VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH CENTRE FOR ASIA PACIFIC
Joint Master of Veterinary Public Health_5th Batch, 2011-2013
QUANTIFYING...
1. Rational and background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussions
6. Conclusions
2
Contents
9/10...
39/10/2013
 Gram-negative
 Family Enterobacteriaceae
 2 Species: S. enterica and S. bongori
 Serotypes: > 2,600 (Guibourdenche et...
-Humans: as a foodborne disease, in the world
 93.8 million cases/year
155,000 deaths/year
(Majowicz, 2010)
-Health care...
6http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/data/trends/tables/2012/table2a-b.html#table-2a
121
155
193
1,082
1,234
2,138
6,793
7,800
0 2,...
7
Human Salmonellosis
http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/trends-in-foodborne-illness.html
Figure 2 Changes in incidence of...
 Contaminated food/vegetables/fruits (Hughes et al.,
2007; Hendriksen et al., 2004; Barber et al., 2002)
 Pork: one of m...
9
Figure	3	Estimated	contribution	of	broilers,	pork	and	table	
eggs	in	Salmonella	infections	in	the	general	population	(ca...
10
Table 1 Causes and outbreaks of food poisoning in
Vietnam, 2007-2011
Food poisoning outbreaks in Vietnam
Source: VFA, V...
11
Pig slaughterhouses, pork markets and
Salmonella contamination
Photo by: Sinh DX9/10/2013
Slaughter equipments
Pigs fro...
-15% - 95%: on carcasses
-16% - 62%: in water, on the floor, weighting
bowls, cutting boards
-33% - 69%: in pork at market...
139/10/2013
 To detect the Salmonella spp. prevalence and
concentration on pig carcass at slaughterhouse
and pork at market
 To iden...
159/10/2013
Hung Yen province
16
Map of Vietnam
Source: http:/www, trelangkienviet,com
5
Study location
9/10/2013
179/10/2013
Study location
18
Study scope
Data	collection
‐ Checklist	
‐ Questionnaire
‐ Focus	group	discussion	(FGD)
‐ In‐depth	interview	(IDI)
Data...
19
Sampling site
Lairage
Evisceration
Restrain & Bleeding
Cut pork at market
9/10/2013
Scalding & Dehairing
Transportation...
Sample collection
20
Sample types Unit/sample n
Carcass surface 400 cm2 47
Belly skin 25 g 16
Workers’ hand 2 hands 12
Cut...
25g	Belly	skin
or	Pork
Carcass	or	
Environmental	swabs
Homogenization
+225ml	BPW +100ml	BPW
Interpretation	
of	Result
Susp...
Questionnaire:
- No. of pigs
- Transport time, duration, distance
- Time in lairage, …
 Checklist:
- Hygienic practice/m...
23
Data collection
9/10/2013
Qualitative tools
Focus group discussion Key topics
Slaughter workers (2
FGD)
- Hygienic prac...
- Descriptive statistic
- OR and χ2 test for risk factors
- Significant consideration at p<0.05
Using R Studio (0.96.316) ...
259/10/2013
General information of slaughterhouses
Table 3. Mean of variables recorded from pig transportation
and lairage time (n=12 ...
27
Sample	types
Prevalence_%	
(No. positve result/n)
SH	A SH	B SH	C Overall
Carcass(*)
23.8
(5/21)
38.1
(8/21)
42.9
(9/21)...
Fig 6. Overall Salmonella prevalence from 3
slaughterhouses
24.1
48.3
37.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
SH	A SH	B SH	C
Percent
Slau...
29
Table 5. Salmonella prevalence from different sample
types in markets
Salmonella prevalence
9/10/2013
Sample type
% Pre...
30
Fig 7. Salmonella prevalence from different sample types in markets
Salmonella prevalence
9/10/2013
17.2
37.9
69.0
0
10...
23.5
46.7
53.3
34.9
14.3
47.6
66.7
42.9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
District A District B District C Overall
Carcass Pork
31
Fi...
Salmonella number
Table 6. Salmonella number from different sample types
in 3 slaughterhouses
Sample types Unit No. of Sal...
Salmonella number
Sample types Unit No. of Salmonella 95% CI
Pork MPN/g < 0.3 - 15 3.7 - 42.0
Sellers’ hands MPN/hand 4.6 ...
Salmonella number
Table 8. Salmonella number in slaughterhouse and market
349/10/2013
Sample Unit
Number of Salmonella
Sla...
35
Related risk factors
Table 9. Potential risk factors related to Salmonella
contamination in slaughterhouses
Potential r...
36
Related risk factors
Table 10. Potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination in markets
(*) Statistically signific...
37
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Table 11. Salmonella serotypes circulated in 3 pig
slaughterhouses and sample types
Sero...
38
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Fig 9. Salmonella serotypes distribution in 3 pig
slaughterhouses
S. Anatum
3.2%
S. Derb...
39
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Table 12. Salmonella serotypes circulated in marrkets in 3
districts and sample types
Se...
40
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Fig 10 Salmonella serotypes distribution in markets in 3
districts
S. Anatum
16.7%
S.
Bo...
41
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Fig 11 Salmonella serotypes distribution in Slaughterhouse
and in Markets in 3 districts...
