Possible theoretical frameworks for FP4 research: some suggestions


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A presentation by Kate Longley at the Workshop on Defining a Strategic Agricultural Research Agenda on Post-Crisis/Post-Shock Recovery in Highly Stressed Systems, Nairobi, May 22-23, 2008

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  • “ When all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”
  • Possible theoretical frameworks for FP4 research: some suggestions

    1. 1. Possible theoretical frameworks for FP4 research Some suggestions Presented by Kate Longley at the Workshop on Defining a Strategic Agricultural Research Agenda on Post-Crisis/Post-Shock Recovery in Highly Stressed Systems, Nairobi, May 22-23, 2008
    2. 2. <ul><li>Jeffrey Sachs / Millennium Project </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Collier’s The Bottom Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security framework </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods framework </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation Systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Risk Reduction framework </li></ul><ul><li>Others?? </li></ul>Overview
    3. 3. Jeffrey Sachs (1) <ul><li>Poverty traps result from combination of 3 factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High minimum capital threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low savings rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africa faces unique structural constraints which can be overcome by targeted investments </li></ul>
    4. 4. Jeffrey Sachs (2) <ul><li>Countries can end poverty trap through combination of: </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-based public investments at scale in health, education, agriculture, infrastructure, and environmental management </li></ul><ul><li>Sound policies and governance, incl good economic management </li></ul><ul><li>Improved access to international trade </li></ul><ul><li>No magic bullet – all of the above are necessary </li></ul>
    5. 5. Jeffrey Sachs (3) <ul><li>Issues must be addressed at the appropriate scale – this requires substantial funding </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions must be based on the best science – requires open, inclusive and consultative process </li></ul><ul><li>Plan of action should be based on specificity of conditions on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Donor investments must be selective according to good governance and economic policies </li></ul>
    6. 6. Paul Collier (1) <ul><li>The ‘Bottom Billion’ refers to the population of 50 failed states </li></ul><ul><li>Their problems defy traditional approaches to poverty alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Traps in which these states are caught: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landlocked with bad neighbours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad governance in a small country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization merely makes things worse for the bottom billion </li></ul>
    7. 7. Paul Collier (2) <ul><li>What can be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Military intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Laws & charters </li></ul><ul><li>Trade policy for reversing marginalisation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Food Security framework Food is properly used (food processing, storage, nutrition, child care, health and sanitation practices) Utilization People have adequate income or other resources to purchase or barter for appropriate foods Access Sufficient quantity of appropriate foods are within reasonable proximity to people Availability Food security Parameter
    9. 9. From food to livelihoods <ul><li>From food security to livelihood security: </li></ul><ul><li>Food insecurity no longer seen as a failure of agriculture to produce sufficient food at the national level, but as a failure of livelihoods to guarantee access to sufficient food at the household level </li></ul>
    10. 10. Livelihoods principles <ul><li>Starts with the actual livelihoods of (poor) people: people-centred </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectoral, responsive and participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic: multiplicity of actors and influences </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic: inherently flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-level: tries to bridge the gap between micro and macro </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with public and private sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable, builds on strengths and addresses vulnerabilities </li></ul>
    11. 11. Livelihoods framework <ul><ul><li>Livelihood resources or assets – what people have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood strategies – what people do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood outcomes – what goals they are pursuing or the ‘living’ that results from their activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The context, structures and processes that influence and affect these three elements </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Innovation Systems (1) <ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Change in practices, in the established way of doing things – technological, organisational, institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Process not only of creating knowledge, but making it available and putting it to use </li></ul><ul><li>Wider policy and institutional environment shapes process through incentives and norms </li></ul>
    13. 13. Innovation Systems (2) <ul><li>An innovation system: </li></ul><ul><li>a network of all public and private sector organizations, enterprises, and individuals involved in the process of knowledge creation, dissemination, adoption/adaptation and use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behaviour and performance. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Innovation Systems (3) <ul><li>Technologies alone not enough to bring about innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships are vital for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Service delivery systems and capacity to innovate are critical in defining the innovation process </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and interactions of diverse agents => Knowledge exchange, technological and institutional change </li></ul>
    15. 15. Disaster Risk Reduction <ul><li>Many UN agencies and NGOs are beginning to use DRR approach to guide both development and humanitarian interventions </li></ul><ul><li>More cost-effective to invest in steps to mitigate and prevent effects of disasters, rather than only dealing with the aftermath </li></ul>
    16. 16. Disaster Risk Reduction <ul><li>The development and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimise vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout society through mitigation and preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster mitigation : actions taken to minimise the extent of a potential disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness : measures taken to forecast or warn against disasters, and take precautions when they threaten and arrange for appropriate response </li></ul>
    17. 17. Risk Reduction Strategies <ul><li>Technologies for food production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Support to livelihoods & markets </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing chronic vulnerability through social protection </li></ul><ul><li>Early warning & baseline information </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of political context and governance issues </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing the capacity of agencies and organisations to respond to disaster </li></ul>