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Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
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Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa

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Presented by Jimmy Smith, Director General, ILRI at the Veterinary Council of Nigeria & Nigeria Veterinary Medical Association Colloquium, Abuja, Nigeria, 12 November 2013 …

Presented by Jimmy Smith, Director General, ILRI at the Veterinary Council of Nigeria & Nigeria Veterinary Medical Association Colloquium, Abuja, Nigeria, 12 November 2013


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  • NB: middle Africa: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe
  • These figures are from FAO’s Livestock’s long shadow.
  • Trade matters − but local markets matter moreValue of 2011 meat trade was more than $100 billion (10% of agricultural trade)But traded meat accounts for only 10% of total meat consumed
  • Health inputs can be the largest expense in smallholder systems relying on natural resources for feed and family labour. In more intensive systems feed is typically by far the greatest expense. But disease can be the greatest avoidable expense (difficult to reduce feed costs by good management; easy to reduce disease costs by good management).ECF and Newcastle Disease are examples where the disease is the biggest constraint in the system. Several studies have shown that where these are controlled populations and/or offtake can double.The table summarises a number of studies in a systematic review of mortality in African traditional systems, by age group
  • BMGF estimates that animal disease costs poor countries billions of dollars a year
  • Lack of animal health cover contributes to the heavy burden of zoonoses.Last year ILRI conducted a systematic review of zoonoses, livestock-keeping and poverty. This found that the heaviest burden of zoonoses falls on poor people in close contact with animals
  • Period Disease (Country) Start Estimate 1986-2009 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (UK) 1986 15,500,000,000 6.1 billion in 1997-2009 1994 Plague (India) 1994 2,000,000,000 Sept. 1998-April 1999 Nipah virus (Malaysia) 1998 671,000,000 January 1999-Dec. 2008 West Nile fever (USA) 1999 400,000,000 Nov. 2002-July 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (CD, China, ROW)2002 41,500,000,000 January 2004-January 2009Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Asia) 2004 20,000,000,000 2003-2007 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (USA) 2004 11,000,000,000 Oct. 2005-Jan. 2009 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Europe) 2005 500,000,000 Nov. 2005-January 2009 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Africa) 2005 Nov. 2006-May 2007 Rift Valley Fever (Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia) 2006 30,000,000 per year without SARS 48,329,000,000 2,301,380,952 SARS 41,500,000,000 1,976,190,476 Total in 1986-2006 89,829,000,000 4,277,571,429 Total in 1998-2009 only 80,201,000,0006,683,416,667 without SARS 38,701,000,000 3,225,083,333 SARS 41,500,000,000 3,458,333,333 Annual avg (12 yrs) for 7 outbreaks is $3.2 bIf SARS is once in 12-yrs event, the annual cost is $3.5 bMoreover, there are other zoonotic diseases that are not included in this calculation. For instance HIV/AIDs which imposes heavy human, social and economic costs. At present, programs to control the disease are spending on the order of $10 billion per year – if we had included this, the total costs would be even more staggering.Costs of a flu pandemic would range from about 5x the impact of these 8 outbreaks in a mild flu scenario (455 billion) to about 40 x in a severe flu scenario ($3.1 trillion). Most of these costs would be indirect. 
  • Underlying all of these gaps is a a human resource gap.Africa countries typically have tens of millions of large animals, tens of millions of livestock keepers, but around 50 private vets and 50 public vets. Vets need help!
  • Underlying all of these gaps is a a human resource gap.Africa countries typically have tens of millions of large animals, tens of millions of livestock keepers, but around 50 private vets and 50 public vets. Vets need help!
  • One health offers a new paradigm for tackling the health gaps. OH starts with the recognition that the health of people, animals and ecosystems are independent. It further recognises that complex health problems can only be solved by different and disciplines coming together (multi-disciplinarity).