42
Salmonella serotypes
9/10/2013
Fig 12 Salmonella serotypes distribution in slaughterhouse
and markets
1
3
1
4
2
2
5
3
3...
43
Collected Data Frame
9/10/2013
Table 13 Groups and participants for IDI, FGD, checklists &
questionnaires
Tools/
groups...
44
Results from explore people and relevant stakeholders’ perception
related to food safety with the potential risks in pr...
459/10/2013
* Focus groups discussions in Slaughterhouse workers
Potential risks District A District B
Feces in lairage 1 ...
469/10/2013
* Focus groups discussions in Pork sellers
FGD for this actor were organized in each of 3 selected districts
1...
479/10/2013
* Focus groups discussions in Pork sellers
Potential risks District A District C
Cleanness of surrounding shop...
489/10/2013
* In-depth interview in People living around slaughterhouse
(1) Advantages of slaughterhouse’s presence in the...
499/10/2013
* In-depth interview in People living around slaughterhouse
(2) Disadvantages of slaughterhouse’s presence in ...
509/10/2013
* In-depth interview in Pork consumers
Table 18 Result of criteria ranking in pork selection
Criteria No. of r...
519/10/2013
* In-depth interview in Pork consumers
(2) Perception on low quality pork: sick or dead pigs, strange color,
s...
529/10/2013
* In-depth interview Public health staffs
(1) Responsibilities related to food safety, zoonoses: Responsibilit...
539/10/2013
* In-depth interview Veterinary staffs
(1) The gap in the inspection: Vets and Public health sector: Raw meat
...
549/10/2013
55
Salmonella prevalence in pig slaughterhouse
9/10/2013
* On pig carcasses (34.9%)
Lower than in other studies:
• 48.9% ...
569/10/2013
* On Pork (42.9%)
Lower than in other studies:
• 69.9% (Phan et al., 2005) in Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam
...
57
Salmonella number in pig slaughterhouse
9/10/2013
* On pig carcasses (< 0.075 MPN/cm2 and <0.3 MPN/g)
Within a range o...
58
Salmonella number in pork market
9/10/2013
* On pork (< 0.3 – 15 MPN/g)
Lower range than:
 19 MPN/g in pork sausages
...
 Transport and lairage: important risk factors (Hurd, 2002)
 Characteristics of farms/herds is one of consideration as h...
 A direct association between Salmonella contamination of
pork cuts and equipment or/and surfaces (Prendergast et al.,
20...
61
Salmonella serotypes prevalence in slaughterhouse
9/10/2013
8 serotypes: S. Typhimurium and S. Derby (19.4%), S. Rissen...
62
Salmonella serotypes prevalence in market
9/10/2013
9 serotypes: S. Derby (19.4%), S. Anatum and S. Meleagridis
(16.7%)...
63
Salmonella serotypes prevalence in market
9/10/2013
9 serotypes: S. Derby (19.4%), S. Anatum and S. Meleagridis
(16.7%)...
64
Perception related to food safety with the potential
risks in practices
9/10/2013
• Applied an integrated approach: Qua...
65
Perception related to food safety with the potential
risks in practices
9/10/2013
• Using wooden tables because of thei...
66
Perception related to food safety with the potential
risks in practices
9/10/2013
• Important selection criteria for pu...
679/10/2013
Prevalence of Salmonella:
 36.9% in slaughterhouse, 34.9% on carcass
 41.4% in pork markets, 42.9% in pork
The number ...
The most frequent Salmonella serotypes:
 In slaughterhouse:
S. Typhimurium, S. Derby (19.4%),
S. Rissen (16.1%) , S. Lon...
 The survey on perception and hygienic practice related to
food safety of relevant groups and stakeholders:
 Provided ba...
719/10/2013
Acknowledgement
 Veterinary Public Health Center for Asia Pacific (VPHCAP) - CMU
and Freie Universität Berlin
...
72
9/10/2013
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Quantifying Salmonella spp. in pig slaughterhouses and pork markets associated with human health in Hung Yen, Vietnam

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Presented by Sinh Dang Xuan during the defence of his Master of Veterinary Public Health thesis, Chiang Mai University, Bangkok, Thailand, 9 September 2013.

