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Reducing disease risks and improving food safetyin smallholder pig value chains in VietnamRisk assessment component:planne...
Objectives• 1. To assess impacts of pork-borne diseases on human  health and the livestock sector and identify critical  p...
Project frameworkRisk profiling                   12                  Microbial Risk Assessment                           ...
Risk analysis  • Risk analysis describes how risks are dealt    within the society, including 3 componentsHazard vs. Risk•...
Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA)        within Risk Analysis framework                      Q          M     ...
Quantitative Risk assessmentFood safety risk analysis: Codex vs. informal              marketing systemParticipatory metho...
Concept of participatory risk analysis            Bonfoh B. (2010) Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales.Ada...
Where is participatory used in the conventional RA                     Q          M           R           A               ...
Activities•Risk profiling and priority hazard identification•Risk assessment•Economic assessment of disease burden onhuman...
1. Risk Profiling and priority hazard               identification•   Broad and qualitative summary of relevant informatio...
Food-borne disease                  Diseases of pigParasitic                        Ectoparasites•Cysticercus cellulosae  ...
Exposure                                                        assessment                     Infection risk (P)         ...
An overview of the modules within the farm-to-consumption for risk assessmentFARM & TRANSPORTPiglets source               ...
Modeling process in exposure assessment  Fault tree         Understanding a logic of exposureParticipatory &interviews    ...
Chemical risk assessment•   Heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium …)•   Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),...
Sampling (1)• At farm: environmental impact• Slaughter house• Market• Consumption• Predictive microbiology (microbial grow...
Sampling (2)• Pork foodstuffs, way of preparation, and eating habits  identified by the survey.• Raw and cooled, in the ca...
Challenges• Difficulties to follow farm to folk: do we need to trace  pork from farm to fork?• Chemical risk assessment: w...
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Reducing disease risks and improving food safety in smallholder pig value chains in Vietnam: Risk assessment component

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Presented by Nguyen Viet Hung, Hoang Van Minh, Hoang Thi Thu Ha, Kohei Makita, Fred Unger, Lucy Lapar and Delia Grace at the inception workshop for the 'Reducing Disease Risks and Improving Food Safety in Smallholder Pig Value Chains in Vietnam' project, Hanoi, 14 August 2012.

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  • A hazard is simply something that can cause harm. Risk has 2 elements: undesirability and uncertainty. Hazard + probability: RA systematic evaluation of hazards and their possible effects Risk Analysis a structured approach for dealing with risk; three essential elements: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication
  • Now withj budget cut, we can analyse only 600 samples insetad of 900
  • Transcript of "Reducing disease risks and improving food safety in smallholder pig value chains in Vietnam: Risk assessment component"

