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Perspectives on One Health/EcoHealth


Presented by Jeff Gilbert at a meeting on sharing the experiences on the application of One Health approaches in China, Beijing, China, 8-9 August 2013.

Presented by Jeff Gilbert at a meeting on sharing the experiences on the application of One Health approaches in China, Beijing, China, 8-9 August 2013.

Published in Technology , Health & Medicine
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  • 1. Perspectives on One-Health / EcoHealth Jeffrey Gilbert MD DVM EcoZD* coordinator Sharing Experiences on the Application of One Health Approaches in China, Landmark Hotel, 8-9 August 2013 *Ecosystem Approaches to the Better Management of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in SE Asia
  • 2. Outline of talk • • • • • One Health EcoHealth OneHealth versus EcoHealth Personal reflections from China 2003-05 ILRI project : Ecosystem Approaches to the Better Management of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in SE Asia (EcoZD)
  • 3. Health – who is responsible Animal Health Human Health DVMs MDs
  • 4. Interaction (1) Animal Health Human Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  • 5. Interaction (2) Emerging Disease Threats: SARS.. INFLUENZA … Animal Health Human Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  • 6. Interaction (3) Emerging Disease Threats Animal Health Neglected Tropical Diseases (rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis … ) Human Health Zoonoses; food safety; VPH
  • 7. Interaction (4) Animal Health Human Health
  • 8. Broader thinking • We must appreciate that we are in a interconnected world • Note the ‘overlap’ of AnH/HuH – represents less ‘space’ compared to that in individual animal and human health domains • For broader consideration of health I believe DVMs better placed – with a ‘head start’ from undergraduate level • Definition of ‘health’ • One Health & Ecosystem Health (EcoHealth): neither have ‘strict’ standardised definitions; various interpretations & language issues
  • 9. Broader thinking - OneHealth Eco Health – One Health • One Health is the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally, to address critical challenges and attain optimal health for people, domestic animals, wildlife, and our environment One Health Commission ( ) • The One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans and animals. One Health Initiative (
  • 10. Broader thinking EcoHealth Eco Health – -One Health • Ecosystem approaches to public health issues acknowledge the complex, systemic nature of public health and environmental issues, and the inadequacy of conventional methodologies for dealing with them. David Walter-Toews, University of Guelph • The Ecohealth approach focuses above all on the place of human beings within their environment. It recognizes that there are inextricable links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic environments, and that these links are reflected in a population's state of health. International Development Research Centre (IDRC) • EcoHealth is an emerging field of study researching how changes in the earth’s ecoszstems affect human health. It has many prospects. EcoHealth examines changes in the biological, physical, social and economic environments and relates these changes to human health. Wikipedia.
  • 11. Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth Eco Health – One Health
  • 12. Inter-connectivity of EcoHealth Eco Health – One Health From Wilcox & Colwell, EcoHealth journal 2005
  • 13. Compare / Contrast v OneHealth • Definitions open to debate: range from quite rigid to very flexible; issues of branding • One-Health – biomedical focus: human + animal + wildlife; • One-Health: focus on communicable diseases • One-Health: operational / strategy • EcoHealth: environment & socio-economic aspects – pioneered outside ‘traditional’ health • EcoHealth: communicable & non-communicable diseases (dioxin; heavy metal toxicity) • Eco-Health: academic / research / complexity
  • 14. Compare / Contrast Eco Health – One Health Eco Health Complexity focus System thinking Pioneered by IDRC ‘Bottom Up’ Vets, Medics, epidemiologists, ecologists, social scientists, philosophers, indigenous perspectives, etc. One Health One Health Schwabe‘s One Medicine One world/One Medicine More quantitative Integrated approach Veterinarians, medics, some ecologists Currently institutionalized Eco health Adapted from Karen Morison, University of Guelph Rather ‘Top down’
  • 15. EcoHealth Resources
  • 16. Personal Reflections : China 2003-05
  • 17. EcoZD A trans-disciplinary research approach (6 countries) has many advantages over a series of individual research projects according to discipline, but there are significant hurdles to be overcome in order to affirm an 'added value’ Masters student – EcoHealth thesis EcoHealth training courses EcoHealth manual development EcoHealth Resource Centre at Chiang Mai University Joint Multi-faculty research activities PhD student –EcoHealth incorporated into thesis Hygiene in small-scale poultry slaughterhouses (2 countries) First joint research field activities between Zoonotic causes of acute diarrhoea MoH/MAF Joint MoH/MAF feedback to communities EcoHealth manual development Increased risk of brucellosis and toxoplasmosis Prevalence of priority pig zoonoses First joint application of PRA tools First joint research field activities between MoH/MAF Joint MoH/MAF feedback to communities Leptospirosis in community and abattoirs Rabies control and prevention First joint application of PRA tools Ecology-focussed: behaviour, demography, fecundity, sociocultural EcoHealth Resource Centre at Gadjah Mada University EcoHealth introduction into undergraduate community service Challenges Solutions • Accepting novel ‘EcoHealth’ paradigm and fostering trans-disciplinary collaboration (some countries rigid mechanism including financial mechanisms) • 5 year project cycle assisted, learning by doing approach gives first-hand experience using country priorities not donor ones • Plans for all countries to disseminate approach and findings to research community, policy makers and communities • Limited capacity within disciplines eg proposal writing, epidemiology, dissemination (journal articles, policy, IEC) • Mentoring by ILRI researchers & technical experts provided real-time suppport according to needs; • EcoHealth(One Health) Resource Centres for regional training and advocacy • Competition with other projects/initiatives/’paradigm (One Health) • Teams/members were encouraged to be part of other initiatives; some team members drafted & submitted multi-country proposal to APEIR • Ownership by teams: they chose the priority and conducted the research • Further funding cycle(s) essential: 10+ years to institutionalise • Sustainability of EcoHealth (One Health) approach
  • 18. Personal Reflections : Högertrafikomläggningen
  • 19. Personal Reflections : Oil tankers
  • 20. EcoZD Project For more information about the EcoZD project, please visit: Email: for OH-EH resources