Smalholder Pig Value Chain Development Project (SPVCD) in UgandaParticipatory rapid assessment of animal health and manage...
Outline• Introduction• Material and Methods• Housing typology• Husbandry practices• Herd entry/exit• Reasons for herd entr...
Introduction• Animal diseases are known to be one of the major limiting factorsto pig production in Uganda• Persistence an...
Material and methodsParameter Objective Tool Data captureHousing typology Get a relative sense of the type ofconfinement a...
Free range/scavengingDefinition animal are free during the day and stabilized the night (housed or tethered);they get food...
Permanent confinementDefinition Pig are confined in house; feeds are brought; house with raised floor orwithout raised flo...
TetheringDefinition Pigs are tethered under a tree shade in the compound (feeds brought) or in thebush and moved to a tree...
Housing typology0102030405060708090100RR RU UUTetheringHousedFree-range/ScavengingConfinement type Rural (%) Peri-urban (%...
Husbandry practices020406080100120deworming castration servicing vitamininjectionparasitesspraytagging ioninjectionextra t...
Herd entry/exit020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-Bu...
Reason for herd entry020406080100 KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaK...
Reasons for herd exit020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKa...
Causes of death020406080100 KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-B...
Priority diseases05101520253035404550RRRUUUDisease Common agents Morbidity (%) Mortality (%) Case fatality (%)ASF (Omusujj...
Rainfall and seasonality of diseases and vectors0102030405060Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DecRainfallASFWo...
Disease impact on production• ASF: epidemic, high mortality• Parasites: endemic, stunted growth, loss of weight• Diarrhea:...
Disease control by farmersDisease name Treatment and prevention Effectiveness of treatmentAfrican swine fever Antibiotics,...
Main constraints to animal health (1)05101520253035RRRUUU
Main constraints to animal health (2)• What is already being done? Own treatment with commercial drugs or traditional dru...
Main constraints to animal health (3)• What more can be done? Get qualified vets and increase their accessibility Get br...
Main constraints to animal health (4)• Who has to do it? Farmer Government authorities Development institutions Resear...
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Participatory rapid assessment of animal health and management practices in the Uganda smallholder pig value chain

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Presented by Michel Dione at the Workshop on In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminary identification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013

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Participatory rapid assessment of animal health and management practices in the Uganda smallholder pig value chain

  1. 1. Smalholder Pig Value Chain Development Project (SPVCD) in UgandaParticipatory rapid assessment of animal health and managementpractices in the Uganda smallholder pig value chainMichel Dione“Workshop: In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminaryidentification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013”
  2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Material and Methods• Housing typology• Husbandry practices• Herd entry/exit• Reasons for herd entry• Reasons for herd exit• Priority diseases• Seasonality of diseases and vectors• Main constraints to animal health
  3. 3. Introduction• Animal diseases are known to be one of the major limiting factorsto pig production in Uganda• Persistence and spread of disease in the farm are stronglyassociated with their management practices• Overall objective: identify constraints and opportunities forintervention in the pig value chain• Secondary objectives :– know what priority diseases exist and their impact on pig production;– assess farmers perceptions of health constraints in relation toproduction parameters;– facilitate own problem analysis on health constraints (diseases,symptoms or syndromes);– elicit farmers knowledge on disease causation (host, environment,pathogen) and access to service;
