• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Risk-based approaches to food safety in developing countries
 

Risk-based approaches to food safety in developing countries

on

  • 936 views

Presented by Delia Grace to the ILRI workshop on safety of animal source foods with an emphasis on the informal sectors, New Delhi, India, 8 February 2011

Presented by Delia Grace to the ILRI workshop on safety of animal source foods with an emphasis on the informal sectors, New Delhi, India, 8 February 2011

Statistics

Views

Total Views
936
Views on SlideShare
936
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
19
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Up to 1 in 3 people contract illness from food-borne pathogens each year 1.5 billion annual cases of diarrhoea in children most due to unsafe food (2.1 million deaths) Poor, young, elderly, pregnant women and immune-suppressed most affected Chronic sequelae in 2-3% including kidney and liver failure, brain and neural disfunction, blood disorders, reactive arthritis, paralysis and death (Cost of the estimated 11 500 daily cases of food poisoning in Australia AU$ 2.6 billion annually-)
  • Two-thirds of human pathogens are zoonotic – many of these transmitted via animal source food (salmonellosis, EHEC, cryptosporidium) Animal source food single most important cause of food-borne disease Many food-borne diseases cause few symptoms in animal host (chicken and S. enteritidis , calf and E. coli O157:H7 , oysters and V. vulnificus ) Many zoonotic diseases controlled most effectively in animal host/reservoir Recent studies shown pre- ‘harvest’ stage most important for controlling food-borne pathogens
  • In poorest countries informal sector dominates now more than 95% will remain more than 80% for at least the next 2 decades
  • Imports figures: see attached excel file Local Production of 347 M litres for the 9 districtss: data for 2005-06, s ource: Deptt. Of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary, Govt. of Assam (Anjani’s file) 17% marketed milk: farm survey data on 1,147 producers (available data) Percentage sold through various outlets: farm survey on 362 producers (available data, only 21% of cattle owners sell milk) Consumer survey: weighted average of urban consumers (17%) and rural (83%). All milk and dairy products considered using LME
  • A hazard is simply something that can cause harm. Risk has 2 elements: undesirability and uncertainty. Hazard + probability: RA systematic evaluation of hazards and their possible effects Risk Analysis a structured approach for dealing with risk; three essential elements: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication
  • Tools and attitudes
  • Most existing regulations based on hazard not risk. A hazard is anything that can cause harm, Risk is measure of harm likely to be incurred. Pathogens in meat may be a hazard but they are only a risk to the extent in which humans eat raw milk or come in contact with it. Food safety has traditionally been assured by looking at hazards in the end product but in risk approaches the journey is as important as destination; while product-level information tells us there is a problem, pathway information tells us where the problem came from and hence what can be done about it
  • Most existing regulations based on hazard not risk. A hazard is anything that can cause harm, Risk is measure of harm likely to be incurred. Pathogens in meat may be a hazard but they are only a risk to the extent in which humans eat raw milk or come in contact with it. Food safety has traditionally been assured by looking at hazards in the end product but in risk approaches the journey is as important as destination; while product-level information tells us there is a problem, pathway information tells us where the problem came from and hence what can be done about it

Risk-based approaches to food safety in developing countries Risk-based approaches to food safety in developing countries Presentation Transcript

  • Risk-based approaches to food safety in developing countries Delia Grace ILRI workshop on safety of animal source foods with an emphasis on the informal sectors, New Delhi, India, 8 February 2011
  • Overview of presentation
    • Context:
      • food safety,
      • animal source foods,
      • informal markets
    • Risk-based approaches in Africa and Asia
  • Why food safety matters
  • Why animal source foods matter
    • Manure
      • Xenobiotics
      • Chemicals
      • Pathogens
      • Aesthetic
    • Milk, meat, eggs
      • Xenobiotics
      • Chemicals
      • Pathogens
      • Allergens
    • Zoonoses:
      • Bacterial
      • Viral
      • Parasitic
      • Prion
    Social conflict Traffic accidents Injuries Environmental degradation
  • Why the informal sector matters Small & medium scale Large scale Self-employment 245,000 11,000 Long-time hired labour 454,000 93,000 Casual labour 36,000 2,000 Total (numbers) 735,000 105,000 % of total 87% 13% Kenya 80% Tanzania 98% W. Africa 90% India 83% Assam 97% Nicaragua 86%
  • CONSUMERS (in litres milk equivalent) (???) IMPORTS ??? LOCAL PRODUCTION (347 Million litres X 17% marketed= 59 Million litres ) SHOPS 3% 31% 66% <1% 26% 46% 27% 28% 72% 100% 13% 12% 75% 5% 45% 2% 48% TRADERS PROCESSORS FORMAL
  • Risk analysis a tool for decision-making under uncertainty Risk Assessment Risk Management Risk Communication
  • Participatory Risk Assessment
    • Attitudes
  • How do risk-based approaches differ from conventional public health?
    • Look at risks, not hazards
    • Look at paths, as well as products
    • Solution, not problem oriented
  • Understanding perceptions & incentives – adulterated milk in Assam Perfect test Consumer judgment Completely useless test
  • Adulteration & health risk
  • Compliance with standards : Formal no better than informal
  • How do risk-based approaches differ from conventional public health?
    • Look at paths, as well as products
    • Solution oriented not problem oriented
  • Risk mitigation Average of 17.25 risk mitigation strategies used Farmers who believed UA was legal used more strategies
  • Risk-based identification of interventions to improve bacteriological quality of sweets.