages scarce Lack knowledge – home mixing Drought – forages scarce
  13. 13. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS Grow and store enough Borrow money Use planted forages Home mixed rations Training – quality and mixing Training – feed conservation Training- weather and climate factors Training – proper treatment of kitchen waste Clean, check, sort, boil waste
  14. 14.  3 systems Water sources Twice per day Feed availability Feed types Forages and benefits Constraints Solutions
  15. 15. Smallholder Pig Value Chain R4DProjects in UgandaTHE BREEDING COMPONENT IN SMALLHOLDERPIG FARMS OF KAMULI, MASAKA AND MUKONO
  16. 16. Local ImprovedCross-bred
  17. 17. Kamuli Masaka
  18. 18. Mukono
  19. 19. %
  20. 20. Characteristics Tally LocalCross-bredExoticMany teats(> 12) 41 2.8 1.8 1.3Mothering ability 2 3.5 1.5 1.5Large litter size 3 3.3 2 1Horizontally long 64 3.2 1.9 1.3Floppy ears 57 3.1 1.73 1.4Fast growth 20 3.6 1.8 1.3Color/skin appearance 16 1.7 1.5 1.6Note: Scores from 1 to 5, being 1 = very good and 5 = very poor
  21. 21. VC domain Reason %U – UTo avoid inbreeding 27.6Age of the gilts 24.1Weight of the boar 10.3R – UAge of the gilts 27.3To avoid inbreeding 22.7Weight of the boar 22.7R – RTo avoid inbreeding 16.7Age of the gilts 23.8Usea a good quality boar 16.7
  22. 22. VC domain Problems %U – UFeeds are expensive 14.3Susceptibility to diseases 14.3Sows eat own piglets 14.3R – UAgalactia (lack of milk) 21.9Sows eating own piglets 12.5Feeds are expensive 9.4R – RAgalactia (lack of milk) 17.9Piglet mortality 13.4Sows eat own piglets 10.4
  23. 23.  The use of crossbred and exotic animals hasincreased in the last 10 years, but locals arestill important in the rural settings. Exotic breeds are the most preferred in U-U.whereas in the R-U and R-R exotic andcrossbreds are equally preferred The attributes most valued by farmers are:number of teats, body length, floppy ears andfast growth. All three have higher positivescores in the exotic and crossbred animals.
  24. 24.  The main limiting factors for not using thepreferred breeds (exotic and crossbreds)are: costs of animals, susceptibility todiseases and the need for feeds to matchhigher nutrient demands as well asinvestment to provide appropriate housingfacilities.

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