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Quantifying Salmonella spp. in pig slaughterhouses and pork markets associated with human health in Hung Yen, Vietnam

  1. 1. VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH CENTRE FOR ASIA PACIFIC Joint Master of Veterinary Public Health_5th Batch, 2011-2013 QUANTIFYING S l ll IN PIG VIETNAM QUANTIFYING Salmonella spp. IN PIG SLAUGHTERHOUSES AND PORK MARKETS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN HEALTH IN HUNG YEN, VIETNAM MVPH student: Sinh Dang Xuan (student ID: 541435808) Advisors: Prof. Dr. Reinhard Fries (FUB) Dr. Tongkorn Meeyam (CMU) 9/10/2013 1
  2. 2. 1. Rational and background 2. Objectives 3. Materials and Methods 4. Results 5. Discussions 6. Conclusions 2 Contents 9/10/2013
  3. 3. 39/10/2013
  4. 4.  Gram-negative  Family Enterobacteriaceae  2 Species: S. enterica and S. bongori  Serotypes: > 2,600 (Guibourdenche et al., 2010), • Typhoidal Salmonella (S.Typhi, S.Paratyphi A, B, C) • Non-typhoidal Salmonella (Food borne pathogens) Picture source: http://www,odec,ca/projects/2005/qiuc5c0/public_html/Untitled-12,htm 4 Salmonella Microbiology 9/10/2013
  5. 5. -Humans: as a foodborne disease, in the world  93.8 million cases/year 155,000 deaths/year (Majowicz, 2010) -Health care costs, loss or reduce livestock and food production 5 Human Salmonellosis 9/10/2013
  6. 6. 6http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/data/trends/tables/2012/table2a-b.html#table-2a 121 155 193 1,082 1,234 2,138 6,793 7,800 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 Listeria Yersinia Vibrio STEC Cryptosporidiu m Shigella Campylobacter Salmonella , , , , , Human Salmonellosis Figure 1 Number of laboratory-confirmed bacterial and parasitic infections by pathogens (FoodNet) in 2012 9/10/2013
  7. 7. 7 Human Salmonellosis http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/trends-in-foodborne-illness.html Figure 2 Changes in incidence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial infections, United States, 2010 compared with 1996–1998 9/10/2013
  8. 8.  Contaminated food/vegetables/fruits (Hughes et al., 2007; Hendriksen et al., 2004; Barber et al., 2002)  Pork: one of major sources of human foodborne after egg and poultry meat (EFSA, 2008) 8 Salmonella in food Picture source: http://vietpress.vn/201301290235670p46c76/giam-gia-thit-ga-truoc-va-sau-tet.htm http://www.xaluan.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=5272749/10/2013
  9. 9. 9 Figure 3 Estimated contribution of broilers, pork and table eggs in Salmonella infections in the general population (cases per 100,000) in Denmark in the period 1988 – 2004 Salmonella in food and Pork Source: The EFSA Journal (2006), 341, 1-1319/10/2013
  10. 10. 10 Table 1 Causes and outbreaks of food poisoning in Vietnam, 2007-2011 Food poisoning outbreaks in Vietnam Source: VFA, Vietnam, 20129/10/2013 Year Causes for food poisoning outbreaks (in %) Micro- biological Chemi-cals Natural toxins Non-Iden- tification 2007 15 (6.1) 2 (0.8) 54 (21.9) 176 (71.3) 2008 16 (7.8) 1 (0.5) 52 (25.4) 136 (66.3) 2009 45 (29.6) 8 (5.2) 37 (24.7) 62 (40.5) 2010 52 (30.1) 13 (7.8) 59 (35.0) 49 (28.5) 2011 40 (28.2) 8 (5.8) 38 (26.8) 56 (39.4) Average 34 (18.3) 6 (3.5) 48 (21.6) 96 (52.1)
  11. 11. 11 Pig slaughterhouses, pork markets and Salmonella contamination Photo by: Sinh DX9/10/2013 Slaughter equipments Pigs from farm Workers/ people SH Environment Market environment Transportation Sellers/people Slaughter water Water at shop Shop equipments Carcass from SH Transportation Transportation FARM SLAUGHTERHOUSEMARKET HOME
  12. 12. -15% - 95%: on carcasses -16% - 62%: in water, on the floor, weighting bowls, cutting boards -33% - 69%: in pork at market (Le Bas, 2006; Takeshi K,2009) 12 Salmonella contamination in slaughterhouses and market in Vietnam 9/10/2013
  13. 13. 139/10/2013
  14. 14.  To detect the Salmonella spp. prevalence and concentration on pig carcass at slaughterhouse and pork at market  To identify risk factors of Salmonella spp. contamination in the pork production chain  To explore people’s and relevant stakeholders perception related to Salmonella contamination with the potential risks in practice 14 Objectives of study 9/10/2013
  15. 15. 159/10/2013
  16. 16. Hung Yen province 16 Map of Vietnam Source: http:/www, trelangkienviet,com 5 Study location 9/10/2013
  17. 17. 179/10/2013 Study location
  18. 18. 18 Study scope Data collection ‐ Checklist ‐ Questionnaire ‐ Focus group discussion (FGD) ‐ In‐depth interview (IDI) Data analysis Sample collection Salmonella identification (ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007) Salmonella quantification (3‐Tube MPN method) ISO 21528‐1:2004 Carcass Pork Environmental swabs (Ccutting board, Hands) 3 Pig Slaughterhouses & Markets (4 visits each) Study duration: From January to May, 2013 9/10/2013 Figure 4 Study scope and process
  19. 19. 19 Sampling site Lairage Evisceration Restrain & Bleeding Cut pork at market 9/10/2013 Scalding & Dehairing Transportation FARM SLAUGHTER -HOUSE MARKET Washing & wiping Splitting Transportation Carcass Workers hands Cutting board Cutting board Pork Sellers hands HOME Pork at household Transportation
