Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries Shirley Tarawali, Mario Her...
Key messages <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems in developing countries support millions of poor and produce more than h...
Crop livestock systems <ul><li>Mixed intensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High population density, high agro-ecological potenti...
Globally, most people are in  mixed crop – livestock systems Herrero et al. 2009 50% or more of income for those in mixed ...
Global cereal production Developing world mixed systems produce almost 50% of the cereals of the World  Most production co...
Globally mixed systems produce significant amounts of milk and meat Herrero et al. 2009
But what about the future? <ul><li>Multiple drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population, urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Transition of crop livestock systems <ul><li>Transition of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul...
Production efficiency – developed countries Capper et al., 2009 Feed, breed, health = 4 fold milk increase
Estimated GHG emissions per kg of FPCM at farm gate, averaged by main regions and the world FAO, 2010
Role of animals <ul><li>Multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing cattle systems in Kenya, Zambia and Sri  Lanka:  </li></ul><u...
Smallholders have advantages – but not everywhere Development stage %agric in GDP %livestock in agric GDP Demand for lives...
Smallholder market participation <ul><li>Studies in India, Bangladesh and Brazil indicate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For some ...
Opportunities and challenges <ul><li>Context matters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eco...
Institutions and processes <ul><li>Supportive policies and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>...
Smallholder dairy systems – East Africa and South Asia <ul><ul><li>Evidence (research) for policy making on: </li></ul></u...
Smallholder production systems – Improving productivity and market success in Ethiopia   <ul><ul><li>Accelerating the tran...
Improving efficiency – can it be done? <ul><li>Need to “bundle” technology dimensions (feed-breed-health) </li></ul><ul><l...
Crop residues Premium Stover “ Raichur ” Low Cost Stover “ Local Yellow” Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006 <ul><li>70% of pr...
Feed block manufacturing: supplementation, densification Only small non by-product inputs Improved sorghum – 12% better di...
Comparisons of high (Raichur) and low quality  (local Yellow) sorghum stover based feed blocks in commercial dairy buffalo...
Supplementation and processing of sweet sorghum bagasse and response in sheep   Anandan et al. (2009b) No processing solut...
Feed opportunities <ul><li>Improved food-feed crops </li></ul><ul><li>Processing options </li></ul><ul><li>Implications fo...
Feed, water and livestock management; integrated crop-livestock systems
Manure and nutrient cycling <ul><li>Storage and handling </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: specialisation - spatial separation ...
Where to begin?  Sectors and regions that favour smallholder intensification Dairy – south Asia (124 million people); East...
Conclusions <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not the only answer  for global food </li></ul>...
Key messages <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems in developing countries support millions of poor and produce more than h...
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Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries

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Presented by Shirley Tarawali, Mario Herrero, Katrien Descheemaeker, Elaine Grings and Michael Blümmel at the Workshop on the Assessment for sustainable development of animal production systems, 3 November 2011.

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Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries

