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Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)
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Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)

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Invited paper presented by Don Peden on the BSAS Annual Conference, Southport, UK, April 2-4, 2007. …

Invited paper presented by Don Peden on the BSAS Annual Conference, Southport, UK, April 2-4, 2007.

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  1. Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA) (Invited paper) BSAS Annual Conference (2 to 4 April 2007) Southport, UK Presented by Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  2. First key message <ul><li>Reduce poverty (People) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food production (Livestock) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water resources (Environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal sciences are needed but have been neglected. </li></ul>Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can help:
  3. Second key message <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50% </li></ul>
  4. Research on livestock & water <ul><li>was part of </li></ul><ul><li>The Comprehensive Assessment of </li></ul><ul><li>Water Management and Agriculture </li></ul>in collaboration with:
  5. What was the CA? <ul><li>5 year global study. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of benefits, costs, and impacts of 50 years of agricultural water development. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable better future investment and management decisions in water and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>>700 experts; many institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors: CGIAR, Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO, Ramsar Convention on wetlands & investors. </li></ul>
  6. Three developing country questions were asked <ul><li>Is there enough water to feed the world? …with animal products? </li></ul><ul><li>Do livestock excessively use and degrade water resources? </li></ul><ul><li>How can livestock production contribute to more sustainable and productive use of water resources? </li></ul>
  7. What is the CA? – The synthesis <ul><li>Water for food; water for life was launched at World Water Day (22 March 2007) in Rome and Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>ILRI lead chapter: “ Livestock and water for human development ” </li></ul>
  8. Global livestock distribution <ul><li>Livestock production more extensive than croplands </li></ul><ul><li>Sustains poor people in developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Often located where water is scarce. </li></ul>
  9. Sub-Saharan livestock distributions <ul><li>Livestock and human densities correlated . </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to agricultural intensification. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for water - a major factor in African conflicts. </li></ul>11 Grazing 20 Rainfed crop-livestock 33 Irrigated TLU (TLU/km 2 ) Production system
  10. We used a livestock water productivity assessment framework <ul><li>LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>∑ (Depleted water) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Milk, meat, hides, manure, wealth savings, cultural roles </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted water: Evaporation, transpiration, discharge/flood </li></ul>
  11. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration Ground H 2 O recharge <ul><li>A water accounting approach </li></ul><ul><li>Scales: Field & farms to large river basins </li></ul>Agricultural production system Water loss or depletion
  12. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration GW H 2 O recharge Trees Pas- ture Feed crops Food crops Grain Residues Evapo-ration Discharge & flood Contami- nation Available animal feeds Drinking Water Conserving strategies Benefits from plants Feed Sourcing strategies Imported feed Net Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Productivity- enhancing strategies
  13. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Focus on water for feed that can be 50 to 100 times more than drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Make effective use of crop residues/byproducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve pasture by transferring evaporation and excessive run-off to transpiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, procuring feed is a primary African livelihood challenge with high labour costs. </li></ul>
  14. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Science has failed to understand water cost of feed production. </li></ul><ul><li>Varying methods &concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>A 70 fold variability in WP is probably not a biological reality. </li></ul>Example reported water productivity of animal feeds 0.1 – 0.7 USA rangeland 1.1 – 1.7 Irrigated alfalfa 6.0 – 8.0 Irrigated sorghum WP (kg/m3) Feed
  15. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition & veterinary care. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal genetic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to markets & value-added animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing, watering and housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced labour and other costs. </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  16. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wealth savings </li></ul><ul><li>Drought risk insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal/water demand management approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Animal Sciences into agricultural water development </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  17. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Farm power: </li></ul><ul><li>Water used to maintain draft animals is an input into crop but not animal production. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian soils to heavy for people power. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-off between using water and petrol </li></ul>
  18. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Limit conversion of range to annual croplands >Grass if best vegetation to protect soil< </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce run-off, erosion, sedimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote transpiration, infiltration, soil water holding capacity & vegetation cover. </li></ul>
  19. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Community management of range & water. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit stocking rates and grazing pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish riparian buffer zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply zero grazing and watering. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt conservation agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quality drinking water for dairy cows. </li></ul>
  20. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Restrict animal access to water to avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of riparian & aquatic habitats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to human health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation. </li></ul></ul>
  21. Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia * Source: LWP from ILRI; Grain WP from ECSA (2005); Tomato WP from SG2000. 0.73 Tomatoes Water harvesting & drip irrigation 0.68 Multiple animal products & services Rainfed mixed crop-livestock Wheat Barley Teff Commodity 0.18 0.18 0.28 WP (US$/m 3 ) Rainfed grain production System & Scale
  22. <ul><li>LWP compares favourably with house-hold water harvesting WP. </li></ul><ul><li>Even without efforts to increase either LWP. </li></ul><ul><li>But improved methods and filling data gaps still needed. </li></ul><ul><li>And complexity of mixed crop livestock systems is challenging. </li></ul>Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia
  23. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Overgrazing; charcoal making; lost vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>High run-off + evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated domestic water. </li></ul>WHAT IS WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF THIS LAND?
  24. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Ecosystem flips to LOW WP state. </li></ul><ul><li>Termites dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Without vegetation, clay soils expand with light rain sealing surface, preventing infiltration & limiting plant production. </li></ul>
  25. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Better design and community management of community ponds and drinking troughs. </li></ul><ul><li>Better watering practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Reseeding upslope pasture. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control. </li></ul>
  26. Case 3 Household water harvesting (with Sasakawa Global 2000 in Ethiopia) <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed farming; low productivity; very poor households (<$300/year); high drought risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Long treks for water for people & animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Milk production < 3 litre/day/cow. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly degraded land and water resources. </li></ul>
  27. <ul><li>Integrating livestock and crop production </li></ul>Case 3 Household water harvesting – Underground tank Home consumption Give water Zero-grazing & hybrid cow Adding value & markets Benefits > $1500 High LWP
  28. Key Message #1 <ul><li>Integrating livestock & water development in developing countries can help: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water </li></ul><ul><li>But animal sciences are needed but have been neglected. </li></ul>
  29. Key Message #2 <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Can we collaborate to ensure that livestock make a positive contribution to the development of the world’s poor? </li></ul>
  30. Three developing country questions answered <ul><li>There enough water to feed the world with diets including moderate amounts of animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>African livestock do use and degrade water resources but …. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating livestock and water development can result in increased livestock water productivity . </li></ul>
  31. THANK YOU <ul><li>BSAS skills are needed to help reduce pressure on global water resources </li></ul>

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