Safe Food, Fair Food: Reporting on the consumer end of the pig value chain in Uganda

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Presented by Kristina Rosel and Francis Ejobi at the Workshop on In-depth smallholder pig value chain assessment and preliminary identification of best-bet interventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013

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Safe Food, Fair Food: Reporting on the consumer end of the pig value chain in Uganda

  1. 1. Safe Food, Fair FoodReporting on the consumer end of the pigvalue chain in Ugandarisk-based approaches to improving food safety and market access ininformal markets in sub Saharan Africa hereKristina Rosel (ILRI) and Francis Ejobi (Makerere University)“Workshop: In-depth smallholder pig value chainassessment and preliminary identification of best-betinterventions, Kampala, 9-11 April 2013”
  2. 2. Outline Who eats pigs? Reasons for eating more orless pigs? Seasonality of pig consumption? Accessibility of pork? Pork quality attributes for consumers Risk increasing practices Risk mitigating practices On-going: urban consumer survey
  3. 3. Materials and methods• 24 participatory ruralappraisals with pigproducers• 10 participatory ruralappraisals with pigproducers asconsumers• 27 focus groupdiscussions withmothers of youngchildren
  4. 4. 101 men, 194 women participated
  5. 5. Who eats pigs?
  6. 6. The role of pigs in the diet quality(Mukono vs Kamuli)
  7. 7. Seasonality of pig consumption?• Yes, driven by festivals:• Christmas• Easter• Uganda Martyr’s Day (June 3)• Independence Day (October 9)• seasonal weather changes:• Dry season = season of swine disease outbreaks• seasonal cash availability:• School fees (February, May, August)• Coffee/ maize harvest (June, July, November, December)
  8. 8. Drivers of pig consumption
  9. 9. Are pig feeds competing with human food?• Not in the assessment sites, even though feedswere identified as a major constraint forproducing more pigs• Farmers try and sell stock after fattening them in“times of plenty” (during/ shortly after the rains)• kitchen scraps (peels from cassava or potatoes, matooke orposho leftovers)• Tubers (Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava)• Fruits (avocado, sweet bananas, jackfruit, mango, papaya)
  10. 10. Reasons for eating (more) pig?• Money: “The rich eat more because they can eatwhatever they want whenever they want”• “eating pork clears the skin” (Mukono)• “eating pork (and bone marrow) makes strong bones”(Masaka)• “eating pig cures measles in children caused by eatinggoats meat” (Kamuli)
  11. 11. Reasons for eating no pig?• Religion:• Muslims; SDA; Borne Again (Masaka): “pigs are for demons”• Traditional religions:• Abaswezi (Kamuli) don’t eat eggplant, fish and pork• Abaana Banabawanuka (Kamuli) don’t eat pork• Bamasiya (Kamuli) don’t eat anything that produces blood(vegetarians?)• Beliefs:• Pregnant women must not eat pork or “the child might havea mouth like a pig” (Masaka)• If children eat meat “they might delay speaking” (Masaka)• If children eat offal “they might become dumb” (Masaka)
  12. 12. Accessibility of pig
  13. 13. Butchery wa Anthony:•Clean meat and clean butcherman•Organized place•Not a pork joint•Fair price (6,000 UGX per kg)Butchery Mukono:•Along the main way•Clean meat and butcher man•Organized•Not a pork joint•Fair price (6,000 kg UGX per kg)Butchery/ pork joint Nasuti:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery/ pork joint Nakabago:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery/ pork jointindustrial area:•Relative clean•Good price•nearButchery Mukilangila:•Dirty meat, dirty butcher man•Drunkards that maintain obscenewordsKitete, Mukono TC
  14. 14. Quality attributes for pork (consumer)Consumers like:•Clean meat•Fresh meat•A small fat layer•Soft meat
  15. 15. Reasons not to buy pork (consumers):• Meat not clean• Bad smell of meat• Reddish/green colour• Dirty butchers• No fat/Too much fat• Pig was too old/too young• (pork was in the fridge)
  16. 16. Quality attributes for live pigs (traders)Live pig buyers want:•Size/ weight•Appearance•Breed traits
  17. 17. Risk increasing practices• Misinterpreting signs in live pigs• Misbeliefs• Sales of pigs in case of a local disease outbreak• Presence of arthropod vectors• Lack of on-farm and off-farm diseasesurveillance exposes slaughter staff, porkhandlers including housewives to disease• Poor feed storage might compromise porksafety• Some traditional preservation measures• Eating pork with raw vegetables
  18. 18. Risk mitigating practices• Better slaughter practices in rural sitesthan in urban slaughter house• Awareness of diseases transmitted frompigs/pork to people – no raw meatconsumption• Thorough cooking, reheating
  19. 19. On-going:urban consumer survey• Higher consumption ofpork in the city• Lack of slaughter hygiene• Salmonella spp, Brucellaspp already identified• Slaughter house suppliesboth formal and informalmarket• Pork consumption relatedto alcohol consumption
  20. 20. Acknowledgements• Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia• Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique (IIAM)• Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and CentralAfrica (ASARECA)• Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire (CSRS)• Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland• Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany (BfR)• Freie Universität Berlin (FUB), Germany• German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development(BMZ)• German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ)• International Foundation for Science (IFS), Sweden• Italian Embassy• Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology• National Research Foundation (NRF), South Africa• Programme d’Appui Stratégique à la Recherche Scientifique en Côte d’Ivoire(PASRES)/ Fonds Ivoiro-Suisse de Développement Economique et Social(FISDES)• Promotion of Private Sector Development (PSDA/GIZ)• Rakuno Gakuen University (RGU), Japan• Royal Veterinar College (RVC), UK• Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania• University of Ghana (UoG), Ghana• University of Hohenheim (UoH), Germany• University of Nairobi (UoN), Kenya• University of Pretoria (UoP), South Africa

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