  1. 1. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries Shirley Tarawali, Mario Herrero, Katrien Descheemaeker, Elaine Grings, Michael Blümmel   Presentation at the Symposium: Assessment for sustainable development of animal production systems 3 November 2011
  2. 2. Key messages <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems in developing countries support millions of poor and produce more than half the developing world’s livestock and crop commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Present one of the greatest challenges – and opportunities to address food needs of the future without compromising environment, equity or livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t present a panacea answer and require understanding context and a radically different approach to solutions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Crop livestock systems <ul><li>Mixed intensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High population density, high agro-ecological potential/irrigation, good links to markets, some purchased inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed extensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium population density, moderate agro-ecological potential, rainfed agriculture, hardly any purchased inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(mosaic, interactions) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Globally, most people are in mixed crop – livestock systems Herrero et al. 2009 50% or more of income for those in mixed systems comes from livestock (producers, traders, market agents, processors.....)
  5. 5. Global cereal production Developing world mixed systems produce almost 50% of the cereals of the World Most production coming from intensive crop livestock systems Herrero et al. 2009
  6. 6. Globally mixed systems produce significant amounts of milk and meat Herrero et al. 2009
  7. 7. But what about the future? <ul><li>Multiple drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population, urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand from domestic, regional, international markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food? </li></ul><ul><li>Environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Equity? </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods? </li></ul><ul><li>Transition or radical change (industrial)? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transition of crop livestock systems <ul><li>Transition of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of animals (market engagement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trajectory depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of intensification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock commodity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Production efficiency – developed countries Capper et al., 2009 Feed, breed, health = 4 fold milk increase
  10. 10. Estimated GHG emissions per kg of FPCM at farm gate, averaged by main regions and the world FAO, 2010
  11. 11. Role of animals <ul><li>Multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing cattle systems in Kenya, Zambia and Sri Lanka: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 40% of benefits from livestock keeping came from non-market, intangible benefits, mostly insurance and financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Livestock - an inflation-proof savings/investment </li></ul><ul><li>Manure, traction, social </li></ul><ul><li>Market focused </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t increase risk! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchased inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on connection to markets, knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Smallholders have advantages – but not everywhere Development stage %agric in GDP %livestock in agric GDP Demand for livestock products Smallholder roles Agricultural 30-50 15-45 Rural and urban poor – small quantities Smallholders competitive; informal markets Transforming 15-25 18-50 Increased quantity demanded Urbanized 6-9 30-50 Quantity but especially quality demands Complex value chains; vertical coordination; smallholders not competitive unless where labour and inputs benefit
  13. 13. Smallholder market participation <ul><li>Studies in India, Bangladesh and Brazil indicate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For some ruminant production, smallholders can compete, and are likely to do so for foreseeable future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major factor for smallholders remaining competitive is opportunity cost of labour (including lack of good off-farm opportunities) </li></ul></ul>-0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 Rs/litre <=20 20-40 40-80 80-150 >150 Avg. Farm scale - liters of milk/day Source: Sharma et al., 2003
  14. 14. Opportunities and challenges <ul><li>Context matters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions matter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies (for production efficiency) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Institutions and processes <ul><li>Supportive policies and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge inputs, business services </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation capacity of all actors </li></ul>
  16. 16. Smallholder dairy systems – East Africa and South Asia <ul><ul><li>Evidence (research) for policy making on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk analysis of informal milk marketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment and income benefits for the poor in dairy production and marketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business/market development - link poor livestock producers and feed suppliers to more sophisticated input/output systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hub” model </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Smallholder production systems – Improving productivity and market success in Ethiopia <ul><ul><li>Accelerating the transformation of subsistence systems to more market-oriented ones through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building of public and private sector actors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity and access to markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying options for enabling policy and institutional environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender and HIV/AIDS issues mainstreamed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Improving efficiency – can it be done? <ul><li>Need to “bundle” technology dimensions (feed-breed-health) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient commodity yields using mainly local ingredients? </li></ul><ul><li>What are environmental implications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition for biomass </li></ul>
  19. 19. Crop residues Premium Stover “ Raichur ” Low Cost Stover “ Local Yellow” Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006 <ul><li>70% of production cost is feed </li></ul><ul><li>70% of feed is crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Significant variation in crop residue quality without compromising grain yield </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and price are correlated </li></ul><ul><li>Combine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Feed block manufacturing: supplementation, densification Only small non by-product inputs Improved sorghum – 12% better digestibility Ingredients % Sorghum stover 50 Bran/husks/hulls 18 Oilcakes 18 Molasses 8 Grains 4 Minerals, vitamins 2
  21. 21. Comparisons of high (Raichur) and low quality (local Yellow) sorghum stover based feed blocks in commercial dairy buffalo Anandan et al. (2009a) Block High Block Low CP 17.2 % 17.1% ME (MJ/kg) 8.46 MJ/kg 7.37 MJ/kg DMI 19.7 kg/d 18.0 kg/d DMI per kg LW 3.6 % 3.3 % Milk Potential 16.6 kg/d 11.8 kg/d
  22. 22. Supplementation and processing of sweet sorghum bagasse and response in sheep Anandan et al. (2009b) No processing solution feeds fit all feeding situations Economy driving, optimizing strategies required More emphasis needed on decentralized processing options Mash Pellets Block Control Chaffed SSBRL Concentrate DMI (g/kg LW) 52.5 a 55.6 a 42.1 b 41.5 b ADG (g / d) 132.7 a 130.4 a 89.5 b 81.3 b Processing ($/t) 5.9 7.0 5.2 1.7 Transport ($/t/100km) 6.6 5.8 5.2 13.5
  23. 23. Feed opportunities <ul><li>Improved food-feed crops </li></ul><ul><li>Processing options </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for land, water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct GHG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect GHG </li></ul>
  24. 24. Feed, water and livestock management; integrated crop-livestock systems
  25. 25. Manure and nutrient cycling <ul><li>Storage and handling </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: specialisation - spatial separation of crop and livestock production </li></ul>
  26. 26. Where to begin? Sectors and regions that favour smallholder intensification Dairy – south Asia (124 million people); East Africa (24 million) – low labour cost, local inputs ; Beef – west Africa (70 million) – especially young animal provision? Small ruminants – West (81 million) and Southern Africa (28 million); South Asia – low input, local market, favouring women Pigs – Vietnam, Uganda.... Smallholders, rapidly growing sector
  27. 27. Conclusions <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not the only answer for global food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transforming economies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy, ruminant production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not happen automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not begin with technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions and processes at all </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>levels important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology integral part </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Key messages <ul><li>Mixed crop livestock systems in developing countries support millions of poor and produce more than half the developing world’s livestock and crop commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Present one of the greatest challenges – and opportunities to address food needs of the future without compromising environment, equity or livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t present a panacea answer and require understanding context and a radically different approach to solutions </li></ul>

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