Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia

1,380
views

Published on

Presented by Tadelle Dessie at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) Meeting on Development of Genomic Characterization Protocols for Rational Conservation and Utilization of Avian Genetic …

Presented by Tadelle Dessie at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) Meeting on Development of Genomic Characterization Protocols for Rational Conservation and Utilization of Avian Genetic Resources, South Korea, October 2011.

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,380
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia Tadelle Dessie Development of Genomic Characterization Protocols for Rational Conservation and Utilization of Avian Genetic Resources South Korea, October 2011
  • 2. Contents
    • Introduction
    • Objectives
    • Material and Methods
    • Results and Discussion
    • Conclusion and Recommendations
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 3. Introduction Poultry
    • Fulfilling different purposes in
    • different times
    • Transformed to big industry
    • Forms of production systems
    • in LDC’s
    • Large in number and wider in
    • distribution
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 4. Production systems in Ethiopia
    • Based on:
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
    • Village production system
    • Commercial production system
    • Small scale production system
    • Objectives of the producer
    • Type and number of animals
    • Management system followed
  • 5. Village production system
    • 90% of meat and egg
    • 95% of chicken population
    • Source of protein and small cash
    • Little attention to the system and animals
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
    • Predominant production system
    • Continuous predominance of markets
    Even though local chicken have: -a number of fitness treats -Good mothers -Requires low input etc
  • 6. Main objective
    • To advance a system oriented identification, characterisation and evaluation of local chicken ecotypes of Ethiopia
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 7. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 8. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    • Understand production objectives and purposes
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 9. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    • Understand production objectives and purposes
    • Valuate performance traits
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 10. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    • Understand production objectives and purposes
    • Valuate performance traits
    • Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 11. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    • Understand production objectives and purposes
    • Valuate performance traits
    • Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities
    • Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits)
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 12. Specific objectives
    • Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems
    • Understand production objectives and purposes
    • Valuate performance traits
    • Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities
    • Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits)
    • Estimate the genetic distance between and within the ecotypes
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 13. Materials & Methods
    • Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes
    Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 14. Materials & Methods
    • Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes
    • Module II: On-station growth perfomance evaluation of the different chicken ecotypes
    Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 15. Materials & Methods
    • Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes
    • Module II: On-station perfomance evaluation of the different ecotypes of local chicken
    • Module III: Measuring the genetic distance between and within the different chicken ecotypes
    Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 16. Module I On-farm investigation
    • Structure of the study
    • 5 agro-ecological zones
    • 2 market sheds from each agro-ecological zone (one village / market shed)
    • 25 households from each village
    •  5 x 2 x 25 = 250 households
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 17. Study regions and market sheds Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 18. Module I On-farm investigation
    • Structure of the study sites
    • 5 agro-ecological zones
    • 2 market sheds from each agro-
    • ecological zone
    • 25 households from each village
    •  5 x 2 x 25 = 250 households
    • Methods of data collection
    • Structured questionnaire integrated
    • With Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
    • Transect walk and recall survey
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 19.
    • Materials
    • Five chicken ecotypes
    • (Eggs from Households)
    • Reference breed (Fayoumi)
    Module II On-station investigation Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
    • Management chicks
    • Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre
    • Deep litter system
    • Feed on starter and grower rations
    • Vaccinated for NCD
  • 20.
    • Body weight - every two weeks
    • Feed intake -daily
    • Mortality -when it occurs
    • Carcass and related traits -at 12 weeks
    Module II On-station investigation Data collected Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 21. Module III Measuring the genetic distance DNA Isolation Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Genomic DNA Whole blood 3 … n=25 1 2 Ecotype 1 Ecotype 6 . . .