    1. 1. Reducing disease risks and improving food safetyin smallholder pig value chains in VietnamRisk assessment component:planned activitiesNguyen Viet Hung (Hanoi School of Public Health) - PresenterHoang Van Minh (Hanoi Medical University)Hoang Thi Thu Ha (National Institute for Disease and Epidemiology)Kohei Makita (Rakuno Gakuen University)Fred Unger (International Livestock Research Institute)Lucy Lapar (International Livestock Research Institute)Delia Grace (International Livestock Research Institute)
    2. 2. Objectives• 1. To assess impacts of pork-borne diseases on human health and the livestock sector and identify critical points/opportunities for risk management• 2. To develop and test incentive-based innovations to improve management of human and animal health risks in smallholder pig value chains.• 3. To sustainably improve capacity to assess and manage risks in smallholder pig value chains by engaging stakeholders and co-generating evidence.
    3. 3. Project frameworkRisk profiling 12 Microbial Risk Assessment t 3 m Chemical Risk Assessment en Action research 1 s sRisk assessment se as Action research 2 Animal Health Risk Assessment R i sk Interventions Action research 3 Economics (eg health, CBA) ………………… Rapid assessment Economic assessmentValue chain … Incentive-based interventions Randomized Control Trials (RCT) ….4 Engaging stakeholders and co-generating evidence, Advocacy, C ommunication, OM
    4. 4. Risk analysis • Risk analysis describes how risks are dealt within the society, including 3 componentsHazard vs. Risk• Risk assessment (RA): is there a Risk Risk problem? How adverse the problem is? Assessment Management• Risk management: how to reduce risk Risk Communication• Risk communication: Communication of risks to managers, stakeholders, public officials, and the public. Source: Codex (1999)
    5. 5. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) within Risk Analysis framework Q M R A 1.Hazard Identification Describe environment, pathogens, Health effects 2.Dose-response Analysis Relationships between exposure (dose) & frequency of infection/illness (response) 3.Exposure Assessment Size & nature of the population, route, amount and duration of the exposure 4.Risk Characterization Integrate the information from 3 and 4 to express i t ac nu mm C public health outcomes, taking into account the o variability and uncertainty of the estimations. uqca a a D t i Risk management
    6. 6. Quantitative Risk assessmentFood safety risk analysis: Codex vs. informal marketing systemParticipatory methods Risk Risk Assessment Management Risk Communication
    7. 7. Concept of participatory risk analysis Bonfoh B. (2010) Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales.Adapting quantitative risk assessment to the context of food safety in informalmarkets: incorporation of information collected using participatory methods;engagement of stakeholders; use of “appropriately imprecise” data (that is,collected at least cost for the purpose).
    8. 8. Where is participatory used in the conventional RA Q M R A 1.Hazard Identification Describe environment, pathogens, Health effects 2.Dose-response Analysis Relationships between exposure (dose) & frequency of infection/illness (response) 3.Exposure Assessment Size & nature of the population, route, amount and duration of the exposure Participatory methods 4.Risk Characterization Integrate the information from 3 and 4 to express fit well i t ac nu mm C public health outcomes, taking into account the o variability and uncertainty of the estimations. uqca a a D t i Risk management
    9. 9. Activities•Risk profiling and priority hazard identification•Risk assessment•Economic assessment of disease burden onhumans and CBA
    10. 10. 1. Risk Profiling and priority hazard identification• Broad and qualitative summary of relevant information on a specific food safety issue or animal disease.• Hazard, impact on human and/or animal health, population affected, incidence and prevalence, epidemiology of transmission, stakeholder concerns, relative importance of the hazard, and options for management, etc.• Recommendations whether or not to further address the problem and the recommendation to whether or not to commission risk assessments. This needs to be done in collaboration with national stakeholders to reflect priorities.• Rough analysis (sample collection and analysis)• Design: desk study based on systematic literature review + sampling
    11. 11. Food-borne disease Diseases of pigParasitic Ectoparasites•Cysticercus cellulosae Endoparasites (gut, lung, liver)•Trichinella spiralis Respiratory (bacterial, viral)•Toxoplasma gondii Gastrointestinal (bacterial viral)•Fasciola spp Reproductive SkeletalBacterial Foot-and-mouth disease•Bacillus cereus Classical swine fever•Brucella suis Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome•Campylobacter spp.•Salmonella eneterica Non-food borne zoonoses•Staphylococcus arues •Japanese encephalitis•Shiga toxin producing E. coli •Erysipeloid•Yersinia enterocolitica •Streptococcus suis •Leptospira sppChemical•Antibiotic residues•Aflatoxins•Steroids/growth promoters
    12. 12. Exposure assessment Infection risk (P) Pf Pp Pr Slaughter Market Con- Farm Risk house sumption Nf Np Nr Pathogen concentration (N) Exposure assessmentFarm to fork (Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No2-2002, No7-2008)
    13. 13. An overview of the modules within the farm-to-consumption for risk assessmentFARM & TRANSPORTPiglets source Weaners source Finishers source Transport & lairage-sow -new pig in batch -new pigs in batch -mixing of pigs-feed -feed -feed -contamination of transport-contamination -contamination -contamination -transmission -transmission -transmission -cross-contamination -cross-contamination -cross-contamination SlaughterPROCESSING: -Scalding Randomly(different pig meat products) -Dehairing sampling -Singeing -Polishing -transmission -Evisceration -cross-contamination -Trimming -inactivation -Chilling -growth -transmissionPREPARATION & CONSUMPTION -cross-contamination(Different end-products) -inactivation
    14. 14. Modeling process in exposure assessment Fault tree Understanding a logic of exposureParticipatory &interviews Understanding a value chainParticipatory & Quantifying a value chaininterviews A survey, Quantifying contamination and growth literatureParticipatory &interviews Quantifying risk mitigation in a value chain Literature Dose-response model Building into risk characterization model Day 2-1
    15. 15. Chemical risk assessment• Heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium …)• Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),• Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs),• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,h]pyrene), antibiotics, etc.• February 2012, officials in Vietnam found beta-Agonists, a banned lean meat enhancing drug in some pig-rearing households in Dong Nai.• Environmental health risk assessment framework.
    16. 16. Sampling (1)• At farm: environmental impact• Slaughter house• Market• Consumption• Predictive microbiology (microbial growth)• Combined assessment on consumption, market, SH etc.. with interview of the value chain actors…• Modeling
    17. 17. Sampling (2)• Pork foodstuffs, way of preparation, and eating habits identified by the survey.• Raw and cooled, in the case of (iv), prepared pork meat samples will be collected at four points for testing: i) Small scale slaughterhouse, ii) Market (wet market and supermarket), iii) Consumer handling (undercooking and cross-contamination) and iv) Consumption (exposure to pathogens).• Environmental samples (farm, water, soil)• Variability, seasonal bias amples will be collected in two different seasons on a distribution of 8 months.
    18. 18. Challenges• Difficulties to follow farm to folk: do we need to trace pork from farm to fork?• Chemical risk assessment: what will be the key hazard (technique for hazard ranking?)• Risk factor vs. Phylogeny study to identify etiology of diseases• Uncertainty
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