0
Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia   Tadelle Dessie Development of Genomic Char...
Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Material and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Result...
Introduction Poultry <ul><li>Fulfilling different purposes in  </li></ul><ul><li>different times </li></ul><ul><li>Transfo...
Production systems in Ethiopia <ul><li>Based on: </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & ...
Village production system <ul><li>90% of meat and egg </li></ul><ul><li>95% of chicken population </li></ul><ul><li>Source...
Main objective <ul><li>To advance a system oriented identification, characterisation and evaluation of local chicken ecoty...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul>Contents Introduction O...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand prod...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand prod...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand prod...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand prod...
Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand prod...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul>Three program module...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module II: O...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module II: O...
Module I On-farm investigation   <ul><li>Structure of the study </li></ul><ul><li>5 agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><l...
Study regions and market sheds Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Rec...
Module I On-farm investigation  <ul><li>Structure of the study sites </li></ul><ul><li>5 agro-ecological zones </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Five chicken ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>(Eggs from Households) </li></ul><ul><li>Refer...
<ul><li>Body weight - every two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Feed intake -daily </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality -when it occurs </l...
Module III Measuring the genetic distance DNA Isolation Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Dis...
Module III Measuring the genetic distance <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated thermocy...
Program used for MCW222 Gel electrophoresis  -verification PCR product Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Method...
Module III  Measuring the genetic distance <ul><li>Fragment analysis  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.L.F.  TM  DNA Sequencer  </l...
Data analysis Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Recommendations
Results Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Recommendations a a a b b
Hen performance history Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Recommenda...
  Hen performance history  and m easures to improve laying Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & ...
Measures to improve laying performance Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusio...
Input-output relationships Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Recomme...
Mean use  pattern of chicken (%)  (250 HH) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Concl...
Mean live body weight ( + SE) of chicken ecotypes   Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discuss...
Mean live body weight ( +  SE) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion  & Rec...
Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0...
Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0...
Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0...
Coefficients of variation (%) of live body weight (Animal-level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Resu...
Mean Heterozygosity levels   (gene diversity level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discuss...
Unbiased standard genetic distance  (pairwise ecotype comparisons) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Re...
Neighbour Joining tree   (unbiased standard genetic distance) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results...
Correlation between genetic  and geographic distances Contents Introduction Objectives Materials &  Methods Results &  Dis...
Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The production system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous and integral part of the fa...
Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>Large variation between ecotypes (higher  performan...
Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>The existance of large between bird variation  with...
Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>High genetic variation manfested: </li></ul><ul><li...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia

1,457

Published on

Presented by Tadelle Dessie at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) Meeting on Development of Genomic Characterization Protocols for Rational Conservation and Utilization of Avian Genetic Resources, South Korea, October 2011.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,457
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia "

  1. 1. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia Tadelle Dessie Development of Genomic Characterization Protocols for Rational Conservation and Utilization of Avian Genetic Resources South Korea, October 2011
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Material and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Recommendations </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  3. 3. Introduction Poultry <ul><li>Fulfilling different purposes in </li></ul><ul><li>different times </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed to big industry </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of production systems </li></ul><ul><li>in LDC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Large in number and wider in </li></ul><ul><li>distribution </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  4. 4. Production systems in Ethiopia <ul><li>Based on: </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations <ul><li>Village production system </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial production system </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale production system </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the producer </li></ul><ul><li>Type and number of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Management system followed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Village production system <ul><li>90% of meat and egg </li></ul><ul><li>95% of chicken population </li></ul><ul><li>Source of protein and small cash </li></ul><ul><li>Little attention to the system and animals </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations <ul><li>Predominant production system </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous predominance of markets </li></ul>Even though local chicken have: -a number of fitness treats -Good mothers -Requires low input etc
  6. 6. Main objective <ul><li>To advance a system oriented identification, characterisation and evaluation of local chicken ecotypes of Ethiopia </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  7. 7. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  8. 8. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  9. 9. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  10. 10. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  11. 11. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits) </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  12. 12. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the genetic distance between and within the ecotypes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  13. 13. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul>Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  14. 14. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module II: On-station growth perfomance evaluation of the different chicken ecotypes </li></ul>Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  15. 15. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module II: On-station perfomance evaluation of the different ecotypes of local chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Module III: Measuring the genetic distance between and within the different chicken ecotypes </li></ul>Three program modules: Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  16. 16. Module I On-farm investigation <ul><li>Structure of the study </li></ul><ul><li>5 agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><li>2 market sheds from each agro-ecological zone (one village / market shed) </li></ul><ul><li>25 households from each village </li></ul><ul><li> 5 x 2 x 25 = 250 households </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  17. 17. Study regions and market sheds Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  18. 18. Module I On-farm investigation <ul><li>Structure of the study sites </li></ul><ul><li>5 agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><li>2 market sheds from each agro- </li></ul><ul><li>ecological zone </li></ul><ul><li>25 households from each village </li></ul><ul><li> 5 x 2 x 25 = 250 households </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Structured questionnaire integrated </li></ul><ul><li>With Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Transect walk and recall survey </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  19. 19. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Five chicken ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>(Eggs from Households) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference breed (Fayoumi) </li></ul>Module II On-station investigation Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations <ul><li>Management chicks </li></ul><ul><li>Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Deep litter system </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on starter and grower rations </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinated for NCD </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Body weight - every two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Feed intake -daily </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality -when it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Carcass and related traits -at 12 weeks </li></ul>Module II On-station investigation Data collected Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  21. 21. Module III Measuring the genetic distance DNA Isolation Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Genomic DNA Whole blood 3 … n=25 1 2 Ecotype 1 Ecotype 6 . . .
  22. 22. Module III Measuring the genetic distance <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated thermocycler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 30 cycles -until 1 mil. Amplification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge number of copies and enough starting template </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific program for each primer </li></ul></ul>Genetic markers <ul><li>Microsatellite markers </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations - 10 primers
  23. 23. Program used for MCW222 Gel electrophoresis -verification PCR product Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations 1X 4 Min 2 Min 2 Min 29X 1 Min 1 Min 1 Min 1X 1 Min 1 Min 4 Min 72 °C 55 °C 94 °C Number of cycles Temperature
  24. 24. Module III Measuring the genetic distance <ul><li>Fragment analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.L.F. TM DNA Sequencer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>automated electrophoresis and analysis of sequencing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluorescently levelled DNA molecules and primers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals detected by photodetector -serial data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.L.F. manager version 2.5 / OS/2 operating system </li></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  25. 25. Data analysis Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  26. 26. Results Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b
  27. 27. Hen performance history Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year -Disease -Predation -Feed -Information <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hen performance history and m easures to improve laying Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a a b b Stimulated 76 eggs/year 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year
  29. 29. Measures to improve laying performance Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations <ul><li>Set eggs under two broody hens </li></ul>
  30. 30. Input-output relationships Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Reproduction Sale Consumption Manure Output Market value Non-market value -Cleaning the environment -Socio-religious function -Tick control Foundation stock Replacement stock Grain supplements -SFRB Market value Non-market value Input
  31. 31. Mean use pattern of chicken (%) (250 HH) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Regions Repla Sale Consumption -cement Tilili 36.4 a 47.4 a 16.2 c Horro 27.1 bc 44.9 b 28.0 b Chefe 32.3 ab 48.0 a 19.8 c Jarso 31.3 ab 46.1 a 22.6 b Tepi 23.8 c 33.4 c 42.8 a Mean 31 44 25 + SE 1.2 1.1 1.4
  32. 32. Mean live body weight ( + SE) of chicken ecotypes Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a d c b e e a c b b c c a c b b c c
  33. 33. Mean live body weight ( + SE) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations  36%  35%  39%  36%
  34. 34. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations
  35. 35. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a c b bc d d
  36. 36. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations a a b b a a
  37. 37. Coefficients of variation (%) of live body weight (Animal-level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations 22-37 %
  38. 38. Mean Heterozygosity levels (gene diversity level) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations Ecotypes Het. % Tilili 63 Horro 57 Chefe 63 Jarso 55 Tepi 61 Fayoumi 60 - 4% (MCW78 in Jarso ) to 92%(ADL268 in Tilili ) - Desplys high within ecotype genetic variation
  39. 39. Unbiased standard genetic distance (pairwise ecotype comparisons) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations -Retrieved using 100 permutations and 100 bootstrap replicates Ecotypes Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fay. Tilili *** Horro 0.047 *** Chefe 0.095 0.089 *** Jarso 0.102 0.108 0.089 *** Tepi 0.094 0.094 0.193 0.188 *** Fayoumi 0.251 0.254 0.336 0.351 0.307 *** <ul><ul><li>- Moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Neighbour Joining tree (unbiased standard genetic distance) Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations -Assorted the ecotypes according their origin -Bootstrapping values were between 53 to 100 % in NJ trees -Local ecotypes formed two distinct groups-cluster
  41. 41. Correlation between genetic and geographic distances Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendations r=0.62 -Isolation by distance based on normalised mantel statistic
  42. 42. Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The production system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous and integral part of the farming system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form the basis for transforming from subsistence to more economically productive system based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-scavenging model that combined technical improvement with institutional and organisational support aiming at increasing flock productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  43. 43. Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>Large variation between ecotypes (higher performance leveles- Tilili and Chef e ecotypes) and presence of reasonable genetic divergence </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is recommended that testing the combing ablity by crossing Tilili and Chef e ecotypes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  44. 44. Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>The existance of large between bird variation within ecotypes for most traits and the presence of high hetrozygosity values as a gene diversity level </li></ul><ul><li>It is therefore, important to use this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variability for rapid improvement of local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ecotypes through selection </li></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  45. 45. Conclusion and recommendations <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>High genetic variation manfested: </li></ul><ul><li> ...moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...unique alleles in most of tested loci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… high microsatellite polymorphism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...large number of alleles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… high heterozygosity values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable utilisation and conservation. However more detailed stdy using more microsatllite loci and QTL analysis for traits of interest is recommended </li></ul>Contents Introduction Objectives Materials & Methods Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×