In Kenya, in 89%, 71% and 63% of the households eggs milk and chicken were mainly sold by women. In Tanzania, in 66.7%, 53.3% and 40.7% of the households, eggs, milk and chicken were mainly sold by women.In very few households did women sell live animals (11.1% for cattle and 8.8% for sheep and goats)
For example 46% of income from milk was managed by women in Tanzania
Present hypotheses first and the logic behind focus and hypotheses
Slide on pathwayHypothesis of pathwayHow it was tested/key indicatorsFGD (overall conclusion and support from FGD and survey)QuantitativeConclusions<25 slides for the presentation
Key livelihood and gender issues in livestock
Key Gender and Livelihood Issues in Livestock Production, Management and Marketing Jemimah Njuki Team Leader: Poverty, Gender and Impact FAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011
Key Gender and Livestock Issues• Livestock’s contribution to household assets• Livestock’s contribution to income• Patterns of livestock ownership• Men and Women’s role in livestock keeping• Access to services, information and technologies• Men and Women’s participation in livestock markets• Links between gender, livestock, food security, nutrition and health
Livestock as an asset? Livestock, especially small stock, form a critical rung on the asset ladder out of poverty Livestock are among the few assets women can own Livestock are “productive” assets; livestock and their products contribute to food and income security Livestock as a social asset..
Contribution of livestock to household assets • Livestock an important asset contributing 55% of the total asset index for all households (52.7% male headed households and 68% for female headed households) in Kenya • Similar trends in Tanzania, with livestock contributing to 69% of all households asset index, and 68% and 75% for male and female headed households respectively. Total domestic % of Total HH Total livestock and livestock livestock to Household Type index index index total indexKenya Male-headed 97.14 51.28 Kenya Men 41.01 21.5 Female-headed 43.07 29.31 Women 16.68 22.5 Total 83.35 45.67 Joint 60.35 36Tanzania Male-headed 105.6 72.2 Tanzania Men 41.80 46.6 Female-headed 49.9 37.6 Women 11.42 18.3 Total 95.7 66 Joint 58.47 24.2 • Within male headed households, women held 10.2% and 13.9% of the total domestic and livestock assets in Tanzania and Kenya respectively. • For women, this represented 22.5% and 18.3% of the non land asset index under their ownership • Gender asset disparity of 0.27 in Tanzania and 0.41 in Kenya. This does not take into account jointly held assets
Household ownership of livestock – Male and Female headed households• Local chickens and dairy cows were the most commonly owned livestock species in Kenya• In Tanzania, local chicken, goats and pigs were the most common species• There were no big differences in proportion of male and female headed households owning different species.
Livestock holdings in male and female headedhouseholds Kenya Male- Female- • Female headed households had headed headed Livestock Mean Mean T- significantly smaller numbers of statistic cattle, chicken (local, improved) Bee Hives 3.71 3 0.966 Dairy Cattle 2.64 2.08 2.074** compared to their male Exotic chicken 187 14 2.487** counterparts (Broilers) Exotic chicken 56.32 11.4 2.26** (Layers) Goats 6.15 4.64 0.752 • Similar results in Tanzania Local chicken 13.43 8.98 1.859** Other cattle 2.47 2.75 -0.182 Pigs 6.33 5.5 0.195 Sheep 4.06 3.28 1.011
Livestock ownership: Men and women within maleheaded households Kenya Tanzania Men and women in male headed Men and women in male headed households households Men Women Joint Livestock type Men women Jointly Bee Hives 3.8 1.3 3.5 Bee Hives 7.8 3.0 21.3 Dairy Cattle 3.0 1.5 2.6 Dairy Cattle 3.5 4.0 6.1 Exotic 8.0 350.0 191.0 Exotic chicken (Broilers) 258.0 156.7 100.0 (Broilers) Exotic 70.0 56.5 48.3 (Layers) Exotic chicken Goats 11.2 3.9 4.7 200.0 - 346.5 (Layers) Local chicken 19.1 15.7 9.9 Goats 8.6 3.4 8.9 Local chicken 22.8 39.7 23.3 Other cattle 1.7 1.0 2.7 Other cattle 9.1 2.0 5.4 Pigs 5.7 - 7.0 Pigs 4.0 2.4 4.1 Sheep 4.4 2.3 3.8 Sheep 5.2 6.0 6.3 In the two countries, women had lower numbers of every livestock species than men in male headed households with the exception of chicken in Kenya and Tanzania and Dairy in Tanzania.
