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Performance of artificial insemination: Challenges and opportunities
 

Performance of artificial insemination: Challenges and opportunities

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Presented by Desalegn G/Medhin at the IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011

Presented by Desalegn G/Medhin at the IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011

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    Performance of artificial insemination: Challenges and opportunities Performance of artificial insemination: Challenges and opportunities Presentation Transcript

    • PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION : CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED BY DESALEGN G/MEDHIN ETHIOPIAN MEAT AND DAIRY TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011
    • OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL AI OPERATION
      • ARTIFICIAL INSEMIATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES: THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE WHAT CAN WE LEARN?
      • PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN ETHIOPIA A RVIEW OF VARIOUS RESEARCH FINDINGS
        • AN OVERVIEW OF THE AI OPERATION
        • OPPORTUNITIES
        • CHALLENGES
      • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Artificial insemination (AI) is a process by which sperm is artificially collected from the male, processed, stored, and introduced into the reproductive tract of females for the purpose of attaining conception by means other than the natural way or natural mating
      • Artificial insemination has been widely used for livestock breeding, especially for dairy cattle and pigs_ 70% of dairy cattle and 5 to 10 % of beef cattle
      • The use of AI in cattle breeding has a history of more than 100 years and the vast majority of dairy cattle are produced in this way
      • AI can be carried out by technicians from approved AI centers, by qualified vets , or by trained farmers
      • .
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • ADVANTAGES OF AI OVER NATURAL BREEDING
      • Allows the choice of using the best possible bulls of proven quality in improving the genetic make-up of the cattle population
      • Farmers have access to genes from superior bulls
      • Gives better opportunity for oestrus synchronization
      • Frozen semen can be transported globally
      • Disease control
      • Cost effectiveness as compared to rearing a bull
      • Flexibility
      • If proper semen is chosen and used, then the quality of livestock will improve:
        • Use of AI Improve productivity Money/ better return from livestock production
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES, DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • DRAWBACKS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
      • Requires well trained and experienced AITs
      • Requires closer supervision of females
      • High cost on investment and higher running costs
      • poor conception rates due to poor heat detection and inefficiency of AI technicians
      • High risk of dissemination of reproductive diseases and poor fertility rates if the overall operation fails to meet accepted standards and procedures
      • Problems associated with inbreeding
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • DEFORMITIES AND ABNORMAL GROWTH 08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • REQUIREMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL AI OPERATION
      • Good record keeping is a prerequisite to an organized breeding and prevention of the deleterious effects of inbreeding
      • Well established system of progeny testing and selection of AI bulls
      • Efficient and effective supply of quality semen and other inputs
      • Well established operating systems _ Reliability
      • Well established monitoring and evaluation
      • Appropriate animal health service and improved fertility levels of herds
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • ARTIFICIAL INSEMIATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES: THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE
      • Artificial Insemination was started in Kenya in 1935 at a Government Farm with the objective to control venereal diseases. However, it soon became apparent that AI could also be used for dairy cattle improvement through use of selected bulls
      •   In 1946, Central AI Station was established
      • In 1966, Kenya National AI Service (KNAIS) was established as a section within the Department of Veterinary Services with the objective of expanding coverage of AI service provision in the country to meet increasing demand
      • Costs /fees were raised and lowered in different points in time due to various reasons
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont…
      • In 1979, there was tremendous uptake of AI Services in the country and peak performance was achieved by performing a total of 549,000 inseminations
      • In 1988, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) were introduced which prescribed cost sharing between GoK and beneficiaries
      • By 1991, there was a major policy shift to privatization of AI services which entailed encouraging cooperative societies, self help groups, private veterinarians and AI technicians starting own AI Services and gradual withdrawal of GoK services where privatization was picking
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont…
      • Central AI Station continued servicing the AI Privatization Programme with semen, Liquid Nitrogen and the AI equipments while the Department of Veterinary Services offered advisory services in planning, budgeting and technical management of the upcoming private and communal practices. The Department also carried out regulatory and supervisory services
      • The number of licensed AI Service providers has also continued rising from a mere 23 in 1992 to 145 in 2001 to 260 in 2004 to 550 in 2006 and 750 in 2008
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • THE KENYAN EXPERIENCE, cont…
      • The Department of Veterinary Services has continued regulating and supervising the AI Service Provision through the local DVOs
      • CAIS currently supplies 85% of the semen requirement in the country while the remaining 15% is supplied by Bovine genetic Importers who distributed, for example, an estimated 75,000 doses of semen in the Year 2008
      • Strong coordination at national level and appropriate bull selection methods
      • Artificial insemination and dairying in general are nowadays in much better status in Kenya
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN ETHIOPIA
      • AN OVERVIEW OF THE AI OPERATION
        • In Ethiopia, AI was first introduced in 1938 in Asmara
        • In 1967, an independent service was started in Chilalo Awraja of the then Arsi Region
        • In 1981, the National AI Center was
        • established at Kality to coordinate the AI
        • operation at national level
        • At present, AI service is provided mainly by
        • government employed AITs with little
        • private service delivery which started
        • recently
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • PERFORMANCE, Cont…
        • The sources of semen for these technicians is mainly the National Artificial Insemination Center and to a little extent private organizations which import semen from abroad
        • There has not been any mechanism of regulating and monitoring the overall activities of the service delivery
        • Lack of record keeping & reporting by AI service providers and farmers has adversely affected national data analysis and decision making process. Lack of AI records is highly believed to have increased the incidence of inbreeding in the country
        • In general, AI service has been given little or no emphasis over the past years as a result of which efficiency and success has been severely impaired
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • PERFORMANCE , cont…
      • OPPORTUNITIES
        • The growing demands for reliable services and quality semen
        • In most cases, users of the AI service are willing to pay even higher fees per service provided that they get quality semen and reliable services
        • The possibilities of getting alternative semen sources
        • Growing attention by the government for the sector
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • OPPORTUNITIES, Cont…
        • Nationally established system and national organization to coordinate efforts
        • Efforts being made by partner GOs and NGOs
        • to improve the service
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • CHALLENGES
      • Major actors in the chain of AI operation_ Are they all doing well?
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI SUCCESS OF AI OPERATION CENTRAL COORDINATION OFFICE AGR. BUREAUX/ OFFICES AITs FARMERS DECISION MAKING BODY
    • CHALLENGES, cont…
        • Inefficient coordination at national level and poor linkages among major actors along with little attention to the overall AI operation
          • High turnover of skilled AITs because of lack of appropriate career structures in all regions
          • Absence of herd recording scheme and lack of appropriate bull selection based on progeny testing methods
          • Limitations in animal health service delivery
          • Absence of monitoring and evaluation
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      • It has been evident that the AI work in Ethiopia has not been successful and is believed that inbreeding has been taking place in the process of indiscriminate crossbreeding over the past years due to overlapping problems
      • Accordingly, the following recommendations need to be considered:
        • Transform the existing national coordination into a strong and efficient institution
        • Improve availability of service delivery through better semen storage and inputs delivery in all parts of the country
        • Introduce a national herd recording scheme and implement progeny tested bull selection methods
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    • RECOMMENDATIONS, Cont…
        • Encourage private involvement in the AI service delivery
        • Importation of genetic germplasm especially semen and embryo need to be strengthened to complement the domestic production
        • Establish appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to avoid indiscriminate crossbreeding and associated problems and also to assure provision of fair services to the AI users
        • Encourage the use of farmer AI technicians where it is necessary
      08/27/11 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI
    •  
    • ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 08/27/11 4 PERFORMANCE OF AI IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES DESALEGN G/MEDHIN, EMDTI