  20. 20. Sample collection 20 Sample types Unit/sample n Carcass surface 400 cm2 47 Belly skin 25 g 16 Workers’ hand 2 hands 12 Cutting board 25 cm2 12 Pork 25 g 63 Sellers’ hand 2 hands 12 Cutting board 25 cm2 12 Total 174 Table 2 Number and types of sample collection 9/10/2013
  21. 21. 25g Belly skin or Pork Carcass or Environmental swabs Homogenization +225ml BPW +100ml BPW Interpretation of Result Suspected colonies on NA Biochemical & Serological Confirmation Microbiological Analysis 21Figure 5 Salmonella identification and quantification Salmonella quantification 10‐1 10‐2 10‐3 1 ml 9 ml MKTTn 3 drops MSRV MSRV Salmonella identification XLT4 BGA XLT4 BGA 3‐tube MPN method 9/10/2013
  22. 22. Questionnaire: - No. of pigs - Transport time, duration, distance - Time in lairage, …  Checklist: - Hygienic practice/measures - Biosecurity 22 Data collection 9/10/2013
  23. 23. 23 Data collection 9/10/2013 Qualitative tools Focus group discussion Key topics Slaughter workers (2 FGD) - Hygienic practice in slaughtering - Perception, knowledge about pork borne diseases Pork sellers (3 FGD) - Pork selling practice - Pork borne diseases (knowledge, awareness, perception) In-depth interview People living around slaughterhouse (9 IDI) - Advantages and disadvantages of slaughterhouse Pork consumer (9 IDI) - Criteria for selecting pork - Pork borne diseases (knowledge, awareness, perception) Public health staff (3 IDI) Food safety and zoonotic management & collaboration Veterinary staff (3 IDI) Food safety and zoonotic management & collaboration FGD = Focus Group Discussion; IDI = In-depth interview
  24. 24. - Descriptive statistic - OR and χ2 test for risk factors - Significant consideration at p<0.05 Using R Studio (0.96.316) and MS Excel-2007 24 Data analysis 9/10/2013
  25. 25. 259/10/2013
  26. 26. General information of slaughterhouses Table 3. Mean of variables recorded from pig transportation and lairage time (n=12 visits) Variables Unit Mean ± SD Range No. of pig transport/time Head 23 ± 7 17 - 40 Transport duration Hour 1.76 ± 1.24 0.5 – 4.17 Transport distance Km 60.8 ± 50.4 15 – 150 Resting time in lairage Hour 13.1 ± 4.17 5 - 17 SD= Standard deviation Capacity: 10-40 pigs/day; 4-6 workers; slaughter: 1-5 a.m 269/10/2013
  27. 27. 27 Sample types Prevalence_% (No. positve result/n) SH A SH B SH C Overall Carcass(*) 23.8 (5/21) 38.1 (8/21) 42.9 (9/21) 34.9 (22/63) Workers’ hand 25.0 (1/4) 100 (4/4) 25.0 (1/4) 50.0 (6/12) Cutting board 25.0 (1/4) 50.0 (2/4) 25.0 (1/4) 33.3 (4/12) Overall 24.1 (7/29) 48.3 (14/29) 37.9 (11/29) 36.9 (32/87) Table 4. Salmonella prevalence from different sample types in 3 slaughterhouses Salmonella prevalence (*) include swab and belly skin, SH= Slaughterhouse 9/10/2013
  28. 28. Fig 6. Overall Salmonella prevalence from 3 slaughterhouses 24.1 48.3 37.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 SH A SH B SH C Percent Slaughterhouse 28 Salmonella prevalence No significant difference (p=0.403, χ2 test) among 3 slaughterhouses 9/10/2013
  29. 29. 29 Table 5. Salmonella prevalence from different sample types in markets Salmonella prevalence 9/10/2013 Sample type % Prevalence (No. Salmonella positve/n) District A District B District C Overall Pork 14.3 (3/21) 47.6 (10/21) 66.7 (14/21) 42.9 (27/63) Sellers’ hands 25.0 (1/4) 0.0 (0/4) 75.0 (3/4) 33.3 (4/12) Cutting board 25.0 (1/4) 25.0 (1/4) 75.0 (3/4) 41.7 (5/12) Overall 17.2 (5/29) 37.9 (11/29) 69.0 (20/29) 41.4 (36/87)
  30. 30. 30 Fig 7. Salmonella prevalence from different sample types in markets Salmonella prevalence 9/10/2013 17.2 37.9 69.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 District A District B District C Pork markets Percentage Statistically significant difference about Salmonella prevalence on pork samples among 3 districts (p-value=0.0018, Fisher’s exact test)
  31. 31. 23.5 46.7 53.3 34.9 14.3 47.6 66.7 42.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 District A District B District C Overall Carcass Pork 31 Fig 8. Salmonella prevalence on carcass in slaughterhouses and on pork in markets in 3 districts Salmonella prevalence 9/10/2013 Percentage Salmonella prevalence
  32. 32. Salmonella number Table 6. Salmonella number from different sample types in 3 slaughterhouses Sample types Unit No. of Salmonella 95% CI Carcass surface MPN/cm2 <0.075 0.0-0.24 Belly skin MPN/g <0.3 0.0-0.95 Workers’ hand MPN/hand 7.0 1.0-50.0 Cutting board MPN/cm2 <1.2 0.0-3.80 329/10/2013
  33. 33. Salmonella number Sample types Unit No. of Salmonella 95% CI Pork MPN/g < 0.3 - 15 3.7 - 42.0 Sellers’ hands MPN/hand 4.6 0.7 - 19.0 Cutting board MPN/cm2 0.368 0.056 - 1.52 339/10/2013 Table 7. Salmonella number from different sample types in markets in 3 districts
  34. 34. Salmonella number Table 8. Salmonella number in slaughterhouse and market 349/10/2013 Sample Unit Number of Salmonella Slaughterhouses Markets Carcass - Pork MPN/g < 0.3 < 0.3 - 15 Worker - Seller hand MPN/hand 7.0 4.6 Cutting board MPN/cm2 < 1.2 < 0.368