  • OH has been endorsed by international organisations and national governments. A growing body of evidence shows how OH approaches can better meet complex health challenges. Research has a key role in helping develop centers of excellence, and ILRI is one of many research institutes to adopt One Health and Ecohealth thinking.
  • In order to meet this challenge, the veterinary and medical professions will need to be flexible and adapt to working in a OH world. This will require a set of skills and knowledge not traditionally associated with the profession.
  • Some examples of how ILRI veterinary research is working with medics, social scientists and animal production experts:We are supporting 3 regional centers for One Health research in Vietnam, Thailand and IndonesiaLater this year a book will be published capturing 10 years research in informal food marketsWe have pioneered integrated human & livestock multiple diseases surveys in Africa and Asia
  • Lack of resources contributes to the reporting gap.In Africa, we estimate 12 million animals dying of notifiable disease each year; only 80,000 are reported.(The map shows only a handful of reports when millions are dying: The narrow top of the pyramid is the number of cases reported. The broad bottom is the number of cases in the community based on literature.)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Promoting synergy among professionals Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa Jimmy Smith, Director General International Livestock Research Institute Veterinary Council of Nigeria & Nigeria Veterinary Medical Association Colloquium Abuja, Nigeria, 12 November 2013
    • 2. Overview • Animals are essential for food, nutrition and health of people and the planet > Animal-source food provides income, nutrition > Smallholder production is key > Opportunities and challenges • Minding the gaps: Livestock productivity > Productivity gaps are large – Health gaps are an important component » Health provider gaps underlie health gaps
    • 3. Overview (cont) • Filling the gaps? > Actual: Gaps filled by non-professionals • Closing the gaps: Professional synergies > Ideal: Gaps filled by professional synergies?
    • 4. Animals are essential 4
    • 5. Africa’s assets: One billion livestock 250,000,000 Number, millions 200,000,000 150,000,000 Shoats Cattle 100,000,000 Pigs 50,000,000 0 Western Africa East Africa Northern Middle Africa Southern Africa Africa FAO 2013
    • 6. Four out of 5 of the highest value global commodities are livestock
    • 7. Developing-country gains in meat consumption outpace those in developed countries FAO 2006
    • 8. Global trade of livestock products (million tonnes, milk excluded) Adapted from FAO 2012
    • 9. Global trade of livestock products (million tonnes, milk included) Adapted from FAO 2012
    • 10. Key points about smallholder competitiveness • Smallholders will continue to supply most of the livestock products in most developing countries – but productivity needs to increase • There will be different trajectories of livestock growth, with strongest dynamics in Asia • Increasingly in many regions, smallholders will commercialize their operations and produce for markets • Demand for animal health inputs will increase 10
    • 11. Opportunities and challenges in the livestock sector Provides food and nutritional security BUT overconsumption can cause obesity Powers economic development BUT equitable development can be a challenge Improves human health BUT animal-human/emerging diseases and unsafe foods need to be addressed Enhances the environment BUT pollution, land/water degradation, GHG emissions and biodiversity losses must be greatly reduced
    • 12. Minding the gaps
    • 13. Identifying the gaps • Productivity gaps > Precludes stable market participation > Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds • Participation and knowledge gaps > Smallholder access to markets - Animal health, food safety, zoonoses > Translating research outputs to development outcomes • Animal health gaps > Reporting > Veterinary care
    • 14. Identifying the gaps • Productivity gaps > Precludes stable market participation > Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds • Participation and knowledge gaps > Smallholder access to markets - Animal health, food safety, zoonoses > Translating research outputs to development outcomes • Animal health gaps > Reporting > Veterinary care
    • 15. Productivity gaps: Milk Some developing country regions have gaps of up to 430% in milk FAO 2006