  4. 4. Material and methodsParameter Objective Tool Data captureHousing typology Get a relative sense of the type ofconfinement and housing that existListing and proportional piling Table with frequency ofhousing usedHusbandry practices Know different husbandry practicesdone by farmersListing and proportional piling Table with list of practicesCommunity herdentry/exitKnow where do the pigs come fromand, what happen to the pigs in thecommunity over a yearListing and proportional piling Diagram with proportionsDisease priority andimpact in productionKnow the most important diseases thataffect pigs in the areaSimple ranking Table with list of top 5diseases and theircharacteristicsHerd morbidity andmortalityUnderstand the mortality andmorbidity rates in the herdProportional piling Diagram with proportionsSeasonal calendar fordiseases occurrenceKnow the activities linked to the pighealth throughout the yearSeasonal calendar and scoring Map of the seasonalcalendar against diseasesand risk factorsMain constraints to animalhealthKnow the different constraints thataffect the health of pigsMatrix/pair-wise comparison Pair-wise matrixDisease control andsurveillanceKnow what are the disease control andsurveillance measures in the areaFace to face interview withDVOs and keys informantsReportPerceptions of farmers fortackling their animalhealth problemsKnow the ideas about what is beingdone and what more could be done toimprove the pig’s healthProblem opportunity matrix Table with list of constraintsand proposed actions• Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with farmers and key informants ;quantitative information were obtained through group consensus• Triangulation: with secondary/key informant/service provider dataduring the exercise; further investigation (laboratory testing)
  5. 5. Free range/scavengingDefinition animal are free during the day and stabilized the night (housed or tethered);they get food outside; no supplementation; adults and piglets are mainlyconcerned; no exotic breedsReason no money to construct house or buy feeds; no time to look after pigsSeasonality adults (usually dry season, but some farmers release their pigs at night duringcrop season); piglets (difficult to tether, all seasons)Advantages cheap for feeding and servicing; protect from predators; so supplementationInconvenient Accidents; exposition to disease; conflict with neighbors; crop destruction;theftScore Rural (17%), peri-urban (18%) and urban (1%)Adult pig scavenging in rural setting in Wakiso Piglets scavenging in rural setting in Mukono
  6. 6. Permanent confinementDefinition Pig are confined in house; feeds are brought; house with raised floor orwithout raised floorSeasonality all seasonsAdvantages Avoid rope injuries; pigs protected against predators and thieves;restricted movement, disease threat attenuated; conflict with neighborreduced; manure can be easily collected and hygiene is improved; qualityof feeds controlledInconvenient Expensive; time involvingScore Rural (21%), peri-urban (43%) and urban (86%)Hosed not raisedwith cementedfloor, roof madewith ion sheetand wall withtimber inMukonoHouse not raised,roof maid of ionsheet and wall ofbricks in MukonoHouse notraised, floornot cemented,wall and roofmade of stemin MasakaHouse raised,wall made ofstem and roofof grass inBatuga
  7. 7. TetheringDefinition Pigs are tethered under a tree shade in the compound (feeds brought) or in thebush and moved to a tree to another to keep the shade and allow change of feeds(grass and crops residues); ropes are changed from one leg to another to reduceinjuries.Reason No funds to construct houses; farmers keeps small number of pigs (2 to 3);Seasonality local breed and adults pigs; all seasons and dry season only for those practicingscavengingAdvantages Not exposed to disease; manure produce on site; no crop damage; conflict withneigh our reducedInconvenient Leg injuries; exposition to predators;Score Rural (66%), peri-urban (40%) and urban (13%)Adult pig tetheredunder a tree shadeand fed with cropresidues
  8. 8. Housing typology0102030405060708090100RR RU UUTetheringHousedFree-range/ScavengingConfinement type Rural (%) Peri-urban (%) Urban (%)Tethering 66 40 13Housed Housed raised floor 5 6 25Housed not raised floor 16 37 61Free-range/Scavenging 17 18 1
  9. 9. Husbandry practices020406080100120deworming castration servicing vitamininjectionparasitesspraytagging ioninjectionextra teatremovalRRRUUUPig husbandry practices When What is the source of the service Cost of the service (UGX)Castration From 2 weeks of age village vet; village castror or farm owner up to 3000Serving when pig seen on hitvillage boar; neighbor boar; release freerooming to meet any boar10000 to 50000Boar local breed < improved breed;neighbor<village boarDeworming once a while village vet; farmer2500 to 4500 (injection)500 to 2000 (tablet/piglets)2000 to 3000 (tablet/adult)Up to 7000 (drenching)Parasites spraying Village vet 1000 to 5000 per treatmentIon supplementationvillage vet; or allow pigs to room andingest red soil1000 to 3500vitaminusually at 2 months ofpregnancyvillage vet or farmer 1000 to 5000Extra teat removal - high qualified vets -Tagging/Notching - village vet of farmer -
