Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia
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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia

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Presented by Adugna Tolera at the Inception workshop for the ‘Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia’ project, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012

Presented by Adugna Tolera at the Inception workshop for the ‘Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia’ project, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012

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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia Presentation Transcript

  • Overview of Livestock Feed Subsector in Ethiopia Presented by Adugna Tolera (Hawassa University) at the Inception meeting for the ‘ Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia ’ project ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012
  • Background
    • High livestock population (national) but low productivity
    • Diverse agro-ecologies and different production systems
    • Increasing demand for animal products
    • Increased interest and efforts to promote market-led livestock development
  • Feed related challenges of livestock production 1. Shortage of feeds 2. Seasonality
  • Potential feed resources
    • Roughages
      • Natural pastures
      • Conserved forages (Hay)
      • Crop residues
      • Cultivated forages
      • Fast growing and high biomass crops such as maize
      • Hulls - Cottonseed hull, pulse crop hull
  • Potential feed resources (cont…)
      • Agricultural/agro-industrial by-products
        • Milling by-products
          • Wheat bran, wheat short, wheat middling
          • Screenings – barley, wheat, bean, lentils
        • Oilseed cakes
          • Cottonseed, linseed, noug, groundnut, sesame, sunflower
        • Whole cottonseed
        • Molasses
        • Horticultural by-products and wastes
        • Brewery and distillery by-products (including home brewing and distilling)
        • Poultry litter
      • Occasional surplus grain and grain broken during processing
  • Natural pastures
    • Naturally occurring grasses, legumes, forbs, shrubs and tree foliage
    • Seasonal fluctuation in quantity and quality
    • Decreasing from time to time due to expansion of cropping
  • Shrinkage of grazing land due to expansion of cropping
  • Grass hay
    • Variable quality
    • CP may vary 3-12% depending on
      • Grass species (botanical composition)
      • Stage of maturity
      • Harvesting, drying and storage conditions
        • Weather condition
        • Moisture content
  • Crop residues
    • Crop production provides a range of residues and by-products
    • Increasingly important sources of animal feed
    • Low nutrient content, digestibility and intake
    • Variable nutritive value depending upon species/ variety, time of harvest, handling and storage conditions etc.
  • Maize
    • Food
    • Grain
    • Feed
    • Stover (dry or green)
    • Thinnings
    • Leaf strippings
    • Topping
    • Grain ?
    • Whole plant ?
  • Cultivated forages and pastures
    • Limited availability
    • Many years of research and development interventions but low adoption rate
    • Reasons?
      • Competition for resources (land, labour etc.) with crop production
      • Lack of suitable seeds and planting materials
      • Lack of economic incentives in subsistence farming
      • Other ?
  • Some cultivated forages species
    • Grasses
      • Elephant (Napier) grass
      • Rhodes grass
      • Guinea grass
      • Oats (highlands)
      • etc.
    • Herbaceous legumes
      • Stylosanthes spp.
      • Desmodiums ( D. intortum & D. uncinatum )
      • Vetch
      • Lablab
      • Cowpea
      • Alfalfa
      • etc.
    • Fodder trees
      • Leucaena
      • Sesbania
      • Pigeon pea
      • Tagasaste
      • (highlands)
  • Agro-industrial byproducts
    • Oilseed cakes, milling by-products, molasses, brewery and distillery by-products etc.
    • Relatively high quality feed
      • Important sources of nutrients (protein and/or energy) for market oriented livestock production
    • Localized availability and distribution
  • Agro-industrial byproducts (Cont…..)
    • Supply could not satisfy demand
    • Factories operate below capacity
    • Unpredictable price increase
      • Increase in price of raw materials
      • Competition from export market (for raw materials)
    • Thinning (maize and sorghum)
    • Leaf stripping (maize and sorghum)
    • Leaves or foliage of other crops (cassava, sugar cane, banana, enset etc.)
    • Topping (maize, cassava, sugar cane)
    • Sweet potato vines (and tubers)
    • Peelings and reject fruits and vegetables (eg. Banana, pine apple, orange etc.)
    • Occasionally whole crop (eg. Sugarcane, banana, enset and maize)
    • Dropped coffee leaves, coffee pulp and hulls (minor contribution)
    • Weeds or weed seeds
    • Tree leaves and pods
    • Cactus
    Other feeds derived from cropping systems
  • A sandabo weed seed being harvested for feed at Hunte farm of Bale Agricultural Development Enterprise
  • Nutritive value of Asandabo weed seed Component Mean Range Dry matter (%) 94.7 94.4-95.1 Ash (% DM) 5.8 3.2-9.1 Crude protein (% DM) 13.3 12.1-14.1 Neutral detergent fiber (% DM) 22.1 19.1-25.6 Acid detergent fiber (% DM) 8.6 6.1-10.7 In vitro OM digestibility (%) 79.5 77.7-81.0
  • Feed resources used for backyard cattle fattening Wolayta Arsi-Negelle Hararghe Crop residues Areqe atella Thinning of maize and sorghum Cut-and-carry grass Wheat straw Leaf stripping of maize and sorghum Boiled maize & haricot bean grain Wheat bran Weeds and grasses from crop fields Thinning or whole crop maize Oil seed cake (esp. linseed cake) Agricultural by-products like sweet potato vines Sweet potato vines and tuber Enset Household wastes (atella & coffee residue)
  • Feed industries
    • At infant stage of development
    • Few in number
    • Localized distribution (Addis – Adama corridor & Bahir Dar)
    • Operate at about 25% of their capacity
    • Mainly serve commercial producers and few urban and peri-urban smallholder producers
    • ACDI/VOCA installed feed mills with smaller capacity for 9 Coop Unions distributed over a wider area
    • Shrinkage of grazing areas
    • Recurrent droughts
    • Seasonal fluctuation of feed availability and quality
    • Lack of well developed tradition of fodder conservation
    • Low adoption of improved forage production
    • Low nutritive quality of crop residues
    • Inadequate and fluctuating supply of agro-industrial by-products
    • Feed industries not well developed
    Challenges of livestock feed supply
  • Feed price trends over the last few years
  • How can the problems be addressed?
    • Improve fodder conservation practices
    • Assess the advantages and disadvantages of exporting oilseeds vs processing locally
    • Encourage production of improved forage crops in niche areas
    • Make effective use of available feed resources
      • Avoid wastage of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (cassava, sweet potato, enset etc.)
      • Use balanced feed to increase efficiency
  • Thank you !