Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate   <ul><li>Theib Oweis,  ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria   </li></ul><u...
Global livestock  <ul><li>Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce  </li></ul><ul><l...
Why the emphasis on water ? <ul><li>Increased water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Declining agricultural water </li></ul><ul>...
Non-productive depletion Transpiration Water Conserving strategies Feed Sourcing strategies Rain Surface inflow Available ...
CA key messages <ul><li>Integrating  livestock  and  water  development in developing countries can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Field water balance: real & paper losses Storage Irrigation Precipitation Runoff recoverable Transpiration Evaporation Los...
Water productivity: the concept Return WP  = --------------------------------- Unit of water consumed <ul><li>What return ...
Scales and drivers to increase WP <ul><li>At the basin level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition among uses (Env., Ag., Dom...
Low and high  WPs   <ul><li>Food water requirements </li></ul><ul><li>3000 liter/person/day </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul...
Potential WP improvements <ul><li>Reducing evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Improving management </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing ...
Tradeoffs between water and land productivity Max WP Max Yield
Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate   <ul><li>Theib Oweis,  ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria   </li></ul><u...
Global livestock  <ul><li>Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce  </li></ul><ul><l...
Why the emphasis on water ? <ul><li>Increased water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Declining agricultural water </li></ul><ul>...
Strategies for improving LWP <ul><li>Enhancing feed WP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use...
Climate change & water <ul><li>Dry areas will get drier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mo...
CC impact on LW relations <ul><li>Mainly through feed production </li></ul><ul><li>Different for zones,  </li></ul><ul><ul...
CC adaptation and mitigation <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding current climate variability will help ...
Time for change… faster than the climate !!! <ul><li>Land:  from subsistence farming to market oriented </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate

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A presentation prepared by Theib Oweis and Don Peden for the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, May 17-20, 2008.

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  • Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate

    1. 1. Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate <ul><li>Theib Oweis, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation at the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, 17-20 May, 2008 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Global livestock <ul><li>Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive than croplands and correlated human densities </li></ul><ul><li>Sustains poor people in developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to agricultural intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why the emphasis on water ? <ul><li>Increased water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Declining agricultural water </li></ul><ul><li>Need more food </li></ul><ul><li>Need security </li></ul>Southern Mediterranean
    4. 4. Non-productive depletion Transpiration Water Conserving strategies Feed Sourcing strategies Rain Surface inflow Available animal feed Drinking Evapo-ration GW recharge Benefits from plants Trees Pasture Imported feed Productivity- enhancing strategies Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Discharge & flood Quality loss Feed crops Grain Residues Food crops
    5. 5. CA key messages <ul><li>Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce poverty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase food production and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce pressure on scarce water resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50% reductions in water use by African animal production may easily be achieved </li></ul>
    6. 6. Field water balance: real & paper losses Storage Irrigation Precipitation Runoff recoverable Transpiration Evaporation Losses To ground water recoverable Deep percolation Drainage Partially recoverable Quality losses Seepage recoverable
    7. 7. Water productivity: the concept Return WP = --------------------------------- Unit of water consumed <ul><li>What return ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass, grain, meat, milk (kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Income ($) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Social benefits (employment) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy (Cal) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition (protein, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, fat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What water ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (EC) </li></ul><ul><li>Location (GW depth) </li></ul><ul><li>Time available </li></ul><ul><li>Consumed (depleted) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Quality deterioration </li></ul>
    8. 8. Scales and drivers to increase WP <ul><li>At the basin level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition among uses (Env., Ag., Dom.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflicts between countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the national level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sociopolitics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the farm level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizing economic return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition in subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the field level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizing biological output </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Low and high WPs <ul><li>Food water requirements </li></ul><ul><li>3000 liter/person/day </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>1 liter of water/one calorie </li></ul>
    10. 10. Potential WP improvements <ul><li>Reducing evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Improving management </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing genetic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Great potential in developing countries </li></ul>
    11. 11. Tradeoffs between water and land productivity Max WP Max Yield
    12. 12. Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate <ul><li>Theib Oweis, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation at the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, 17-20 May, 2008 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Global livestock <ul><li>Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive than croplands and correlated human densities </li></ul><ul><li>Sustains poor people in developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to agricultural intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why the emphasis on water ? <ul><li>Increased water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Declining agricultural water </li></ul><ul><li>Need more food </li></ul><ul><li>Need security </li></ul>Southern Mediterranean
    15. 15. Strategies for improving LWP <ul><li>Enhancing feed WP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple use of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase animal productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal health and nutrition, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic resources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to markets & byproducts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve rangelands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitate degraded rangelands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve grazing management </li></ul></ul>Rainwater Harvesting
    16. 16. Climate change & water <ul><li>Dry areas will get drier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More extreme events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods & prolonged droughts </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. CC impact on LW relations <ul><li>Mainly through feed production </li></ul><ul><li>Different for zones, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In dry areas: less rain + more drought will result in loss in plant productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In monsoon areas: amount and intensity of rain is likely to increase, floods + positive productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigated agriculture will be effected by river flows fluctuations </li></ul>
    18. 18. CC adaptation and mitigation <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding current climate variability will help the adaptation to CC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving water and land productivity increases household incomes and resilience, and reduce vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive Livestock is an emitter of methane, increasing its productivity reduces the need for expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving WP reduces expansion in agricultural lands (ex. deforestation) with less GHG emissions. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Time for change… faster than the climate !!! <ul><li>Land: from subsistence farming to market oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Water: from maximizing yield to maximizing water productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: from reactive to proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions: from top down to involving and empowering farmers’ communities </li></ul>Perception of livestock: From methane emitter to a resource-use efficient sector
    20. 20. Thank you
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