  35. 35. 35 Related risk factors Table 9. Potential risk factors related to Salmonella contamination in slaughterhouses Potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination were not found significantly diference. CI: Confident interval 9/10/2013 Factors OR (95% CI) p -Value Using water tank 2.18 (0.67-7.07) 0.191 Slaughter square area (≤ 50 m2) 1.67 (0.57-4.95) 0.350 Free entry slaughter area 2.18 (0.67-7.07) 0.191 Private farm type 2 (0.29-13.74) 0.631 Pig transport distance (> 30 km) 1.33 (0.2-9.08) 1.00 Time arrived at lairage in the morning 5.7 (0.53-61.41) 0.179 Disease in farm area (in 6 months recently) 10.5 (1.03-107.2) 0.063 Number of pigs on processing at the same time (>2 pigs) 1.2 (0.41-3.66) 0.709
  36. 36. 36 Related risk factors Table 10. Potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination in markets (*) Statistically significant diference. CI: Confident interval 9/10/2013 Observation OR (95% CI) p-value Table surface pork contacted is wood 6.6 (2.02 - 21.55) 0.002* Table surface pork contaced is inox/steel 0.19 (0.02 - 1.7) 0.223 Usually use insect control equipments while selling 1.76 (0.6 - 5.23) 0.303 Using meat grinder 2.41 (0.8 - 7.22) 0.113 Using bucket (mobile) water in shop 4.46 (1.46 - 13.65) 0.007* Cutting on table surface 4.46 (1.46 - 13.65) 0.004* Shop sells retail only 0.48 (0.17 - 1.38) 0.170 Shop sells both retail and wholesale 4.71 (1.28 - 17.27) 0.030* Contain pork in basket to transport to the shop 2.8 (0.98 - 8) 0.052 Wash table end of selling time by water and detergent 0.44 (0.1 - 1.84) 0.326
  37. 37. 37 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Table 11. Salmonella serotypes circulated in 3 pig slaughterhouses and sample types Serotype Carcass Workers hands Cutting board Total Percentage S. Anatum 1 1 3.2 S. Derby 3 2 1 6 19.4 S. Give 1 1 2 6.5 S. London 4 4 12.9 S. Meleagridis 2 1 1 4 12.9 S. Rissen 2 2 1 5 16.1 S. Typhimurium 5 1 6 19.4 S. Weltevreden 3 3 9.7 Total Poly I 31 100 Poly II 1
  38. 38. 38 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Fig 9. Salmonella serotypes distribution in 3 pig slaughterhouses S. Anatum 3.2% S. Derby 19.4% S. Give 6.5 S. London 12.9% S. Meleagridis 12.9% S. Rissen 16.1% S. Typhimurium 19.4% S. Weltevreden 9.7%
  39. 39. 39 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Table 12. Salmonella serotypes circulated in marrkets in 3 districts and sample types Serotype Pork Sellers hands Cutting board Total Percentage S. Anatum 4 1 1 6 16.7 S. Bovismorbificans 1 1 2 5.6 S. Derby 6 1 7 19.4 S. Give 1 1 2.8 S. London 4 1 5 13.9 S. Meleagridis 4 1 1 6 16.7 S. Rissen 4 1 5 13.9 S. Stanley 2 2 5.6 S. Weltevreden 2 2 5.6 Total 36 100
  40. 40. 40 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Fig 10 Salmonella serotypes distribution in markets in 3 districts S. Anatum 16.7% S. Bovismorbificans 5.6% S. Derby 19.4% S. Give 2.8% S. London 13.9% S. Meleagridis 16.7% S. Rissen 13.9% S. Stanley 5.6% S. Weltevreden 5.6%
  41. 41. 41 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Fig 11 Salmonella serotypes distribution in Slaughterhouse and in Markets in 3 districts 16.7 5.6 19.4 2.8 13.9 16.7 13.9 5.6 5.6 S. Anatum S. Bovismorbificans S. Derby S. Give S. London S. Meleagridis S. Rissen S. Stanley S. Weltevreden Markets 3.2 19.4 6.5 12.9 12.9 16.1 19.4 9.7 S. Anatum S. Derby S. Give S. London S. Meleagridis S. Rissen S. Typhimurium S. Weltevreden Slaughterhouse
  42. 42. 42 Salmonella serotypes 9/10/2013 Fig 12 Salmonella serotypes distribution in slaughterhouse and markets 1 3 1 4 2 2 5 3 3 1 2 3 1 4 6 1 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 S. Anatum S. Bovismorbificans S. Derby S. Give S. London S. Meleagridis S. Rissen S. Stanley S. Typhimurium S. Weltevreden Pig carcass at SH Environment at SH Pork at MK Environment at MK
  43. 43. 43 Collected Data Frame 9/10/2013 Table 13 Groups and participants for IDI, FGD, checklists & questionnaires Tools/ groups/stakeholders/places No. groups /districts Total participant/ interviewee/checklist Quantitative Questionnaire Pig origin questionnaire (slaughterhouse owner) 3 12 Observation (checklist) Pig slaughterhouse 3 3 Pork shop 3 19 Qualitative Focus group discussion Slaughter worker 2 10 Pork seller 3 15 In-depth interview People living around slaughterhouse 3 9 Pork consumer 3 9 Public health staff 3 3 Veterinary staff 3 3 FGD = Focus Group Discussion; IDI = In-depth interview
  44. 44. 44 Results from explore people and relevant stakeholders’ perception related to food safety with the potential risks in practice 9/10/2013 * Focus groups discussions in Slaughterhouse workers 1. Regulation: No specific regulation or rule, used “internal rule” 2. Training program on food safety and slaughtering process: learning by doing, not officially from training 3. Perception, knowledge about pig diseases: FMD, PRRS, fluke and worm, pigs diarrhea: Two main important: FMD and PRRS 4. Zoonoses knowledge and perception: cysticercosis and leptospirosis, but were not really concerned. FMD and PRRS: misperception 5. Origin of information: mass media, newspaper, internet or TV. Vet and or public health services were not mentioned 6. Observed human illness related pig or pork: No observed cases of illness or diarrhea in last 6 months.
