Gender in project implementation

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Presentation by Jemimah Njuki at the FAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011.

Presentation by Jemimah Njuki at the FAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011.

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  • 1. Gender in Project Implementation Jemimah Njuki Team Leader: Poverty, Gender and ImpactFAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011
  • 2. Outline• A stratification of strategies• General /common strategies• Using data (especially baseline data) to develop specific strategies• How do we know strategies are working?
  • 3. A stratification of strategies Gender Aware Exploitative Accommodating Transformative Gender Blind
  • 4. A stratification of strategies Take advantage of rigid gender norms and existing imbalances inGender power to achieve program objectives.Exploitative Expeditious in the short run but unlikely to be sustainable Can result in harmful consequences and undermine the program’s intended objectiveGender Acknowledge the role of gender norms and inequities and seek to develop actions that adjust to and often compensate for them.Accommodating No active strategy to seek to change the norms and inequities Focus on limiting any harmful impact on gender relations. Actively examine, question, and change rigid gender norms andGender imbalance of powertransformative Encourage critical awareness among men and women of gender roles and norms Challenge and address the distribution of resources and power relationships between women and others in the community
  • 5. Strategies: Capacity Building• Rationale: That through gender training an awareness on gender inequalities in women’s status, access and control over resources will be created – lead to better integration of women’s concerns, needs and priorities in development policy planning and practice.• A large mass of gender training manuals, modules and checklists developed• Concerns over treating gender as a technical issue==transformational gender training
  • 6. Integrationist Gender Training Transformative Gender TrainingGender training as a stand-alone Gender training as part ofinitiative institutional reformFocus on gender roles Focus on gender relationsDescribe gender inequalities Analyze gender inequalitiesGender mainstreaming through increasing Gender mainstreaming through integration of gendernumber of women within organization / groups equality concerns into the analyses and formulation of all policies, programs and project.Greater focus on technical skill Balance in focus on personal, political and technical aspects of gender trainingCreates gender awareness and sensitivity Gender training as a continuous and iterative processthrough one off trainings combining class room training with non-training strategiesDoes not demand accountability Demand accountability of institutionsof institutionsBetter integration of women in Structural and systematic transformation of the society.the societyTraining as an end Training as a mean to an endNo impact assessment of training Impact assessment of training
  • 7. Making gender capacity building effective…• Links to personal, social and institutional transformation• Transformative rather than a reformist tool..including use of transformative approaches – challenging the ideological, socio-cultural, economic, political and institutional frameworks and structures that create and recreate gender inequalities “focus on developing skills on the integration of gender perspective has led to ‘technicalization’ and depoliticisation of gender training”• Long term commitment to capacity building, not one offs, not an event but a process• Combine training with non training strategies ( CB a necessary but not sufficient condition)
  • 8. Targeting approaches• Targeting of resources, activities or services to specific groups of individuals with anticipation of changes in their “situation” relative to others• Different levels of targeting – whole projects, project components, activities, resources, assets, services
  • 9. Targeting approaches• There are some advantages to targeting – Reduce inequalities in distribution of key resources, assets (positive discrimination) – Processes such as capacity are directed to those that need, or can use it.. – Matching of interventions to needs and therefore potential for higher impact• Caution – Targeting can lead to more marginalization if not well done (backlash, withdrawal of other services) – Discussions on need for targeting will all concerned groups
  • 10. Collective Action• Use of groups to improve rights and access to services, accumulation of assets, linkages to markets, management of resources is a well-established means of social and economic empowerment
  • 11. Collective action:• Key issues – Are women only groups more appropriate for reaching women than mixed only groups? • Governance, leadership, women’s voice and representation – Form new groups or use existing ones? • How representative are the members in these groups? Do the poor participate in collective action?
  • 12. Participatory Approaches• Involving rural women in the design of technologies products and services that are intended for their use and in the planning of services that are intended to reach them• Women’s participation in the design of water, transportation, energy, farm technology, asset transfer schemes
  • 13. From Data to strategies• What informs strategies to address gender issues?  Past project experiences /experiences from other organizations  Stakeholder consultations on key issues and potential strategies  Local knowledge of issues and context  Use of gender and livelihoods analysis, baseline data, case studies etc)
  • 14. East Africa Dairy Development• Gender strategies informed by; – Analysis of a baseline report carried out in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda – Consultative meetings between the EADD gender focal persons from the 3 countries and ILRI – Consultations and discussions with staff and partners in EADD• Strategies are specific, addressing the real issues and owned by project stakeholders /partners• Integrated into annual work plans of project staff and partners
  • 15. Process ApproachIdentification of keygender issues based Identification ofon baseline data and potential strategiesfield experiences to address key issues Documentation and Develop indicators to sharing of measure progress and experiences and effectiveness of these M&E and lessons Learning strategies Assessment evaluate the Implementation of effectiveness of proposed strategies these strategies
  • 16. Key issues at different levels of the project
  • 17. From results to strategies• Low participation of women in marketing co- operatives – Proposed project Men and women registration in co-operatives 100 interventions for milk % of male and female registered 90 marketing =chilling 80 plants based on a co- 70 60 op model 50 40 30• Low ownership of shares 20 10 by women in farmer 0 managed co-operatives Kenya Rwanda Uganda All countries and infrastructure Male Female
  • 18. Addressing key issues• Discussions with gender focal persons and other project staff on reasons for these trends – Proposed focus group discussions with both men and women farmers on reasons for low registration by women and low purchase of shares – Key causes: • Low access to finances • Cultural issues around women’s status and place in the hh • Proposed strategies for joint registration have not worked due to cultural issues
  • 19. Multiple strategies for different contexts Tailor services being offered to the chilling plants to meet specific needs of women (e.g the payment system) and monitor extent to which women buy shares based on thisLow registration and Use women groups who open a group supplypurchase of shares number to which they contribute milk (instead ofby women cash contributions). Part of the income from this is then used to buy shares for the group members. Propose to a few chilling plants to test a subsidized price for shares to women Set up a revolving fund for women with potential links to microfinance and village banks Capacity building for transforming gender relations and attitudes
  • 20. Key results form the baseline• studiesmore control of milk Women keep more and have sold in the evening to informal markets compared to milk going to formal channels..co-ops – Milk is delivered to co-ops by women but money is collected by men/husbands.• Possible causes – Men are registered as members, women do the milking and deliver the milk – Payment is through back accounts which are in the names of male heads of households – Money is also diverted due to the payment schedule of the chilling plant (monthly/ or bi weekly)
  • 21. How do we know these strategies work?• Effectiveness of the strategies – in addressing the issue – cost effectiveness – other?• What indicators: – Qualitative /quantitative – Local indicators /scientific indicators – Core key set of indicators complemented with qualitative studies
  • 22. How do we know these strategies work?• Some methods.. – Regular monitoring and field data collection • Integration of variables into existing tools e.g participation data, register of shareholders • Regular analysis; to feed back into the analysis• Case evaluation of specific strategies• To integrate in impact assessment
  • 23. Multiple strategies for different contexts Evaluate feasibility of payment systems which women are more likely to have access to e.g Mpesa, ZAP. This will be based on an assessment of ownership of mobile phones by women (asset ownership not disaggregated during baseline).Income to womenfrom milk sold in co- Combine both formal and traditional milkops /CPs very low marketing to ensure women do not lose control of milk income (morning milk taken to CPs, evening milk sold through informal channels). Capacity building for transforming gender relations and attitudes Village banks and increasing capacity for women to become members