  10. 10. Herd entry/exit020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaRural-rural Rural-urban Urban-urbanProportionofhouseholds(%)remainingmoved out
  11. 11. Reason for herd entry020406080100 KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofhouseholds(%)renting ingiftboar servicesbirthpurchase
  12. 12. Reasons for herd exit020406080100KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofhouseholds(%)deathpredatorsslaughteredtheftgiftpay boar serviceget lostrenting poutsold
  13. 13. Causes of death020406080100 KkingoKyanamukakaKitayunjwaNamwendwaBugulumbyaNtenjeruKaboneraKyampisiKimanya-KyabakuzaKatwe-ButegoNyendo-SsenyangeMukonoTCGomaProportionofhouseholds(%)heat stressaccidentpredationmalicemalnutritiondisease
  14. 14. Priority diseases05101520253035404550RRRUUUDisease Common agents Morbidity (%) Mortality (%) Case fatality (%)ASF (Omusujja/Omusudha) Virus of Asfarviridae family 29 29 100Worms (Enjoka/Ebiwuka) Schistosoma, strongyloides, coccidia,nematodes, cestodes, fasciola, etc..37 14 39Sarcoptic mange (Lukuku/Olukuku) Sarcoptes scabei 16 7 43Diarrhea (Ekidukano/kwiidukana) rotavirus 6 5 86Lice (Ensekere/Nsekere) Haematopinus suis 5 1 24Malnutrition (Endya embi) - 4 3 66FMD (Kalusu) Virus of Picornaviridae family 1 0.0 6Midge biting (Kawawa) Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); Simuliumspp.; Culicoides spp.1 0.2 18*Others - 1 0.5 73*Swine erysipelas, anemia, ticks, jiggers, heat stress, undiagnosed diseases usually related to sudden death
  15. 15. Rainfall and seasonality of diseases and vectors0102030405060Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DecRainfallASFWormsDiarrheaMalnutritionFMD0510152025303540Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DecRainfallMiteLiceJiggerMidgeTicks
  16. 16. Disease impact on production• ASF: epidemic, high mortality• Parasites: endemic, stunted growth, loss of weight• Diarrhea: loos of weight and dead on piglet• FMD and Malnutrition: reduced market value• Diamond disease: emaciation,unprofitable to feedout.• Amenia: death
  17. 17. Disease control by farmersDisease name Treatment and prevention Effectiveness of treatmentAfrican swine fever Antibiotics, human urine, local herbs(mululuza, kigagi, esikula, ekifufumu, omululuza), combination of aloe vera and saltLittle effectiveWorms Deworming with either tablet, injection or drenching Very effectiveEcto-parasitesLice Ivermectin, used engine oil, insecticide (“ambush poison”), tobacco extractVery effectiveMange mite spraying with acaricide, apply used engine oil, tobaccoextract, scrabbling with soap, ground herbal leaves(muluku)Very effectiveBiting midges insecticide (“ambush poison”), used engine oil very effectiveTick Spraying Very effectiveJiggers Wallowing, spraying Very effectiveDiarrhea Injection by vet Very effectiveMalnutrition None Some farmers can stock bran,other can get a loan from BRACSwine erysipelas(Diamond disease)Inject on ear Very effectiveFMD No treatment Treated by vet to enable themmove to slaughterAnemia No treatment N/A
  18. 18. Main constraints to animal health (1)05101520253035RRRUUU
  19. 19. Main constraints to animal health (2)• What is already being done? Own treatment with commercial drugs or traditional drugs Use local material to construct houses Stock few pigs and make good use of the limited space Inform authorities about quality of drugs Deal with qualified and recognized health workers Sell other assets (crops, other animal) to buy drugs andconstruct houses Use local available feeds (forage, peelings) or allow them toscavenge Stock maize bran for use in time of scarcity Get loan and invest in the farm Visit more advanced farmers and seek for advice
  20. 20. Main constraints to animal health (3)• What more can be done? Get qualified vets and increase their accessibility Get breeds that are more resistant to diseases Access to affordable drugs Access to good quality feeds Training in management practices and recordskeeping Training on fed formulation and promote local feeds Access to funds Exchange farmer’s experience and knowledge
  21. 21. Main constraints to animal health (4)• Who has to do it? Farmer Government authorities Development institutions Research institutions• How it can be done?• Mobilize farmers in groups and provide training onmanagement and feeding strategies• Have access to good quality drugs• Vet services and feeds shops get closer to farmers• Access to loan from banks• Get technical staff in the villages• Increase farmer’s motivation
  22. 22. THANK YOU
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