  45. 45. 459/10/2013 * Focus groups discussions in Slaughterhouse workers Potential risks District A District B Feces in lairage 1 7 Feces on live pigs 1 3 Puncture intestine 2 2 Feces on the bleeding area 2 4 Wash intestine at slaughter areas 2 5 Water source 3 1 Boots at all places 6 7 Transport vehicle 7 9 Cloths 5 8 Table 14 Ranking given potential risks to microbial contamination on carcass
  46. 46. 469/10/2013 * Focus groups discussions in Pork sellers FGD for this actor were organized in each of 3 selected districts 1. Prefer to use wood surface tables in pork shop: in stead of other types 2. Cloth usually used to dry pork, clean equipment, hand or table: All three sellers groups stated using during selling time 3. Glove and mask using: a perception to buyers aware of sellers’ health problem. 4. Leftover pork: sell it for the shop at a relatively lower price, processed into other foods 5. Pork quality and zoonoses: pork quality related to the way slaughtered pig * PRRS and FMD, CSF, pastuerellosis, leptospirosis, cysticercosis Misperception on FMD, CSF 6. Observed human illness related pig or pork: None of the participants
  47. 47. 479/10/2013 * Focus groups discussions in Pork sellers Potential risks District A District C Cleanness of surrounding shop area 1 4 Insects (files, bluebottle, ant, cockroach) 2 5 Dirty /waste water drain next to shop 2 2 Cleanness of table surface 3 1 Water for wash hand, knife, table 4 4 Bags - Basket (pork transport) 5 3 Cloths used many times in selling day 6 2 Pork transportation to the market 7 3 Clothes, shoes of sellers 8 6 Table 15 Ranked potential risk factors related to microbial contamination on pork at market
  48. 48. 489/10/2013 * In-depth interview in People living around slaughterhouse (1) Advantages of slaughterhouse’s presence in their living area: Issues All District A District B District C Provide job 9/9 3/3 3/3 3/3 Available pork to buy 7/9 1/3 3/3 3/3 Business opportunities 4/9 0/3 1/3 3/3 Benefit for you 0/9 0/3 0/3 0/3 Table 16 Advantages of slaughterhouse’s presence (Yes/Total)
  49. 49. 499/10/2013 * In-depth interview in People living around slaughterhouse (2) Disadvantages of slaughterhouse’s presence in their living area: Issues All District A District B District C Noise 0/9 0/3 0/3 0/3 Polluted environment 1/9 1/3 0/3 0/3 Dust 1/9 0/3 1/3 0/3 Polluted air 2/9 2/3 0/3 0/3 Flies/Mosquitoes 2/9 0/3 1/3 1/3 Smell 3/9 1/3 0/3 2/3 Polluted water 3/9 2/3 0/3 1/3 Animal disease spread 3/9 2/3 0/3 1/3 Health effect 5/9 2/3 1/3 2/3 Table 17 DisaAdvantages of slaughterhouse’s presence (Yes/Total)
  50. 50. 509/10/2013 * In-depth interview in Pork consumers Table 18 Result of criteria ranking in pork selection Criteria No. of respondents Mean ± SD Bright red, soft and sticky 9 9.6 ± 0.7 Freshness, good smell 9 9.6 ± 0.5 Cleanness 9 9.1 ± 0.8 Trust on seller 9 9 ± 1.1 Considered as safe meat 9 8.9 ± 0.9 Good storage 9 8.6 ± 1.8 Nutritional value 9 8.2 ± 2.0 Pork inspection document 9 8 ± 1.7 Accessibility 9 7.4 ± 1.7 Price 9 6.6 ± 1.1
  51. 51. 519/10/2013 * In-depth interview in Pork consumers (2) Perception on low quality pork: sick or dead pigs, strange color, smell badly or look wet. (3) Knowledge on zoonoses: Mentioned at least one zoonotic disease: such as cysticercosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, streptococcus suis or diarrhea in pig. (4) Observed human illness related pig or pork: no cases of illness or diarrhea were observed in the recent 12 months.