How do women gain and maintain control over livestock?• Women are less likely than men to acquire animals in the marketplace.• Threats: – Drought and disease – Dissolution of the household – Commercialization?
Means of acquisition of livestock by women• Despite other evidence, across species, the main means of livestock acquisition by women was through purchase• In Tanzania, overall, about 50% of livestock owned by women was through purchase• For, goats, other cattle and local chicken, born into the herd was a common source for women
Contribution of livestock to household cash income • Livestock contributed 35% of cash income in Tanzania and 55% in Kenya • Contributed more to income in female headed households than male headed households • Variation in contribution by income quartile across the 2 countries
• Women provide a large share of the labor in livestock keeping, especially in mixed systems and poor households• Women’s priorities and constraints are often, but not always, different from men’s
Women’s role in livestock keeping• Women often control 70 products even where 60 they don’t control 50 % housheolds 40 animals 30• For example, women 20 10 often control some or 0 all milk even if they Morning Milk Male Female Mixed Evening Milk can’t decide where the cow is grazed or whether it is sold.
Roles• Division of rights and responsibilities affects incentive and ability to adopt new technologies and practices to increase production and productivity.• We need to understand this better to develop appropriate technologies and design more effective interventions.
Access to services, information and technologies
Participation & registration inCooperatives-Few dairy farmers registered inCooperative Very few women participated in Cooperatives -None in Uganda -27% of registered members in Kenya
Men and Women’s Participation in Livestock Markets
Women’s participation in markets• Sale of livestock and livestock products are often an important source of income for women• Men and women face different constraints in marketing
• Women are more likely to sell in informal, local markets• Women’s marketing costs are often higher than men’s: – Information—women face higher costs, but groups can help – Most often have to pay male intermediaries
Who mainly sold livestock and livestock products?• High participation of women in sale of livestock products (eggs and milk) and very low participation in sale of livestock (cattle, sheep, goats)• Differentiation between ownership and management. Even in cases where women do not own the livestock, they are involved in the sale of products but not the sale of the livestock itself
Common markets accessed by men and women- Tanzania
Common markets accessed by men and women • Most commonly sold to markets by women were sales at farm gate to other farmers or traders (for chicken, eggs, milk and honey) • Women rarely made sales to city markets, or delivered to shops, collection centres or chilling plants ( milk) • Men made more deliveries to shops/ hotels /kiosks and other outlets • In Kenya women had more options for markets than in Tanzania • Chicken, eggs and milk had more market options than products such as honey
Income management by men, women in male headed households • In Kenya, low income management by women across species and products • In Tanzania, more income from chicken, milk and honey managed by women compared to Kenya
Variation in income share depending on where sold • Women managed a higher income share when product was sold at farm gate compared to when sold at village markets or delivered to traders • Differences less clear for sales of sheep, goats and cattle due to ownership patterns
Variation in income share depending on who sold• When women sold (physically or did the transaction), they managed a higher income share (for both products and species)
Gender, Livestock, and Nutrition"Even small additional amounts of meat and milk can provide the same level of nutrients, protein, and calories to the poor that a large and diverse amount of vegetables and cereals could provide” “The Cow Turns Green,” Newsweek, September 7, 2009• Livestock ownership alone is not sufficient to ensure consumption of animal source foods (ASF)• Women play a key role in household choices about food consumption, dietary quality, and intra- household allocation.• Women’s status is key to making good choices here