    • 16. Animal disease is a key constraint in Africa • Animal disease is a key constraint: Remove it and animal productivity increases greatly • Risk and cost associated with animal diseases are major disincentives for investment • As livestock systems intensify in developing countries, diseases may increase Annual mortality of African livestock (About half due to preventable or curable diseases) Young Adult Cattle 22% 6% Shoat 28% 11% Poultry 70% 30% Otte & Chilonda, IAEA
    • 17. Animal disease costs billions annually 8 7 Billion $ lost yearly 6 Africa South Asia 5 4 South Asia 3 Africa 2 1 0 Estimates from BMGF
    • 18. Zoonoses
    • 19. Costs of emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks Period Cost (US$ billion) (conservative estimates) 1998−2009 38.7 2002−2004 41.5 1998−2009 80.2 6 outbreaks excluding SARS − Nipah virus (Malaysia) − West Nile fever (USA) − HPAI (Asia, Europe) − BSE (US) − Rift Valley fever (Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia) − BSE (UK) costs 1997−09 only SARS Total over 12 years Giving an annual average of US$6.7 billion World Bank 2012
    • 20. The reporting gap: Significant losses to disease (mostly unreported)
    • 21. The vet gap 21
    • 22. Orders of magnitude Tens of millions - Animals - Livestock keepers 50−100 - Public vets - Private vets 22
    • 23. Gap filling? ILRI Spearheading a New Way Forward
    • 24. Reality: Productivity gap is filled by imports (Africa is a net importer of animal-source foods) • Production will not keep pace with consumption growth Quantity (Tonnes) Africa total meat trade 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Imports Exports 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 • Africa expected to continue being a net importer of animalsourced foods • Global trade share: 3% • Intra-regional trade (2009): 10% Calculated from FAO data (FAOSTAT, 2013)
    • 25. Reality: Reporting gap is filled by rumour and media
    • 26. Reality: Human resource gap is filled by non-professionals Around 80% of farmers rely on other health service providers Berenil Grace 2004
    • 27. Closing the gaps
    • 28. Ideal: Professional synergies close gaps One Health • Medical & veterinary • People, animals, plants, ecosystems • Inter-dependence • Multi-disciplinary • Added value Humans Ecosystems Wildlife Domestic animals
    • 29. Benefits of One Health • Improving animal and human health globally > Collaboration among all the health sciences • Meeting new global challenges through collaboration > Vet medicine, human medicine, environmental and social sciences, wildlife and public health • Developing centres of excellence for research, education and training > Vet medicine, human medicine and public health One Health Initiative Task Force: Final Report, 15 July 2008
    • 30. Example: Avian influenza response In Nigeria and other countries, vets and medics shared resources when responding to disease outbreaks, thus reducing costs and generating better information on transmission and epidemiology Joint response Bird flu vehicle with communication equipment AICP 2011
    • 31. Reducing the animal and human disease burden 20th century vet • Focus on disease and treatment • Public service seen as main career path • Male dominated • Vet as sole provider of health care • Reliance on clinical skills for treatment 21st century vet • Focus on health and prevention • Private sector increasingly important • Gender balanced • Vet as part of a multidisciplinary team • Technology increasingly important
    • 32. What is ILRI doing to support One Health? Conducting integrated human & livestock disease research & capacity development in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zambia, Senegal Supporting One Health resource centres in Vietnam, Thailand, India and Indonesia Training doctors in Kenya, dairy farmers in India and meat inspectors in Ethiopia
    • 33. Take-home messages • Rapid, demand-driven growth of Africa’s livestock sector depends on animal health and provides new opportunities for vets • One Health provides a rationale and methodology for assuring health for people, animals and ecosystems; vets have a major role • All these opportunities need vets who can work with social scientists, ecologists, animal scientists and medics in novel partnerships that close the gaps between the veterinary profession and poor men and women livestock keepers
    • 34. Better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.
    • 35. Productivity gap: Meat Biomass is calculated as inventory x average liveweight. Output is given as carcass weight. FAO 2006
    • 36. The reporting gap Source: HealthMap Africa • • • • 253 million SLU 25 million lost annually 12-13 million from notifiable disease 80,000 reported = 99.8% un-reported

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