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Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate
 

Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate

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A presentation prepared by Theib Oweis and Don Peden for the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, May 17-20, 2008.

A presentation prepared by Theib Oweis and Don Peden for the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, May 17-20, 2008.

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Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate Presentation Transcript

  • Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate
    • Theib Oweis, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria
    • &
    • Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    • Presentation at the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, 17-20 May, 2008
  • Global livestock
    • Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce
    • More extensive than croplands and correlated human densities
    • Sustains poor people in developing world
    • Linked to agricultural intensification
    • Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands.
  • Why the emphasis on water ?
    • Increased water scarcity
    • Declining agricultural water
    • Need more food
    • Need security
    Southern Mediterranean
  • Non-productive depletion Transpiration Water Conserving strategies Feed Sourcing strategies Rain Surface inflow Available animal feed Drinking Evapo-ration GW recharge Benefits from plants Trees Pasture Imported feed Productivity- enhancing strategies Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Discharge & flood Quality loss Feed crops Grain Residues Food crops
  • CA key messages
    • Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can:
      • reduce poverty,
      • increase food production and
      • reduce pressure on scarce water resources.
    • 50% reductions in water use by African animal production may easily be achieved
  • Field water balance: real & paper losses Storage Irrigation Precipitation Runoff recoverable Transpiration Evaporation Losses To ground water recoverable Deep percolation Drainage Partially recoverable Quality losses Seepage recoverable
  • Water productivity: the concept Return WP = --------------------------------- Unit of water consumed
    • What return ??
    • Biomass, grain, meat, milk (kg)
    • Income ($)
    • Environmental benefits (C)
    • Social benefits (employment)
    • Energy (Cal)
    • Nutrition (protein,
      • carbohydrates, fat)
    • What water ??
    • Quality (EC)
    • Location (GW depth)
    • Time available
    • Consumed (depleted)
    • Evaporation
    • Transpiration
    • Quality deterioration
  • Scales and drivers to increase WP
    • At the basin level:
      • competition among uses (Env., Ag., Dom.)
      • conflicts between countries
      • Equity issues
    • At the national level:
      • food security
      • hard currency
      • sociopolitics
    • At the farm level:
      • maximizing economic return
      • Nutrition in subsistence farming
    • At the field level:
      • maximizing biological output
  • Low and high WPs
    • Food water requirements
    • 3000 liter/person/day
    • or
    • 1 liter of water/one calorie
  • Potential WP improvements
    • Reducing evaporation
    • Improving management
    • Enhancing genetic resources
    • Great potential in developing countries
  • Tradeoffs between water and land productivity Max WP Max Yield
  • Improving livestock water productivity under changing climate
    • Theib Oweis, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria
    • &
    • Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    • Presentation at the Livestock & Global Climate Change Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, 17-20 May, 2008
  • Global livestock
    • Consumes 20% of agricultural ET for feed & often located where water is scarce
    • More extensive than croplands and correlated human densities
    • Sustains poor people in developing world
    • Linked to agricultural intensification
    • Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands.
  • Why the emphasis on water ?
    • Increased water scarcity
    • Declining agricultural water
    • Need more food
    • Need security
    Southern Mediterranean
  • Strategies for improving LWP
    • Enhancing feed WP
      • Feed selection
      • Use of residues
      • Feed water management
      • Multiple use of water
    • Increase animal productivity
      • Animal health and nutrition,
      • Genetic resources,
      • Access to markets & byproducts
    • Improve rangelands
      • Rehabilitate degraded rangelands
      • Improve grazing management
    Rainwater Harvesting
  • Climate change & water
    • Dry areas will get drier
      • less precipitation
    • More extreme events
      • Floods & prolonged droughts
  • CC impact on LW relations
    • Mainly through feed production
    • Different for zones,
      • In dry areas: less rain + more drought will result in loss in plant productivity
      • In monsoon areas: amount and intensity of rain is likely to increase, floods + positive productivity.
    • Irrigated agriculture will be effected by river flows fluctuations
  • CC adaptation and mitigation
    • Adaptation
      • Understanding current climate variability will help the adaptation to CC
      • Improving water and land productivity increases household incomes and resilience, and reduce vulnerability
    • Mitigation
      • Intensive Livestock is an emitter of methane, increasing its productivity reduces the need for expansion
      • Improving WP reduces expansion in agricultural lands (ex. deforestation) with less GHG emissions.
  • Time for change… faster than the climate !!!
    • Land: from subsistence farming to market oriented
    • Water: from maximizing yield to maximizing water productivity
    • Policies: from reactive to proactive
    • Institutions: from top down to involving and empowering farmers’ communities
    Perception of livestock: From methane emitter to a resource-use efficient sector
  • Thank you