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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia

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Presented by Adugna Tolera at the Inception workshop for the ‘Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia’ project, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012

Presented by Adugna Tolera at the Inception workshop for the ‘Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia’ project, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012

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  • 1. Overview of Livestock Feed Subsector in Ethiopia Presented by Adugna Tolera (Hawassa University) at the Inception meeting for the ‘ Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia ’ project ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012
  • 2. Background <ul><li>High livestock population (national) but low productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse agro-ecologies and different production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for animal products </li></ul><ul><li>Increased interest and efforts to promote market-led livestock development </li></ul>
  • 3. Feed related challenges of livestock production 1. Shortage of feeds 2. Seasonality
  • 4. Potential feed resources <ul><li>Roughages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural pastures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserved forages (Hay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivated forages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast growing and high biomass crops such as maize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hulls - Cottonseed hull, pulse crop hull </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Potential feed resources (cont…) <ul><ul><li>Agricultural/agro-industrial by-products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milling by-products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat bran, wheat short, wheat middling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screenings – barley, wheat, bean, lentils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oilseed cakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonseed, linseed, noug, groundnut, sesame, sunflower </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole cottonseed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horticultural by-products and wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brewery and distillery by-products (including home brewing and distilling) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry litter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional surplus grain and grain broken during processing </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Natural pastures <ul><li>Naturally occurring grasses, legumes, forbs, shrubs and tree foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal fluctuation in quantity and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing from time to time due to expansion of cropping </li></ul>
  • 7. Shrinkage of grazing land due to expansion of cropping
  • 8. Grass hay <ul><li>Variable quality </li></ul><ul><li>CP may vary 3-12% depending on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass species (botanical composition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting, drying and storage conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Crop residues <ul><li>Crop production provides a range of residues and by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly important sources of animal feed </li></ul><ul><li>Low nutrient content, digestibility and intake </li></ul><ul><li>Variable nutritive value depending upon species/ variety, time of harvest, handling and storage conditions etc. </li></ul>
  • 10. Maize <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Stover (dry or green) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinnings </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf strippings </li></ul><ul><li>Topping </li></ul><ul><li>Grain ? </li></ul><ul><li>Whole plant ? </li></ul>
  • 11. Cultivated forages and pastures <ul><li>Limited availability </li></ul><ul><li>Many years of research and development interventions but low adoption rate </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for resources (land, labour etc.) with crop production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of suitable seeds and planting materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of economic incentives in subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ? </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Some cultivated forages species <ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elephant (Napier) grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhodes grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guinea grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oats (highlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous legumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylosanthes spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desmodiums ( D. intortum &amp; D. uncinatum ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lablab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowpea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfalfa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fodder trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leucaena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sesbania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigeon pea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagasaste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(highlands) </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Agro-industrial byproducts <ul><li>Oilseed cakes, milling by-products, molasses, brewery and distillery by-products etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively high quality feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important sources of nutrients (protein and/or energy) for market oriented livestock production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Localized availability and distribution </li></ul>
  • 14. Agro-industrial byproducts (Cont…..) <ul><li>Supply could not satisfy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Factories operate below capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable price increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in price of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from export market (for raw materials) </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Thinning (maize and sorghum) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf stripping (maize and sorghum) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves or foliage of other crops (cassava, sugar cane, banana, enset etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Topping (maize, cassava, sugar cane) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potato vines (and tubers) </li></ul><ul><li>Peelings and reject fruits and vegetables (eg. Banana, pine apple, orange etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally whole crop (eg. Sugarcane, banana, enset and maize) </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped coffee leaves, coffee pulp and hulls (minor contribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds or weed seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Tree leaves and pods </li></ul><ul><li>Cactus </li></ul>Other feeds derived from cropping systems
  • 16. A sandabo weed seed being harvested for feed at Hunte farm of Bale Agricultural Development Enterprise
  • 17. Nutritive value of Asandabo weed seed Component Mean Range Dry matter (%) 94.7 94.4-95.1 Ash (% DM) 5.8 3.2-9.1 Crude protein (% DM) 13.3 12.1-14.1 Neutral detergent fiber (% DM) 22.1 19.1-25.6 Acid detergent fiber (% DM) 8.6 6.1-10.7 In vitro OM digestibility (%) 79.5 77.7-81.0
  • 18. Feed resources used for backyard cattle fattening Wolayta Arsi-Negelle Hararghe Crop residues Areqe atella Thinning of maize and sorghum Cut-and-carry grass Wheat straw Leaf stripping of maize and sorghum Boiled maize &amp; haricot bean grain Wheat bran Weeds and grasses from crop fields Thinning or whole crop maize Oil seed cake (esp. linseed cake) Agricultural by-products like sweet potato vines Sweet potato vines and tuber Enset Household wastes (atella &amp; coffee residue)
  • 19. Feed industries <ul><li>At infant stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Few in number </li></ul><ul><li>Localized distribution (Addis – Adama corridor &amp; Bahir Dar) </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at about 25% of their capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly serve commercial producers and few urban and peri-urban smallholder producers </li></ul><ul><li>ACDI/VOCA installed feed mills with smaller capacity for 9 Coop Unions distributed over a wider area </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Shrinkage of grazing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal fluctuation of feed availability and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of well developed tradition of fodder conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Low adoption of improved forage production </li></ul><ul><li>Low nutritive quality of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate and fluctuating supply of agro-industrial by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Feed industries not well developed </li></ul>Challenges of livestock feed supply
  • 21. Feed price trends over the last few years
  • 22. How can the problems be addressed? <ul><li>Improve fodder conservation practices </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the advantages and disadvantages of exporting oilseeds vs processing locally </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage production of improved forage crops in niche areas </li></ul><ul><li>Make effective use of available feed resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wastage of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (cassava, sweet potato, enset etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use balanced feed to increase efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Thank you !

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