  52. 52. 529/10/2013 * In-depth interview Public health staffs (1) Responsibilities related to food safety, zoonoses: Responsibilities were on “cooked food”; apply the regulation, observe, training, guide on food safety and hygienic practice. (2) Collaboration on food safety, zoonoses management: • Reporting and updating within sector or district authorities and upper level • Collaboration with with other sectors: was better and uniformed, still need for further strengthening
  53. 53. 539/10/2013 * In-depth interview Veterinary staffs (1) The gap in the inspection: Vets and Public health sector: Raw meat and cooked food. • Inspection duties in big or medium slaughterhouses, not frequent in small/private (2) Collaboration on food safety, zoonoses management: • Collaboration_A task force team: Public health, commercial, trade management, veterinary, environment, police, etc… • Task force team: situation or “problem base” or “Food safety action month” • Collaboration among professional sectors: more effective, still needs to improve, action plan, good mechanism.
  54. 54. 549/10/2013
  55. 55. 55 Salmonella prevalence in pig slaughterhouse 9/10/2013 * On pig carcasses (34.9%) Lower than in other studies: • 48.9% (Thai, 2007) - Vietnam • 95.7% (Le Bas, 2006) - Vietnam • 55.5% (Sanguankiat et al., 2010)- Chiang Mai, Thailand • 36.7% (Sithigon, 2011) - Northestern Thailand Higher than in other studies: • 33.2% (Fries, 2006)- Northern Thailand • 11.7% (Algino et al., 2009)- USA • 11.2% (Korsak et al., 2003) Belgium • 8.3% (EFSA, 2008) - in the EU- State members * Worker hand (50%): 10.7% Khon Kean-Thailand (Sithigon. D, 2011) * Cutting board (33.3%): 47.4% Hue–Vietnam (Takeshi et al., 2009)
  56. 56. 569/10/2013 * On Pork (42.9%) Lower than in other studies: • 69.9% (Phan et al., 2005) in Mekong Delta, Southern Vietnam • 65% (Angkititrakul, 2005) in northeast Thailand Higher than in other studies: • 32.8% (Takeshi et al., 2009) in Hue - Vietnam • 39.6% (Thai et al., 2012) in Northern Vietnam • 34.5% in retail pork (Sanguankiat, 2010) Northern Thailand • 0.3% to 4.3%. (Delhalle et al., 2009) in Belgium * Cutting board (33.3%): 28.6% Hue–Vietnam (Takeshi et al., 2009) Salmonella prevalence in pork market
  57. 57. 57 Salmonella number in pig slaughterhouse 9/10/2013 * On pig carcasses (< 0.075 MPN/cm2 and <0.3 MPN/g) Within a range of <0.03–0.36 MPN/g Ireland (Prendergast, 2008) From: -3.40 ± 2.04 log CFU/cm2 carcass Belgium (2009) (Delhalle et al., 2009) * Cutting board (< 1.2 MPN/cm2): Conveyor and table swabs ranging from <0.03–1.1 MPN/cm2 Ireland (Prendergast, 2008) The low numbers of Salmonella cells were typically found in food, feed and environment samples (Boughton, 2004)
  58. 58. 58 Salmonella number in pork market 9/10/2013 * On pork (< 0.3 – 15 MPN/g) Lower range than:  19 MPN/g in pork sausages  0.03 to >110 MPN/g, with a mean value of 21.16 MPN/g Italy (Bonardi et al., 2008) Higher range than:  Below 10 MPN/g, Germany (Sinell et al., 1990)  Between <0.03 - 2.10 MPN/g, Ireland (Prendergast, 2009)  From: -2.64 ± 1.76 log CFU/g, Belgium (Delhalle et al., 2009)
  59. 59.  Transport and lairage: important risk factors (Hurd, 2002)  Characteristics of farms/herds is one of consideration as high- risk herds (Fosse, 2008)  Floor as an important source of pathogens including Salmonella (Hald, 1999)  Evisceration has been described in Europe as the major cause of carcass contamination (Berends et al., 1997) Risk factors of Salmonella contamination in slaughterhouse 599/10/2013 Not found significant differences among potential risk factors in slaughterhouses
  60. 60.  A direct association between Salmonella contamination of pork cuts and equipment or/and surfaces (Prendergast et al., 2008)  The most important parameter with regard to contamination were handling, general hygiene, time and temperature at each stage (Wong et al., 2002)  Hygiene performance, particularly at retail, had a significant impact on the occurrence of Salmonella (Hansen, et al., 2010) Risk factors of Salmonella contamination in marrket 609/10/2013 Wood table surface, using bucket water, cutting on table surface and selling both retail and wholesale
  61. 61. 61 Salmonella serotypes prevalence in slaughterhouse 9/10/2013 8 serotypes: S. Typhimurium and S. Derby (19.4%), S. Rissen (16.1%), S. London, S. Meleagridis (12,9%); S. Give, S. Anatum, S. Weltevreden (3.2-9.7%)  S. Typhimurium (20.7%), S. Weltevreden, (15.3%), S. Derby (11.7%) and S. Rissen (11.7%) (Vo, 2006) - Vietnam  S. Derby (41%) and S. Typhimurium (29%) (van Hoek et al., 2012)- Netherlands  S. Typhimurium and S. London were the most common of the 24 serotypes (Schmidt et al., 2012) – US