  • 22. Module III Measuring the genetic distance
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
      • Automated thermocycler
        • About 30 cycles -until 1 mil. Amplification
        • Huge number of copies and enough starting template
      • Specific program for each primer
    Genetic markers
    • Microsatellite markers
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations - 10 primers
  • 23. Program used for MCW222 Gel electrophoresis -verification PCR product Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations 1X 4 Min 2 Min 2 Min 29X 1 Min 1 Min 1 Min 1X 1 Min 1 Min 4 Min 72 °C 55 °C 94 °C Number of cycles Temperature
  • 24. Module III Measuring the genetic distance
    • Fragment analysis
      • A.L.F. TM DNA Sequencer
        • automated electrophoresis and analysis of sequencing
        • fluorescently levelled DNA molecules and primers
      • Signals detected by photodetector -serial data
      • A.L.F. manager version 2.5 / OS/2 operating system
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 25. Data analysis Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 26. Results Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b
  • 27. Hen performance history Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year -Disease -Predation -Feed -Information
    • Constraints
  • 28. Hen performance history and m easures to improve laying Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b Stimulated 76 eggs/year 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year
  • 29. Measures to improve laying performance Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
    • Set eggs under two broody hens
  • 30. Input-output relationships Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Reproduction Sale Consumption Manure Output Market value Non-market value -Cleaning the environment -Socio-religious function -Tick control Foundation stock Replacement stock Grain supplements -SFRB Market value Non-market value Input
  • 31. Mean use pattern of chicken (%) (250 HH) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Regions Repla Sale Consumption -cement Tilili 36.4 a 47.4 a 16.2 c Horro 27.1 bc 44.9 b 28.0 b Chefe 32.3 ab 48.0 a 19.8 c Jarso 31.3 ab 46.1 a 22.6 b Tepi 23.8 c 33.4 c 42.8 a Mean 31 44 25 + SE 1.2 1.1 1.4
  • 32. Mean live body weight ( + SE) of chicken ecotypes Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a d c b e e a c b b c c a c b b c c
  • 33. Mean live body weight ( + SE) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations  36%  35%  39%  36%
  • 34. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  • 35. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a c b bc d d
  • 36. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a b b a a
  • 37. Coefficients of variation (%) of live body weight (Animal-level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations 22-37 %
  • 38. Mean Heterozygosity levels (gene diversity level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Ecotypes Het. % Tilili 63 Horro 57 Chefe 63 Jarso 55 Tepi 61 Fayoumi 60 - 4% (MCW78 in Jarso ) to 92%(ADL268 in Tilili ) - Desplys high within ecotype genetic variation
  • 39. Unbiased standard genetic distance (pairwise ecotype comparisons) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations -Retrieved using 100 permutations and 100 bootstrap replicates Ecotypes Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fay. Tilili *** Horro 0.047 *** Chefe 0.095 0.089 *** Jarso 0.102 0.108 0.089 *** Tepi 0.094 0.094 0.193 0.188 *** Fayoumi 0.251 0.254 0.336 0.351 0.307 ***
      • - Moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes
  • 40. Neighbour Joining tree (unbiased standard genetic distance) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations -Assorted the ecotypes according their origin -Bootstrapping values were between 53 to 100 % in NJ trees -Local ecotypes formed two distinct groups-cluster
  • 41. Correlation between genetic and geographic distances Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations r=0.62 -Isolation by distance based on normalised mantel statistic
  • 42. Conclusion and recommendations
    • The production system:
      • Indigenous and integral part of the farming system
      • Form the basis for transforming from subsistence to more economically productive system based on:
        • Semi-scavenging model that combined technical improvement with institutional and organisational support aiming at increasing flock productivity
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  • 43. Conclusion and recommendations
    • The ecotypes:
    • Large variation between ecotypes (higher performance leveles- Tilili and Chef e ecotypes) and presence of reasonable genetic divergence
    • Thus, it is recommended that testing the combing ablity by crossing Tilili and Chef e ecotypes
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  • 44. Conclusion and recommendations
    • The ecotypes:
    • The existance of large between bird variation within ecotypes for most traits and the presence of high hetrozygosity values as a gene diversity level
    • It is therefore, important to use this
      • variability for rapid improvement of local
      • ecotypes through selection
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  • 45. Conclusion and recommendations
    • The ecotypes:
    • High genetic variation manfested:
    • ...moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes
      • ...unique alleles in most of tested loci
      • … high microsatellite polymorphism
      • ...large number of alleles
      • … high heterozygosity values
    • Sustainable utilisation and conservation. However more detailed stdy using more microsatllite loci and QTL analysis for traits of interest is recommended
    Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  • 46.  

×