Sheep value chains in Menz Gera district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment
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Sheep value chains in Menz Gera district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment

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Presented by B. Teferra at the Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting Action Research on Small Ruminant Value Chains in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 14th-15th March 2013

Presented by B. Teferra at the Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting Action Research on Small Ruminant Value Chains in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 14th-15th March 2013

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Sheep value chains in Menz Gera district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment Sheep value chains in Menz Gera district, North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment Presentation Transcript

  • Sheep value chains in Menz Gera district,North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment Beneberu Teferra Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting Action Research on Small Ruminant Value Chains in Ethiopia Addis Ababa, 14th-15th March 2013
  • Methodology• Study area: Menz Gera Midr district• 283 km away from Addis.• Districts Area Km2 = 1,644.32• Population = 121,676.00• Altitude range = 2800 – 3100 masl• Farming system - mixed crop- livestock production system• Crop production (District level,2012)• Major crops grown are barley (52%), wheat (23%), beans (15%) and others (10%)• Livestock population (District level,2012) Study area -• Sheep= 200676 Menz Gera Midr• Goats = 63542 2
  • Methodology cont…For PRA study 2 Kebeles and withineach kebele 15 (12M+3 F) representativeproducers were selected Age, sex, wealth and educationallevel were consideredSheep traders of the district wereinterviewedHotels, butchers and supermarkets,and export abattoir (at Addis) werealso interviewed 3
  • Core functions in sheep value chain,activities and actors 5- Core functions in sheep value chain. 4
  • Input supply Input supply for sheep production includes supply of breeding rams, veterinary drugs and services, feed and credit.Breeding rams The major breed available in the study area is the local breed - Menz breed and few awassi cross. Generally the source of rams is the producer’s own flock and breeding is through natural mating.Animal health service the most important diseases affecting sheep are foot rot, fasciola, pasteurellosis and sheep pox. One veterinary clinic for three kebeles and only one veterinarian expertise working with shortage of drugs and inadequate transportation.Animal feed Sources of animal feed in the area are natural grazing, hay, crop residues and oats and vetches. Some improved forage planting materials such as phalaris grass and tree lucerne have been supplied by the District Agricultural Office. 5
  • Production Sheep - the main source of income to meet the household’s immediate cash needs and they protect other household assets. Farmers produce sheep primarily for sale and occasional slaughter at home for household consumption. The average flock size maintained by households in the study area is about 20 sheep Sheep flock size trend- increasing - due to increasing demand for sheep meat. 6
  • Production cont… Proportions of sheep utilizationThe proportions of sheepused for householdconsumption and for 15%market are about 15% and 35% Household50% respectively. consumption Marketing 50%The remaining (35%) is the Breeding stockbreeding stock. 7
  • Seasonal distribution of feed resources relative to the rainfall pattern 8
  • Marketing Price of major type of sheep at different markets (birr) 1600 1600 1450 1400 1200 1100 1000 900Price in birr 825 800 700 farm gate district market 600 400 200 0 yearling ewe fattend/ castrated Sheep type 9
  • Proportion of animals sold by farmers to different type of market actors Farmers Big traders 10% 10% Individual consumer Small traders 20% 30% Hotels/Butchers 10% Brokers Collectors 10% 10% 10
  • Marketing cont… Price variation for different sheep type by different type of actors 1600 1400 1200 1000Price in birr 800 600 400 200 0 Big traders Small traders Collectors Brokers Hotels/Butchers Individual consumer Farmers Yearly 1025 1000 950 975 1075 1200 1100 Ewe 1050 1000 900 820 950 950 900 Fattened/ castrated 1600 1500 1200 1250 1525 1500 11
  • Processing and consumptionButcheries slaughter sheep andsupply for domestic consumptionin the form of raw/ roasted meat.Hotels and restaurants slaughtersheep mainly to prepare dishes indifferent forms.sheep are mainly consumed bydomestic consumers either in theform of processed meat fromhotels/butchers and at home. 12
  • Sheep market routes at North Shewa connected to Addis AbabaProducers Primary Mkt Secondary Mkt Tertiary Mkt 13
  • Sheep VC actors and major channels Identified channels for sheep marketing CH 1- Sheep purchased for breeding/ fattening purpose by farmers CH 2- Sheep purchased by hotels and individual consumers in the study areas CH 3- Sheep transported to Addis Ababa butchers , supermarkets and consumer markets CH 4- Sheep slaughtered at Modjo export abattoirs (Luna) 14
  • Costs and margins of actors in a market channel selling sheep to export abattoirs, butchers and supermarkets Export abattoirs Butchers Super marketsProducers selling price (Birr/head) 800 1450 1200to d/t actorsSelling price (Birr/head) 1360 2280 1795Marketing cost (Birr/head) 87 61 96Marketing margin (Birr/head) 335 580 245Net margin (Birr/head) 248 520 149Producers share of final price (%) 59 64 67 15
  • Opportunities for sheep Value chain An increasingly high demand for sheep meat in local markets Governments commitment and support to increase export of meat The establishment of Livestock Development and Health Agency Individuals engaged in fattening practice Farmers Awareness increasing Increase in number of export abattoirs 16