  62. 62. 62 Salmonella serotypes prevalence in market 9/10/2013 9 serotypes: S. Derby (19.4%), S. Anatum and S. Meleagridis (16.7%), S. London and S. Rissen (13.9%), S. Bovismorbificans, S. Give, S. Stanley and S. Weltevreden (2.8 – 5.6%)  S. Anatum (19.8%), S. Derby (15.9%), S. Typhimurium (13.5%), except S. Infantis (13.5%), S. Reading (7.9%), S. Newport (6.3%) (Thai et al., 2012) – Northern Vietnam  S. Derby, S. Weltevreden, and S. London in pork, S. Bovismorbificans in retail meat (Phan et al., 2005)- South Vietnam  S. Rissen (61.5%), S. Stanley and S. Lexington (11.5%). (Angkititrakul et al., 2005)- Thailand  S. Derby, S. Anatum, S. Typhimurium, and S. Schwarzengrund (Chen et al., 2006)- Taiwan
  63. 63. 63 Salmonella serotypes prevalence in market 9/10/2013 9 serotypes: S. Derby (19.4%), S. Anatum and S. Meleagridis (16.7%), S. London and S. Rissen (13.9%), S. Bovismorbificans, S. Give, S. Stanley and S. Weltevreden (2.8 – 5.6%) • S. Typhimurium is a serotype predominantly and followed by S. Enteritidis and S. Weltevreden isolated from humans in Vietnam (Vo et al., 2006) • PFGE: S. Derby was detected in 19% of strains from humans, 52% from food (include pork products), and 62% from swine in Spain (Valdezate et al., 2005)
  64. 64. 64 Perception related to food safety with the potential risks in practices 9/10/2013 • Applied an integrated approach: Quantitative (Salmonella contamination) and qualitative (FGD, IDI) – hasn’t been applied before • Improvement of the practices could considerably reduce the carcass contamination. - Using gloves (not used) => found hight prevalence on hands - Using cloth to wipe => habor of Salmonella !? - “Trained by doing”=> standard information and training
  65. 65. 65 Perception related to food safety with the potential risks in practices 9/10/2013 • Using wooden tables because of their perception that meat looks longer fresh => still prefer to use it This gap is currently addressed by the Livestock Competitiveness and Food Safety Project (LIFSAP) of government. => The LIFSAP project plans also to upgrade facilities in selected open fresh food markets and slaughterhouse. (ILRI, 2010b). - Enhance facilties and good hygiene practice in slaughterhouse - Investment replacing wooden tables by stainless steel ones - Providing pork retailers with hangers to hang carcass, etc.
  66. 66. 66 Perception related to food safety with the potential risks in practices 9/10/2013 • Important selection criteria for purchasing pork: fresh pork (Lapar et al., 2009) • Price has lowest important, but a study in Germany, price was important (Rohr et al., 2005) • Our finding related to zoonoses revealed that almost all actors had little knowledge or some misperception on zoonoses in agrement with ongoing study in Vietnam (Hung et al., 2012).
  67. 67. 679/10/2013
  68. 68. Prevalence of Salmonella:  36.9% in slaughterhouse, 34.9% on carcass  41.4% in pork markets, 42.9% in pork The number of Salmonella:  < 0.075 MPN/cm2 on carcass  < 0.3 to 15 MPN/g on pork Potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination:  In pig slaughterhouses: not found  In pork in market: wood table surface, bucket water, cutting on table surface, selling both retail and wholesale. 68 Conclusion 9/10/2013
  69. 69. The most frequent Salmonella serotypes:  In slaughterhouse: S. Typhimurium, S. Derby (19.4%), S. Rissen (16.1%) , S. London, S. Meleagridis, S (12.1%). Weltevreden, S. Give and S. Anatum In market: S. Derby (19.4%), S. Anatum, S. Meleagridis (16.7%), S. Rissen, S. London (13. 9%), S. Bovismorbificans, S. Give, S. Weltevreden. 69 Conclusion 9/10/2013
  70. 70.  The survey on perception and hygienic practice related to food safety of relevant groups and stakeholders:  Provided basic information and contribute a better understanding of their practice.  Require of standards and targeted training for slaughter workers and pork sellers.  Help to better engagement in management on groups, actors in pork production chain. 70 Conclusion 9/10/2013
  71. 71. 719/10/2013 Acknowledgement  Veterinary Public Health Center for Asia Pacific (VPHCAP) - CMU and Freie Universität Berlin  USAID (the EPT/RESPOND program), Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH), CENPHER (HSPH), Eco Health One Health Resource Center, CMU and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, EcoZD project)  Dr. Fred Unger (ILRI) and Assoc. Prof. PhD. Nguyen Thanh Huong (HSPH)  Slaughterhouse owners, workers, pork sellers and local veterinary staffs in Hung Yen  Department of Veterinary Hygiene-NIVR (Vietnam)
  72. 72. 72 9/10/2013

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