Women, Livestock and Health• Many important diseases are zoonotic, and food safety can be a major issue with animal source foods• A gendered risk assessment found: – Women’s higher exposure to high-risk activities such as feeding, milking, and cleaning of livestock – Women and men exposed to different diseases, by species – Women much more exposed to food-borne diseases because of role in food and by-product processing, food preparation, and selling ready to eat
Livestock production and human nutrition? What do we know?Its complex! test Land allocation to feed - + - + Food crop Traction, nutrient production cycling + Animal & + + product sales Animal Food crop sales production + Animals + + owned HH + Labor allocated Income to livestock + Food crop purchases Health + + test + Chronic inputs disease risk + ASF purchases Probability of + zoonotic disease + HH ASF + Environmental toxin consumption + concentration + Water + contamination HH crop Food-borne consumption diseases + - - + + - - + Dietary - Human health Human intake status nutritional (growth) status + + + Total labor + Level of care/feeding demands behavior + Labor demands on (female) caregiverFigure. Hypothesized causal linkages between livestock keeping and human nutrition and health outcomes among the poor(adapted from Nicholson et al., 2003). ASF = animal-source food; HH = household (Randolph et al. 2007)
Direct Nutrition Benefits Intermediate determinants of child nutritional status Breast Feeding and weaning practices Food intake patterns and practices (diet diversity and food frequencies) Intra-household food allocation Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices
Intensification and Household Consumption• Key indicators – Proportion of milk kept for consumption from total production – Proportion of evening milk kept for consumption Emerging Advanced Mean daily milk production, in liters 3.2 10.8 Mean daily milk consumption, in liters 2.0 4.9 Proportion of households keeping all of evening milk for 93.5 74.2 consumption
GENDER, LIVESTOCK AND FOOD SECURITY Livestock and food security: Calculated variables • Household/Individual dietary diversity score (HDDS/IDDS) – Takes a value of 0-1 and is measured based on a 24 hour recall – Can also be used to calculate proportion of households consuming at least one animal source food per day • Food consumption score – Based on consumption of food groups – Each food group is weighted – Contribution of meat, fish and milk to the food consumption score • Months of adequate household food provisioning (MAHFP)- – Measured over a 12 month recall period
Women’s ownership of livestock and food securityTanzania HDDS MIHFP • Women’s ownership women women of dairy cattle and women women do not do not own own T-values own own T-values chicken influenced livestock livestock livestock livestock HDDS in both KenyaDairy cattle 0.69 0.55 1.44** 11 8.77 3.67 ** and TanzaniaExotic chicken 0.58 0.55 2.8 *** 11.5 8.77 5.08*Local chicken 0.63 0.55 0.92 8.84 8.67 0.416Goats 0.51 0.56 0.35 8.5 8.83 0.51 • In Kenya ownershipKenya HDDS MIHFP of local chicken and women women t-values women women t-values goats also own do not own do not influenced HDDS livestock own livestoc own livestock k livestockDairy cattle 0.73 0.65 3.105*** 4.3 5.8 2.272**Exotic chicken 0.82 0.66 4.376*** 3.7 5.5 1.689Local chicken 0.71 0.66 2.118** 5.3 5.4 0.242Goats 0.61 0.69 2.564** 5.1 5.4 0.403
Household Economics Changes in income and income share generated by dairy activities Income expenditure on food Allocation of milk production to own consumption vs sale
Gender mediated interventions Changes in women’s roles with introduction /intensification of livestock production especially in terms of time allocation (care giver time) Decision making in relation to use of milk and income allocation Expenditure patterns-food and health input purchases Access to training, nutrition information, livestock assets
Impact of Dairy on Primary Caregiver’s Time:Time spent on daily activities over intensification levels Average Time Spent on Daily Activities (in minutes) No Cow Emerging AdvancedChildcare Activities 201.0 227.5 219.4Income Generating 281.9 283.9 275.5ActivitiesCattle Activities 15.3 112.1 56.9
Public Health Health related determinants of child nutritional status (healthcare expenditure and health seeking behaviour Disease risk profiling Syndromic surveillance Access to public health services and information