  • Suggested interventions and implementation strategies Stages of Challenges Suggested interventions Implementers Time value chain horizonInput supply Shortage of improved rams, Community based genetic improvement, - Woreda office of medium agriculture term - D/B research center - ICARDA/ILRI - Farmers Shortage of forage seeds timely delivery of seed, - Woreda office of Short term improving seed production agriculture - D/B research center - Farmers Shortage of drug supply Provision of sufficient revolving fund for drug - Woreda office of Short term purchases agriculture - ICARDA/ILRI Shortage of Strengthening health posts (manpower, vet - Woreda office of Short term manpower, equipment and equipment, transportation) agriculture transportation at vet health - ICARDA/ILRI posts Credit - high interest, group Strengthening credit and saving associations in - Woreda office of Short term collateral terms of finance and management agriculture - Woreda Cooperatives promotion office - ICARDA/ILRI Land shortage Renovation of grazing land, feed development, - Woreda office of Medium 17 maintaining optimum and productive sheep flock agriculture term
  • Stages of Challenges Suggested interventions Implementers Time value horizon chainProduction Low feed quality Over sowing with improved - Woreda office of Short term varieties, feed treatment, agriculture supplementation with high - D/Birhan ARC nutritious feed, developing - Farmers improve feed varieties Diseases Provision of Regular - Woreda office of Short term (fasciola, pasteurellosis vaccination and treatment, agriculture and sheep pox.) Strengthen health post, - D/Birhan ARC Training more CAHWs for - ICARDA/ILRI remote villages - Farmers Traditional feeding Training farmers and DAs in - Woreda office of Short term practices improved feeding methods agriculture such as Best Cost Ration - D/Birhan ARC Formulation and feeding - ICARDA/ILRI Low performance level of Promoting Community based - Woreda office of Medium local breed Genetic improvement program agriculture term - D/Birhan ARC - ICARDA/ILRI 18
  • Stages Challenges Suggested interventions Implementers Time of value horizon chainMarketing Lack of reliable source of market Link with National Livestock Market - Woreda offices of agriculture, Medium term information Information System and marketing and cooperative promotion Devise mechanisms of delivery system - D/Birhan ARC - ICARDA/ILRI Poor livestock marketing Construction of well-designed livestock - Amhara Bureau of Agriculture Long term infrastructure. (Poorly constructed marketing yard with all the necessary - Woreda administration, marketing yards, lack of facilities facilities - Offices of marketing and such as vet clinics, watering and cooperative promotion feeding troughs, loading and unloading ramps etc.) High cost of transportation due to Road development Amhara Regional Government Long term rough road network (road authority) Unlicensed ( informal) traders and Enforcing the government rules and Woreda office of customs and Short term brokers negatively influencing the regulation on business registration and revenue proper marketing environment licensing. Woreda Office of marketing and Coaching the market operation and taking cooperative action on unlicensed actors Double taxation Create multi stakeholder platforms Federal and regional customs and Short term involving Federal, regional and local level revenue authorities There is double taxation –at d/t administrators, customs authorities, traders checkpoints as traders cross regional and other to discuss on such cross cutting Regional bureaus of agriculture boundaries to reach terminal markets issues and come up with solutions and livestock agencies ICARDA/ILRI (facilitation) In adequate training (Skills and Provision of training on sheep production - Woreda office of Short term knowledge) on sheep production and and management for producers, DAs and agriculture marketing Woreda SMSs - D/Birhan ARC 19 - ICARDA/ILRI
  • Stages of Challenges Suggested interventions Implementers Time value chain horizonprocessing Awareness creation on slaughtering, District Office of marketing Short term Inadequate local market meat quality, and cooperative Searching for new market,Consumption Awareness creation, introducing and - Woreda office of Medium term Low quality animals supplied strengthening community based sheep agriculture to the market improvement programs. - D/Birhan ARC - ICARDA/ILRI Improving the production of sheep - Woreda office of Medium term through community based sheep agriculture Inconsistent supply of animals improvement program - D/Birhan ARC - ICARDA/ILRI Improve linkage among the sheep value chain actors, 20
  • ConclusionFarmers sell their best animals to meet household expenses, to settle social obligationsand to purchase food items during severe drought.Coping strategies to alleviate the food shortage during severe drought season throughcredit etc. need to be devised to ease pressure on the sheep enterprise.This would provide scope for more retention of good quality animals for breedingpurposes and this could reap long-term dividends in terms of animal performanceHousehold level sheep fattening management is common and involves an extendedperiod using generous inputs.The strong seasonality of demand for sheep represents an opportunity to focus short-termfattening to produce animals in the appropriate condition to coincide with periods of peakprices.In the smallholder systems farmers have to be equipped with new knowledge that canenable them improve the management and storage of crop residues and propersupplementation with forage legumes, 21
  • RecommendationsInterventions need to be matched to the household flock holdings and beaimed at improving breed quality within small household flocks.Research needs to provide information on efficient and economicutilization of the available resources to improve the traditional fatteningpractice.There is a need to provide timely and reliable market information toenhance informed decision making by farmersSupport the private sector actors willing to invest in sheep and feedproduction by availing appropriate information including the costs andbenefits production.Interventions in the improvement of pastures and fodders, over-sowingpastures with forage legumes, using multi-purpose trees and establishing 22fodder banks