During the first year, an initial scoping of the 4 value chains will help identifying key actors, marketing channels, supply, demand and multiple burdens for animal and human health. A multidisciplinary team in each focus country is currently developing a generic toolbox to assess value chain constraints by using participatory methods, biological sampling and new technologies such as metagenomics. Possible constraints include inputs such as feeds and breeds, services, socio-economics as well as disease in humans and livestock.
Safe Food, Fair Food: Introduction to the value chain assessment toolkit Tamsin DewéICARDA-ILRI Training on Tools for Rapid Assessment of Sheep and Goat Value Chains in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 5-8 November 2012
Safe Food, Fair Food Protecting the health of poor consumers and Safeguarding livelihoods of poor livestock keepers and other value chain actors
Background Animal-source foods (ASF) have high nutritional value ASF are single most important source of food-borne disease 80-90% African ASF marketed informally However, food safety standards can be prohibitive – Restrict market access for smallholder farmers – Drives trading underground
Risk-Based Decision Making in informal marketing systems Clear distinction between risk and hazard! – Hazard = anything that causes harm – Risk = probability + consequences Although hazards are often common in informal markets, risk to human health is not necessarily high Is there an acceptable level of risk? 4
Safe Food, Fair Food Risk-based approach to food safety – Structured way of evaluating and dealing with risks – Identifies major risks in food value chain from farm to fork (multidisciplinary) – Identifies most useful points of intervention
Codex Alimentarius framework for food safety risk assessment Can it be present in food? Hazard identification Can it cause harm?What harm does it cause? How does it get from source toHow does harm depend on victim? dose? What happens along the way? Hazard characterization Exposure assessment What is the harm? What is its likelihood? Risk characterization Participatory methods fit well Risk management/ Risk communication 6
Participatory rural assessment (PRA) Can participation improve food safety? Engaging producers and consumers – Consumers previously been neglected Rapid, practical indication of risks arising from meat and milk production Pre-tested in African context Performed in conjunction with value chain assessment
Toolkit Topic Participatory activity Materials required Questions to keep in mind Guidance for facilitator -Phrasing -Step-by-step instructions Example of data capture Final comments/check- up
Toolkit Main areas of interest: 1. ASF production cycle and constraints 2. Herd dynamics and disease burden 3. ASF consumption cycle and constraints 4. Food selection, management practices and risk awareness
1. ASF production cycle How does production vary during the year? What are the constraints to producing larger amounts of milk or meat? Which of these is most important? What are farmers’ solutions to the constraints?
2. Herd dynamics and disease burden How many animals move into and out of the herd in a year? Where do they come from? What happens to them? Morbidity and mortality rates Prioritisation of diseases
3. ASF consumption cycle What is the role of meat or milk in the diet during the year? What is the role of any ASF in diet quality? What happens during times of food shortage? To what extent are sheep/goat keepers also consumers? Photo: Charlie Pye-Smith/ILRI
4. Food selection and management How accessible are sheep and goat products? How do people perceive food quality and safety? How does this influence consumption? How do conditions between purchase and consumption affect nutritional value and food safety? Who bears the food safety risks or enjoys the nutritional advantages of this product? What are some solutions to improving food safety issues?
4. Food selection and management Activity: – “Njera” diagram 6.00 am 500 ml Milk delivered to house – Listing and ranking door by hawker – Daily calendar/flow 6.01 am 500 ml Milk taken to kitchen diagram 6.02 am 250 ml Milk 6.15 am 250 ml Milk stored in fridge boiled 4.30 pm 250 ml Milk 6.20 milk left to cool taken from fridge and boiled 6.00 am 250ml Milk 6.45 am 250 ml Milk added to tea and drunk by children drunk (unmixed) before school
What do we get out of it? Outputs – ASF production and consumption cycles and constraints on these – Food selection and handling practices – Risk awareness and management Further work – Baseline questionnaires and biological sampling – Identify and quantify risks – Test interventions
Strategy & TimelineInitial scoping Integrated risk Best-bet Dissemination Upgraded of 4 value assessment interventions of findings curricula chains (yr 1) (yr 2-3) (yr 3) (yr 3) (yr 1) Continuous monitoring and evaluation and impact assessment 18